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IoT Assignment: Implementation Of Internet Of Things In Smart Cities


Develop a detailed report on IoT assignment analysing the effectiveness of IoT in smart cities.


Title: The Implementation of IoT in Smart Cities

Aim of the Project: The primary aim of this project was to evaluate the effect of IoT usage in smart cities. The objectives were identifying the implementation of IoT in smart cities, along with the used methods during the implementation. Identifying the importance of IoT was the third objective.

Methods: The qualitative strategy was selected for the collection of secondary information. It has allowed in gathering secondary information from several online articles. Additionally, Google Scholar was used as a tool of collection of secondary information. It has allowed in identifying the importance of IoT in smart cities, and the descriptive analysis technique was adopted to analyse the collected information. It has allowed in knowing the importance and technologies of IoT applications in smart cities.

Discussion: IoT applications in smart cities mainly focus on digital devices and technologies. The advanced technologies of IoT can control the traffic and reduce waste in cities. Municipalities are focusing on improving the infrastructure with the use of these applications.

Conclusion: Various factors of IoT have changed the lives of the population in an advanced manner. Moreover, the collection of secondary information and descriptive analysis technique has allowed in knowing the importance of IoT technologies in smart cities.

1. Introduction
1.1 Background
Municipalities have become more connected in an effort of increasing the productivity of responsiveness of emergency services, improve reliability, cut costs, installation of infrastructure, and more because of the advanced technology of Internet of things (IoT). More smart cities can be seen in the upcoming years with the use of IoT applications (Arasteh et al., 2016). IoT technology offers wireless communication, which is the primary reason for a move towards it by municipalities. In the decision of converting to wireless from wired solutions, the key driver is the cost (Qian et al., 2019). The installation and maintenance of landlines are expensive, and the cost of cellular data plans are dropping (Al-Turjman, (2018). Therefore, the wireless communications are enabling new cases, which was cost-prohibitive in previous years. Another vital impetus is efficiency (Cvar et al., 2020). The service personnel go physically to the site of installation to serve the communication infrastructure, which is inefficient and expensive.

The wireless communications allow remote management and monitoring of IoT deployments. It also allows supervisors to perform security patches and firmware updates through the entire deployment. It can provide automated notifications of all the issues and further reduce the use of energy (Muhammed et al., 2019). Furthermore, IoT applications ensure the use of sensors in gathering wireless modules and data to control the use of the resource (Ahmed & Rani, 2018). The industry of IoT applications is growing vastly. Smart cities can be considered as the collection of industries, which include emergency services, wastewater management, city lighting, city transit and others. A prevalent example of IoT application is the lighting of municipalities and smart cities that are turning to wireless communications for the reduction of energy and savings of cost.

The aim of this research report is to carry out effective analysis of IoT usage in smart cities. The objectives that are prepared on the basis of the aim are as follows:

  • To identify the IoT implementation in the smart cities
  • To evaluate the different methods that are used during IoT implementation
  • To determine the technologies and the significance of IoT and its applications

Based on the objectives, the questions for the research are prepared, which are as follows:

  • How is IoT implementation carried out in the smart cities?
  • What are the different methods that are used during IoT implementation?
  • What are the significance and the technologies of IoT and its applications in smart cities?

1.2 Importance
This paper will help governments and local municipalities in understanding the importance of IoT in smart cities. The IoT can be defined as a network of a vast number of sensors and devices that are capable of connecting with the Internet to share and collect information (Park, Del Pobil & Kwon, 2018). A smart city can be categorised by an infrastructure, which can reduce waste and save energy. Moreover, IoT applications provide solutions for reducing cost by converting to the wireless (Zedadra et al., 2019). Service personnel need to visit the site where the issue is occurring in the case of a landline to audit. On the other hand, wireless communication provides remote monitoring and management of the placement of IoT (Rahman et al., 2020). The use of technologies of IoT that are available has increased in the projects of smart cities. Various municipalities are adopting wireless communications for energy reduction and cost-saving (Ejaz et al., 2017). Digi Remote Manager is an application of IoT, which supports multiple uses including surveillance cameras, LED lighting controls, Wi-Fi coverage, electronic billboards, changing stations and environmental sensors.

The study has also presented various methods to implement IoT, which will help governments in the implementation of IoT applications. Furthermore, smart cities are gaining several benefits in safety, improved experience of riders, routing management and cost reduction (Sun et al., 2019). The applications of water management are growing in smart cities as the local municipalities, and the governmental organisations are trying to upgrade the infrastructure (Marques et al., 2019). The technologies that are used during applying IoT has been presented. It will help municipalities in using proper technologies for the implementation of these applications. The use of these applications has also increased as the governments are focusing on increasing efficiency, reduce the cost of monitoring, and improve water management processes. This paper is vital for municipalities that are focusing on building smart cities.

1.3 Gap Analysis
In the present, the big cities of the developed countries are taking initiatives to make the city a smart city. In order to create a smart city or convert a city into one, there is a need to implement the Internet of Things (IoT). However, this is still a concept, which is not yet implemented in such extent. People of cities and towns as well are using technologies to be connected with the world (Tanwar, Tyagi & Kumar, 2018). Some examples are smartphones, RFID or sensors, which gives the user different information, without being physically present at a certain place (Murugaanandam et al., 2018). The mentioned devices, when connected to the Internet and used for value-added applications, are named Internet of Things (Anudeep & Prakash, 2019). With a growing population and their need for improving the standard of living, an increasing number of people are moving to cities. However, if the cities are not technologically improved, it will not be possible for the government to keep track of things and manage those (Mehmood et al., 2017). With the advancement in technology, it was possible to create IoT that enables things along with people to be connected with anyone or anything, anytime and from anyplace, while using the services and network of any kind. Implementation of IoT in smart cities could bring numerous benefits and some challenges.

Due to the vastness of the factors of IoT and smart cities, it is hard to implement and use it effectively. The metropolitan cities of the world are working on its development and implementation. However, due to the connectivity of almost every device in a city, the chances of data theft might increase, and the developer is not yet able to bring solutions which could make the process secure. Moreover, maintaining constant connectivity among a city’s smart devices is another problem which is creating barriers in the path of implementation of IoT in smart cities. It needs to be resolved to create a smart city that can make human life simpler.

1.4 Literature Review
1.4.1 Implementation of IoT in Smart Cities
As per Chakraborty, Das & Pal, (2020), smartphones can act together, link and connect with a massive series of sensors and smart devices that are present in our surroundings. The urban area that uses technologies and different types of sensors and electronic methods to collect data is known to be a smart city. The Internet of things (IoT) devices such as lights, connected sensors and meters are used by the Smart towns to collect and analyse information or data. Moreover, Sikder, (2018) added that the collected data are then used by the cities to improve public utilities, services and infrastructure. Smart cities are seeking to make lives more accessible and liveable. The demand for intelligent technology development is growing day by day as the fulfilment of the vision of smart cities is drawing nearer. According to Hammi (2017), the continuous growth of a fitted and compact network and trained IT experts are growing as well. Chithaluru et al. (2020) stated that almost sixty per cent of building managers in the US are familiar with the IoT, and forty per cent believes that the IoT can change the shape and the ways they operate their buildings in the upcoming two to three years. However, these cities may not be precisely like science fiction movies, but soon they are going to transform far better and improved than the other cities today.

1.4.2 Methods to Implement IoT
According to the study of Hossain, Muhammad & Alamri (2019), various types of sensors are being used by smart traffic solutions. It can fetch GPS data from the smartphones of drivers to determine the speed, number and location of vehicles. It the same time, smart traffic lights are connected to a cloud management platform that allows in monitoring the timings of green lights. Moreover, it can change the lights based on the current situation of traffic. Yao et al. (2019) mentioned that smart solutions for traffic management could take measures to prevent potential blocking with the use of historical data. Garcia-Perez et al. (2020), Smart parking solutions can determine available or occupied parking spots with the help of GPS data from the smartphones of drivers. Drivers receive notifications when the occupied parking area becomes free. Liu et al. (2019) stated that the implementation of smart cities should start with designing a basic structure, which will allow the addition of new services. As stated by Hu & Ni (2017), the IoT system uses sensors, and the goal of it is to gather information and pass those to the platform of cloud management. Additionally, the primary purpose of a data lake is to store information. The data is extracted and passed when it is needed for meaningful insights.

1.4.3 Technologies Used in Applying IoT
As per Al?Turjman, Zahmatkesh, & Shahroze, (2019), the networking technologies and protocols are primarily exploited by IoT in a significant manner. The technologies used in IoT includes LoRAWAN, which is determined to be a vast area and low power range networking protocol that consumes less power and supports a wide area. Sigfox provides an effective connectivity solution for less powered M2M applications, which require less of data transfer. Assiri, & Mehmood, (2020) stated that Zigbee is used in traffic management systems, machine industries and home appliance which is another significant technology of IoT as it has managed traffic problems in the city. On the other hand, Wi-Fi is the widely known medium-range wireless connectivity device. As per Alsafery et al., (2018) Thread is designed especially for smart home devices to connect them to smartphones, NB-IoT is a deficient power-consuming long-distance connectivity technology used in networks, and LTE-CAT M1 is also a low power consumption but wide-area connectivity that is used in cellular technologies. Delsing (2017) stated that all these technologies are used and applied in IoT to form a smart city device like smart LED lights, traffic management, public transports, waste management, general security and other utilities. As per then Janssen, (2019) Money and energy can be saved by switching to smart LED bulbs. An electric car-sharing programme called Autolib is debuted by Paris in 2011, which is the newest technology of IoT services. The fleet of the vehicle has grown to 3,000 since. The car’s dashboards are also being used by the driver in order to reserve parking spaces beforehand, and GPS can also track the vehicle. These are the most prominent technologies that have been introduced in the market and is gaining popularity in many countries.

1.4.4 Importance of IoT
According to the perception of Park et al., (2018), the number of people living in smart cities are increasing since 1950. The cities are gained by new opportunities due to IoT for management of traffic, collection of data, better use of infrastructure, cut pollution and safety of residents. Various cities in the world are facing decaying infrastructure. Moreover, as per Georgescu & Popescul (2016) overpasses, roads, rail tracks and bridges have become unsafe in different cities. The technology of IoT can reduce the issues in these cities. According to Kaur, Tomar & Singh (2018), IoT technology can be used in these areas to control the flow of daily traffic, safety issues, temperature, loss of lives and mass injuries. IoT is different from other technologies as it is a new trend and is complete opposite from the traditional ways of constructing an infrastructure. Earlier, there were more safety issues but after the implementation of IoT the issues have decreased considerably. Municipalities are able to monitor the condition of their infrastructure and manage the resources with the implementation of the Internet of Things. As per Alsafery et al. (2018), IoT technologies provide new features of security to offices, residential homes and buildings. IoT technology also offers a vast capability to minimise the consumption of energy. As mentioned by Choi et al. (2018), it can be used for improving the capabilities of communication between all the areas of a city. In addition, smart technologies in the cities are able to improve awareness of the environment.

1.4.5 Limitations of Researches on IoT
IoT has many advantages that are experienced by the residents of smart cities. However, the researches identified some specific disadvantages that are faced after the installation of IoT devices in the cities. Fortino et al. (2020) stated that one of the most vital problems is that the connections with the devices are enabled by RFID, which is prone to hacking. It is a part of cyber-crime that is done by hackers. As in a smart city, the connections are interconnected to one another throughout the city, and there are privacy concerns about this matter. Elsaeidy et al. (2017) opined that the hackers could easily attain private information about an individual, as the security level of IoT is not yet developed. Furthermore, interoperable systems in the IoT is creating a problem in the current years because of its concept of open standards and can cause an issue in the future.

1.4.6 Conceptual Framework

Conceptual framework in IoT assignment 1

Figure 1: Conceptual framework
(Source: Author)

1.4.7 Limitation and Gap
The section has evaluated the use of Internet of Things in smart cities. It has evaluated the importance of IoT in smart cities along with the methods, which are used during the implementation of IoT in smart cities. The methods were not present in previous papers. However, this particular paper was not focused on a specific city. It has led to a gap in this section of the paper.

2. Methodology
2.1 Method
This research is primarily based on carrying out a comprehensive review of various articles that properly evaluated the different factors of investigation concerning the IoT and its use in the cities that are smart. The research method is of two forms, which include a qualitative method as well as a quantitative method (Cypress, 2018). For this research, the qualitative method has been chosen in this paper as it allowed in carrying out a rational evaluation of the different aspects that are related to the chosen topic. Moreover, this method also supported in identifying the application of IoT and its importance in the different smart cities (Flick, 2018). The methods that are used in the IoT implementation was determined by the qualitative method.

2.2 Data Collection
The data collection is an essential part of research as it acts as a prominent step for obtaining the required information in an adequate manner. The collection has been carried out using secondary sources only for this paper, where various articles were gathered from the online sources and the library of the university to validate and enhance the quality of the paper (Annink, 2017). The collection tool that was used was google scholar as well as science direct in order to evaluate articles that correlated with the IoT and its applications in the smart cities. Moreover, the materials that were used for this research were all from the five years, which starts from 2016 so that the recent data are analysed as compared to the information that is old and is not valid in the present time (Martins, da Cunha & Serra, 2018). The secondary data not only primarily focused on various articles that were solely related to IoT but also significantly related to the use of scholar articles and the results that were obtained by the researcher. This supported in keeping the paper more aligned with the overall aim as well as the questions that were set initially for this research.

2.3 Data Analysis
The secondary source of information in this research has allowed in carrying out a comparative evaluation of the article sources that are accepted and have strong evidence to support the research questions related to IoT and smart cities in a significant manner (Johnston, 2017). The analysis of the secondary data was duly done using the descriptive-analytical method, where a significant evaluation was carried out concerning the IoT and its overall implementation in the varied smart cities (Rani et al., 2020). The descriptive-analytical method further allowed in keeping the study more concentrated in the process of evaluation and investigation rather than simply identifying the factors related to the topic (Amini Mohammadi & Kar, 2020). This allowed in a prominent evaluation and analysis, which would not have been possible with the implementation of other forms of analysis tool, which is used in other researches carried out using secondary information (Johhson & Sylvia, 2018). Moreover, the descriptive-analytical method further supported in keeping the study more critical and aligned with the overall data that were also investigated by other researchers, rather than collecting information from a newer source or analysis techniques that are more narrowed towards the primary form of data.

3. Results

Conceptual framework in IoT assignment 2

Figure. 2: Investment for Smart City
(Source: Insider Inc, 2020)

The population in the US has increased in the last few years. The graph above shows that the government, in association with private companies, is investing more in the development of the cities with technology. Internet of Things (IoT) are devices that are used in making the cities technologically advanced and progressive (D’Onofrio, Franzelli & Portmann, 2018). It is clear from the statistics shown above that the investments are growing each year as the technology is advancing. Only eight billion was spent in the year 2017 for the development of the cities. However, the graph has increased with each year as it can be observed in the figure. The investments are made as the population is growing with each day, and individuals are now asking for more technologically advanced surroundings (Butt et al., 2019). In order to keep up with the growing population, the cities are needed to be efficient and advanced. It is mainly done in the metropolitan cities, and soon the rural areas will be developed with the investments that are made.

Conceptual framework in IoT assignment 3

Figure. 3: Rural and Urban Population Experiencing Smart City
(Source: Smart Cities, 2018)

The urbanisation of the cities are rapid, and thus the expectations of the population increases, as they are worried about their safety. The government faces the challenges, as it needs to provide a sustainable environment for the residents. The figure shows that urban areas have developed more in comparison to the rural regions (Yager & Espada, 2018). This graph shows that in the coming years by the help of technology, the urban regions will grow and develop more. In the earlier years, the urban areas were less advanced than the rural regions. However, with the application of technologies in making the city smart by IoT, the urban regions have left behind the rural areas (Urbieta et al., 2017). With technological factors in the environment, urban cities are developing rapidly. As in rural areas, technological advancement is not growing; the population in those regions suffers (García-Magariño Nasralla & Nazir, 2020). In the near future urban cities will be completely transformed and have enormous growth with the help of technologies.

Conceptual framework in IoT assignment 4

Figure. 4: Smart Cities and Active Connections
(Source: Statista, 2020)

This chart above shows the number of connections that are installed in the smart cities. In the year 2016, there was only one per cent of active connections that were installed in the cities. With time, the connections have hiked and developed (Shahid et al., 2018). It can be observed that by the year 2019, there was a five per cent hike in the use of technologies in cities. It is estimated that by 2022 the smart cities and its connection with technology will progress.

Moreover, by the time 2025 will come over fifty per cent of the cities will develop technologically. From the graph, it can be evaluated that the growth of smart cities is progressive (Ismagilova et al., 2019). Almost every country that is developed or emerging as an advanced nation is applying the technologies in the overall cities, even in the rural regions. IoT has made this advancement possible (Harith et al., 2020). The growth is measured in the chart as per the connections that are active in most of the nations. It can be concluded that IoT has made an impact on the environment as more people are acknowledging it.

4. Discussion
4.1 Methods that are applied by IoT in Smart Cities
IoT is mainly focused on the aspects of technology and digital devices in smart cities. One of the prominent examples of IoT is smartphones that enable us to interact and communicate with other individuals. The lives of the population are advanced due to technology. A smart city is an upgraded version of any other region, but the only change is it is more technologically or digitally advanced in its surroundings. The factors of IoT in smart cities is waste management, power supply, sanitation and the systems of public transportation (Rucinski et al., 2017). The technologies of IoT includes the system that is installed to monitor the surroundings as well as home appliances. One of the specific examples is the connection of a light bulb with the Internet on the phone. It can be switched off and on with smartphones and can be called as a device of IoT (Ben, 2020). The smart infrastructure of the city is determined with the technologies that are being used to improve the environmental aspects (Baezner, Maduz & Prior, 2018). It progresses the performance of energy consumption and manages the wastes that are formed during the construction of a building. The most prominent use of IoT technology is the surrounding changes that are made with intelligent technology. IoT also analyses the data of air pollution in the environment and can forecast the weather and temperature of the city of the upcoming days with accuracy. The City Air Management Tool is a software designed to collect the data on air pollution and analyse it for the forecast of the emissions.

Moreover, the technology can also manage and control the traffic of a specific area where it is installed. Integrated sensors are programmed to determine the flow of traffic and update it into the server or the designated platform. The server analyses the data that are being sent to it and manages the traffic by adjusting and changing the traffic lights (Cvar et al., 2020). The traffic conditions are eased with this method. Intelligent technologies solve the issues of parking in the cities. There are sensors that are installed in the parking areas, which detects whether there is any space for parking (Lavalle et al., 2020). The drivers also get information about the availability of parking space. The information on the space is sent to the driver’s smartphone.

The IoT aims to determine the environmental problems and issues which is related to the management of waste. The improvement of waste collection and its efficiency is made so that the costs of operation, which is associated with wastes in the environment, is reduced (Kim et al., 2019). The surroundings of the smart cities are kept clean with this aspect of the IoT. After the introduction of the IoT in the smart cities, the population of the regions have understood the importance of waste management.

4.2 Technological Aspects of IoT
There are specific methods that are applied during the installation of IoT in making a city smart. The communications are wireless, and thus the municipalities have to consider the overall aspects to launch the IoT technology (Latif et al., 2020). One of the key drivers is the cost of technology as wireless devices are expensive. The conversion of wired devices into wireless connections takes much money for the installation of landlines and to maintain it is another cost-related issue (Bawa et al., 2016). However, the costs of the devices are decreasing, making it possible for the municipalities to buy them and install them in the cities. Previously many countries were unable to afford the connections, but now with the data plans that are dropping have decreased the cost-prohibition.

Another aspect of IoT is its efficiency. IoT has specific methods that are considered before implementing it. Efficiency is brought by using Digi WR44R enterprise-class router, which allows multiple devices to be connected on Smart Pole. The service personal is responsible for looking after the issues that are prohibiting the installation of smart devices (Van Dinh et al., 2020). Wireless communications do remote monitoring in order to manage the deployments of IoT. The deployments are essential as it allows to give excellent performance and provides security patches so that in case of any issue, notifications are automatically observed (Kadjouh et al., 2020). Transit agencies have turned to the development of cities as the Suburban Mobility Authority for Rapid Transit Authority (SMART) have introduced many devices such as a hybrid-electric bus for the population to travel with ease.

IoT also enables the communication between dispatch centre of SMART and vehicles, which is two-way communication. This is an upgraded system has a voice over IP (VoIP), which is cellular communication. Wi-Fi is also given to the passengers in the vehicles, which is well managed by IoT. The Digi Remote Manager is important for fleet monitoring of system and network, which includes mass updates of information (Fortino et al., 2020). Moreover, the reduction of the resource is achieved by IoT, which is mainly applied in assets monitoring and street lighting (Oteafy & Hassanein, 2018). Sensors are allowed by the IoT applications to attain information and modules that are wireless to control the use of the resource. Energy use is reduced with this application. The IoT methods are also growing as it even manages the wastewater treatment for the restoration of environmental projects (Bohara Maharjan & Shrestha, 2020). The municipalities and the government organisations are using these technologies for the up-gradation of infrastructure, the advancement of remote tanks and the process of water management (Tekouabou, Cherif & Silkan, 2020). As one of the significant environmental problems is that water management of IoT is useful to determine the root causes of the issues and solve them with technology (Elsaeidy et al., 2017). Digi Connect Sensor+ devices are also used in the surroundings that are connected to the central server to pass the information for the benefit of the environment. IoT methods save both money and time. The National Environmental Policy Act programs are being duly maintained by the IoT, specifically in the smart cities

4.3 Significance of the IoT Technologies
IoT has immense significance in smart cities. It is helping the cities to transform itself with the help of governmental support and municipalities. IoT has the potential to improve the lives of the population and enhance the quality of living Giacobbe, Puliafito & Scarpa, 2016). There are many positive impacts of IoT such as safety of the population, traffic management enhancement and energy consumption at the lowest level. IoT and its emergence in cities is a dream that was conceived long back and is now coming into reality (Arun, 2020). The progress of information technology and the hike of devices that are in large numbers, which are connected to the Internet, have a massive contribution in the development of the cities (Alavi et al., 2018). Gartner in the year 2017 mentioned in his research that the devices that are connected to the Internet are 8.4 million in number, and by the time 2025, it will increase by 30 billion worldwide. The devices that will be connected will be installed in urban cities as well as in the rural cities (Santosh, 2020). The increase in the devices is significant, and it will impact on the population of the world. The installation of IoT has been a project for a long time, and in recent years it is being made possible. Earlier, the devices could not be used as technologically was not advanced.

In America, the government is going to invest $41 trillion for the smart cities in the two decades. It is mainly done by the American government to upgrade their position in the infrastructure that is existing. IoT can benefit the cities with its advancement in technology (Arslan et al., 2020). One of the highlights of IoT in the smart cities is the solutions that are made to improve the traffic on the roads and adjust the signals accordingly. Intelligent buildings are also constructed, which are efficient in storing energy (Aheleroff et al., 2020). Smart lights are one of the first devices that are made, and its significance is to adapt to the changes in the environment (Hamrioui et al., 2018). Most prominently, if a person passes by the streetlights, it will light up instantly. IoT also does the collection of wastes from the environment and manage them. For the consumption of power in the lower level, energy-efficient grids, which are technologically smart, are used (Hornillo-Mellado Martín-Clemente & Baena-Lecuyer, 2020). The infrastructure of the buildings are IoT enabled, that means that the devices that are installed can be connected to computers or smartphones. The municipalities are using this technology for the city to develop and grow (Giyenko & Im Cho, 2016). The experts that are involved in the process of IoT has made possible changes for the cities to install technological devices are now thinking about to make further changes like self-driving cars. The positive factor is that the dream of software engineers and experts in the field of IoT has made possible changes in the actualisation of the project of IoT.

4.4 Future Work
This particular paper was focused on the use of IoT applications in smart cities. It did not focus on any particular country or any specific smart city. Moreover, it did not evaluate the problems that are being faced by governments or municipalities while implementing the applications of the Internet of Things. The paper has also presented the methods that are required to implement IoT. Here, the issues with the technologies and methods for the implementation of the Internet of Things has not been presented.

The research was carried out for achieving relevant result about the use of IoT applications in smart cities. Only secondary data was gathered for this particular research work. There will be a scope of conducting research by gathering primary information through a survey session in future. Furthermore, there is also scope in future of conducting an interview for the collection of primary information. Additionally, research can be carried out in future by focusing on a specific smart city. In future, research can be done by focusing on those cities that are facing issues during the use of IoT applications. It will allow in identifying the problems of using IoT applications.

4.5 Conclusion
The factors of IoT applications have advanced the lives of the population in smart cities. These factors include power supply, waste management, public transportation and sanitation. The technology is also able to control traffic of a particular area after installation. Different government organisations are focusing on the implementation of IoT technologies to upgrade the infrastructure within their city. A critical evaluation was carried out concerning the methods of IoT implementation, importance and the way of IoT implementation in the discussion.

The methods that are used in the implementation of IoT in smart cities was not evaluated in previous papers, and the findings section of this study has evaluated a significant example of IoT is smart cities. It has enabled individuals to communicate with others. However, this particular study did not evaluate the problems that are significantly observed during the implementation of IoT. Additionally, it did not focus on a specific smart city or country, which led to a gap in this paper.

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6. Appendix
IoT= Internet of Things

LED = Light Emitting diode

M2M = Machine to machine

LoRAWAM = Low Power Wide Area Network

VoIP = Voice Over IP


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