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International Entrepreneurship Assignment; A Literature Review

Question

Task: Each student will prepare and submit a written assignment (60%) based on a detailed investigation of a particular International) Entrepreneurship topic (See below). This assignment requires each student to undertake a critical literature review of their allocated topic –indicative (but not exhaustive) topics are listed below and identify and synthesize the key issues and themes emerging

Answer

Introduction
The primary concern of this particular report on international entrepreneurship assignment is to examine the different aspects in relation to international entrepreneurship and review literary articles with regard to the same. There are certain areas that have been identified in the present context of international entrepreneurship assignment in order to examine for assessing the area of study. However, the primary area of concern or the selected theme in this case of international entrepreneurship assignment would be International Entrepreneurship

Literature Review
International entrepreneurship can be recognised as an old phenomenon, yet it is addressed to be more significant in today's time than it used to be some decades back. Factors that have been contributing to small as well as medium size organisations and their involvement in the case of international entrepreneurship assignmentare, the developing use of information as well as communication technologies, the growth of industries in the domain of knowledge-intensive, reduced costs in relation to transportation along with logistics, trade liberalisation and growing competition, enhanced awareness regarding the international economic opportunities, and the lack of diligent, capable and qualified human resources.

During the time when Global development used to be jeopardised followed by natural as well as man-made disasters along with financial crisis and changes in the climate, the requirement in relation to the socially beneficial innovative approaches as well as the need for profit enhancement in relation to the role of the state as well as non-state actors has been identified to be more urgent. The international entrepreneurship assignmentconsiders the readings of Aparicio (2017) that has identified the impact of entrepreneurship by evaluating as well as presenting the empirical evidence in relation to the role of entrepreneurship and its relationship with economic development.

According to the scholars, there are different aspects in relation to entrepreneurship and its relationship with economic growth followed by evidence collected from empirical literature, and this involves the use of different measures with regard to the entrepreneurial activity. For instance, on the one hand, one aspect of empirical studies has measured the entrepreneurship followed by the terms of relative share in relation to activity as accounted buy a small farm and on the other hand, other scholars have used data based on self-employment or individual entrepreneurship and the number of participants in the market for the numbers of start-ups to act as the indicator in relation to the entrepreneurial activities (Bonito et al., 2017). While there is a growth of developing economy followed by the accumulation of physical as well as human capital and increasing specialisation, in that case with the entrance of these economic growths into the industrial eyes face in relation to the capital is developing a change of qualitative manner in the case of drivers regarding economic growth can be identified herein international entrepreneurship assignment.

The owners of small business industries and entrepreneurs have been identified to receive great recognition based on their role as economic growth drivers from the 1080. Several studies have been conducted during recent times following the long-term economic growth as well as the prosperity and requirement of participation from entrepreneurs in economic growth. According toRibeiro-Soriano (2017), both government authorities, as well as experts, choose to foster entrepreneurship as an effective mechanism for facing the impacts of the uncertain economic crisis. For a long time, extensive literature and point of views of different scholars in relation to the importance of small business entrepreneurs in the case of economic growth have consistently proved that the creation of new business helps to drive economic prosperity.

Therefore, from the studies conducted by the authors, in this case of international entrepreneurship assignment, it has been identified that entrepreneurship is a driving force in relation to economic growth. This is stated specifically because of the innovative nature of entrepreneurs. More recently, it has been examined that entrepreneurs in relation to their activity based on their perspective of the creation of new business lead towards the development of different ideas that can boost economic growth (Ribeiro-Soriano, 2017). On this basis, their role is unavoidable, and therefore they are receiving increasing recognition internationally.

From the evidence of this study presented in the international entrepreneurship assignment, it has further been recognised that small businesses develop as well as transform communities and entrepreneurs help in creating innovative approaches for connecting the growth and resources across cultures, economic conditions, policy context, and political situations that differ from one nation to another. Therefore, it has been recognised that there is a crucial role of small business owners as well as the entrepreneurs in the case of stimulating economic growth and resolving to identify the constraints in relation to regional differences while trading internationally based on their creative and innovative strategies. According to Chandra (2017), there is a growing consensus in relation to the international business literature that states that internationalisation can be identified to be a process of entrepreneurial behaviour occurring over time. The procedure of internationalisation is primarily based on assumptions regarding the opportunity for creating as well as capturing economic value, the decision-making procedure in relation to the evaluation of opportunities regarding International entrepreneurship, and the time required for the same. The study conducted by the authors, in this case of international entrepreneurship assignment, has unpacked the evaluation procedure in relation to the international entrepreneurial opportunities and led towards a driving three primary rules in relation to the same, including simple, revised, and complex and further demonstrated the interaction among the aforementioned drivers. The authors proposed that research on the topic of opportunity evaluation in relation to international entrepreneurship can be identified to be a part and filled, and thereby it will continue to propose more opportunities to examine different theories as well as practices on international business. Hence, it can be said that the authors not only examined their area of study but opened a path towards future studies that could further help the considered subject matter. It has been recognised in this section of international entrepreneurship assignment that, with the development of approaches of different countries for becoming market-oriented as well as developed, the identified distinction between domestic and foreign markets has been identified to become less pronounced (Yang, 2018). In this regard, International entrepreneurship can be identified to be a procedure of an entrepreneur conducting business across national borders, and with the wide range of opportunities in this regard, entrepreneurs often choose to globalise their business following the same.

Veronica et al., (2019) in their study, addressed that external networks alongside entrepreneurial skill are two important factors in relation to the development of international business models that encouraged extended call early investigation in future and thereby executed empirical research followed by a sample of five different international SMEs in China. The study examined different aspects in relation to the internationalisation regarding social enterprises and entrepreneurial opportunities therein. The reason behind this study prepared in the international entrepreneurship assignment is to evaluate the role of government in the case of providing support to the entrepreneurs in the international market and organisation in relation to international growth. In order to do the same, the authors considered the behaviour of theory dimensions regarding relevance, accessibility urgency, radicalness and accessibility. On execution of the analysis, the authors identified that local governments are much more supportive in relation to the launch of SMEs alongside providing opportunities to the entrepreneurial activities; however, it is limited to the growth stage. From the above-conducted analysis on international entrepreneurship assignment, it has been identified that the growth strategy of international business has many facets. Many organisations sustain growth in the international market by invoking modification of products and services and by changing their business model for suiting the business environment of the given nation. For different SMEs, a sustaining and continuous development in the case of an unfamiliar market will require expanding on a remarkable exclusive innovation and furthermore utilising different existing channels in relation to circulation for the reason of expanding the market reach of the considered organisation. Incomprehensibly, different ventures may thereby discover that they can continue their development in the international market by pulling again from an excessively goal-oriented extension, in this manner keeping the universal business sensible. Hence, the study, in this case of international entrepreneurship assignment, suggests that SMEs are considering developing individual strategies for penetrating into the international market and increase its market reach therein alongside seeking help from the local authorities in that case.

Yang, (2018) adopted an expansive perspective in relation to the study focused on the potential effects of rapid internationalisation followed by the subsequent divestment of organisations in their international operations. The authors, in order to conduct the study, adopted a theory of the regional strategy as well as differentiate the managerial resources followed by their geographical fungibility in the case of international expansion.

The authors, in this case of international entrepreneurship assignment, have executed an integrating insight based on the regional strategy theory for clarifying certain conditions in the context of the growth of international firs. They further responded to the opportunity of rethinking regarding the existing theories in relation to the basis of the selected theory. The findings alongside the analysis of the given study suggested that the existing differences between different regions have the potential of affecting both the services provided as well as required by the managerial resources in relation to the firms that generally operate internationally. On the basis of these factors, it has been suggested that these identified differences are not similar to the "subsidiary 'empirical' assumptions". As addressed by the authors in relation to the potential future research, the studies are to be conducted based on de-internationalisation that will help in building on the given insights and eventually clarify the procedure in relation to the internationalisation and interdependencies among several types of managerial resources. Finally, the given study has been identified to be contributing in the case of overcoming the relative dearth in relation to the theoretical explanations based on international divestment. Though the recent researches have made considerable progress in the case of development of theoretical explanations regarding overseas divestment, it has been suggested that such explanations thereby need to account for the managerial resources of the firms. According to Mukherjee (2016), the development of entrepreneurship can be identified to be a direct result of entrepreneurial motivation. The readings of the author explored in this segment of international entrepreneurship assignment suggested that entrepreneurial motivation is generally influenced by the internal as well as external environmental factors in relation to the workplace. However, the study revealed that there is no specific research that has been conducted for revealing the exact extent to which the motivation of an entrepreneur can be measured on the basis of these two environmental factors and interrelationship between the same. In regard to the psychological behaviour of an entrepreneur plays a vital role. The author, in his paper, has identified several business opportunities alongside the growth of the same that could be helpful for an entrepreneur alongside its motivational characteristics. An entrepreneur can be identified to be an individual who is motivated by psychological instinct alongside economic rewards in order to initiate the accumulation of a business opportunity.

Bengtsson et al., (2017), in their study, evaluated and examined the psychology of an entrepreneur based on the gender gap in entrepreneurship. They studied that self-employment has been found to be often used as a synonym of entrepreneurship; however, the authors defined entrepreneurship to be the possession of ambition in relation to growth or innovation. Following the representative and notable survey executed in Sweden, it had been identified that the business owners were being asked regarding self-identity as self-employed or entrepreneurs. Additionally, the survey contained a detailed study in relation to economic preference and behaviour alongside psychometrically validated measures in relation to the personality traits of the business people. The authors in their study further examined the detailed area of the labour market in relation to gender differences. In that regard, it has been recognised that the outcome of gender differences in the labour market can be ubiquitous as well as large and specifically in relation to the high achieving jobs that directly influences the psychological behaviours of the employees.

Conclusion
Entrepreneurship is one of the most researched subject matters based on its growing popularity. In the present study on international entrepreneurship assignment, different aspects in relation to entrepreneurship have been executed, followed by six different areas of examination. In order to identify different points of views of different scholars on the given subject matter within the international entrepreneurship assignment, six different literary articles have been taken into consideration and analyse thereof in the study under consideration.?

Reference List
Aparicio, S. 2017. Linking institutions, entrepreneurship, and economic development: An international study. Bengtsson, O., Sanandaji, T. and Johannesson, M., 2017.The psychology of the entrepreneur and the gender gap in entrepreneurship.International entrepreneurship assignmentIn Gender and Entrepreneurial Activity.Edward Elgar Publishing.

Bonito, J. D. M., Daantos, F. J. A., Mateo, J. C. A., and Rosete, M. A. L. 2017. Do entrepreneurship and economic growth affect poverty, income inequality and economic development. Review of Integrative Business & Economics Research, 6(1), pp.33-43.

Chandra, Y., 2017. A time-based process model of international entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(4), pp.423-451.

Mohr, A., Batsakis, G. and Stone, Z., 2018. Explaining the effect of rapid internationalisation on horizontal foreign divestment in the retail sector: An extended Penrosean perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, 49(7), pp.779-808.

Mukherjee, K., 2016. The psychology of the successful entrepreneur.

Ribeiro-Soriano, D. 2017. Small business and entrepreneurship: their role in economic and social development.

Veronica, S., Shlomo, T., Antonio, M.P. and Victor, C., 2019. International social SMEs in emerging countries: Do governments support their international growth?. Journal of World Business.

Yang, M., 2018. International entrepreneurial marketing strategies of MNCs: Bricolage as practiced by marketing managers. International entrepreneurship assignmentInternational Business Review, 27(5), pp.1045-1056.

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