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Information Technology Assignment: IssuesAround IT Professionalism

Question

Task: Use an examination of the views of expert academics and a sample of real-world case studies you are asked to prepare a report on information technology assignmentcritically evaluating the concept of Professionalism and Ethics in Information Technology related industries in terms of responsibilities, ethics, behavior, skills and knowledge.

Answer

1. Introductionto information technology assignment
Professionalism comes with maintaining proper behavior and sustaining the ethical, legal, and beneficial aspects of that specific sector. In the current scenario, Information Technology works as a phenomenon in sustaining various works fast and effectively. IT frequently causes a nuisance from a legal, ethical, or authentication perspective. People are suffering from cyber-attack or identity theft situations with the advancement of technologies. Information technology system offers many advantages in our daily life but misuse of this can make some problem. IT professionals are facing too much work pressure to handle it. Sometimes the lack of critical skill can lose the personal data of the organization.Data security is needed for every developing technology. This contains essential information regarding company profit, loss, and strategies. Informational technology facilitates its user to have its operating system. But if there is an issue in the network it will cause information loss and put risk on privacy maintenance. It is the most challenging ethical issue for information technology. New technology increases annual growth if the processing or accessibility of developing accurate technology for the user. There are many differences between medicine and AI development. AI development has a lack of common aims and professional norms. The differences should be improved very soon. IBM SPSS software has one major advantage is that data can be imported from other sources. A software professional has some expertise in their field and when a person or a team makes software, he applies personal experience in that area.

2. Literature Review
Information technology brings a lot of opportunity to the user but it needs learning skillsto use it. Information Technology professionals face extreme workload everyday so they need proper training to use it otherwise work progress will hamper.According to (Olsson and Bosch, 2020), companies face rapid changes due to the development of new technology. But the challenge is in adapting the process by the worker.So, the company needs to develop a new ecosystem to train the worker with new adapting technology. Every company faces an extreme workload to cope up with the existing competition so up-gradation of the ecosystem is needed. Small business faces extra pressure in developing an ecosystem for information technology adaptation.

Developing information technology putsthe risk of data security. So, it put the company in danger of cyberattacks.According to (Gadre and Deoskar, 2020),developing technology deals with a large number of data regarding company strategy. This new technology puts a risk on the data security of the company. To achieve the ultimate advantage of using new technology it is essential to implement end-to-end encryption to avoid the attack of unrecognized organizations.

Information technology needs an expert or correct company structure to access it appropriately for the company's future. Vulnerability management also putsthe risk of adopting information technology.Standardization of the product quality is needed from every developing technology. If the process is not progressed with proper company framework or structure it will lose its way towards success.According to (Ebert and Duarte, 2018), adopting new technology demandsa new company structure.The processing of data, accessibility of the users, developing a structure for adopting new technology is needed. This technology increase business growth by removing the barriers.

Information technology faces lots of ethical issues regarding maintain the secret of business, handling patents.For the development of company growth solving the ethical issue is mandatory. Maintaining ethical sides helps to improve the strategy to cope up with the market competition. According to (Kester, 2016),early detection of a problem will help to find the solution at the correct time. Information technology professionals should monitor the activities of the patent as they hold all the information regarding the developing technology.

Every advanced technology faces some ethical dilemma at the beginning. Another ethical dilemma that is faced by information technology is protecting customer privacy. According to(Leikas, Koivisto and Gotcheva, 2019), to get potential benefits from technology maintenance of ethical principles is necessary. Ethical dilemma depends on three factors which include stoke holder theory, stakeholder theory, and social contract theory.

IT professionalism is going through a lot of issues in ethics, professionals, legal. There are lots of workloads in the sectors. The IT staffs are very wondered with work demands IT sectors are facing problems in their security. According to, (Niazi et al., 2016), project management is a relevant topic in global software development and it is challenging for many issues. An analysis has been shown that most of the IT sectors are facing problems with cybersecurity. IT professionals do not have critical skills in cybersecurity. Subsequently, Digitalization is implanted in the sectors. Project management is also a big issue for IT professionals. A good project manager can manage the projects according to the deadline.

There are some professional ethics in IT like integrity, competence, work responsibilities, and social responsibilities. The result shows that human resource knowledge is the most successful area. According to (Cervantes, López and Cervantes, 2020), New technologies require some artificial agents to improve the system. This type of cognitive artificial challenges human life and improves it. Some cognitive architecture like LIDA, ACT-R is trying to be fundamental architecture for the model of human cognition. Cognitive artificial should be implanted in IT professions to improve ethics. Ethics are very important to improve the system of IT.

Artificial intelligence is now a global topic in the world of IT professionals. Many private sector and companies are using artificial intelligence or AI to develop the background, environment, and human resources. According to (Mittelstadt, 2019), Artificial intelligence is set on four principles of ethics. The legal problem is also the main issue in the IT profession. The privacy of the companies is destroying and they are also and having an issue with data gathering.

In the present scenario, all the companies are adopting new Information Technology. On the other hand, some small and medium enterprises cannot adopt new information technology because of its human resources and various other market issues. According to (Mittelstadt, 2019), all the problems can be overcome by the implementation of Industry 4.0. It helps to achieve high operational effectiveness and productivity. Industry 4.0 makes things faster for IT professionals. IT professionals can check their installations from their desks. Industry 4.0 is making a system where communication is faster and easier between IT professionals. Security issues are introduced to overcome the problem of hacking in IT companies. The problem has become a barrier to growth and development in the market. According to (Park and Park, 2016), to achieve the target attribute and its range and to protect the security system, an approach is needed. There should be a budget for IT companies to improve the security system. All the data stored in personal devices like mobiles,tablets etcetera should be encrypted and the signal should be tested properly. Overall, all the systems must be developed enough to resolve all the issues of IT professionals regarding its ethics, legal, and others.

3. Analysis
Nowadays it is a common practice for many organizations to use information technology. Computers are used in day-to-day works. IT becomes a part of daily life. There are many rules and norms in Information technology. Every organization should maintain the norms and follow rules sometimes creating their own. In many cases, there is a misuse of information technology like unauthorized access to computers, hardware, and software theft, etcetera.

It has been found that an ICT data analysis software known as Statistical Package for Social Sciences(SPSS) has been misused or wrong used by researchers or by the educational institute (Nnamani, 2018). As SPSS is designed specially to make research less cumbersome, lack of expertise in the SPSS crates problem. There are many software and hardware-related issues which include piracy, theft, illegal use, hacking etcetera. Four major professional modalities are involving in the misusing of information technology. Here is a brief discussion,

3.1 Legal
Legal aspects include restrictions and regulations enforced by law. Laws and regulations can be changed simultaneously. Sometimes organizations and employees using various software and related things without knowing the legal impacts. The software can be downloaded from the internet and use though nobody checks whether any legal issues are involved or not. An organization can purchase a single-use software, make duplicate files, and distribute it among employees with a single purchase license. It is also illegal. There should some moral responsibility of employees to use software but nobody seems to pay attention to that(Mehta and Jaiswal, 2016). IBM creates SPSS which helps the researcher quickly access data, and access most of the valuable information getting from data. It is used for various qualitative analysis. It is not free software and a person can access it through university or organized via licensed version. In some cases, the SPSS license failed in windows 10 platforms which cause hackers to crack and make a duplicate. There is no specific law so it cannot be solved legally. IBM should validate some policies to illegal use of SPSS and other software they have designed. With proper surveillance, they should go for legal help of their software which is widely used.

3.2 Social
Information technology has generated some social issues which are less positive. Use of various software in social media, use of various copyrighted software like SPSS in the analysis of data for social research are of great demand. Some unethical issues related to social life are also involved. Socializing is always an important family and organization. Using social media or software in the workplace makes people unsocial. Sometimes people and employees behaving in a private way of communicating with selective people which causes a social and emotional distance.

Social relations related to conversation, communication, professional knowledge, experience are at an alarming level of deterioration(Nikolaeva and Synekop, 2020). Hackers creating a false identity or using incognito identity to access software is a big problem. There is also a case of cyberbullying through which people can be abused publicly and cause an impact on social life. There is also a privacy issue as a large amount of data is transferred via its systems and organizations that collect private data from social media. The use of SPSS in conducting various social research is a common practice nowadays. But data can also be manipulated using its high-end technique and the report should have a great social impact.

3.3 Ethical
There are also ethical issues in using the software in IT. Illegal access of software, illegal copy of the software, misuse of a device, forgery related to the computer, various offenses like child and adult pornography, fraud, violation of copyright act, are considered ethical issues related to information technology. Ethics and laws are interrelated. Laws can create when any personal or social issue is violated. It is not possible to impose a law for every situation. Ethics helps to take the right decision.

Understanding various ethical issues is very important for an organization in times of strategy development(Yaman et al., 2017). If someone used unlicensed software it will be illegal. Commercial software downloading is also unethical as it is in some way is equivalent to stealing. Piracy is like shoplifting. It is the smart way of stealing intellectual property. All these practices cannot be stopped via low. Only personal, social, and organizational ethics helps to stop misuse. Some organizations purchase a single license of SPSS and made a copy of software or create a multiuser platform through a single license. It is very unethical and needs to stop.

3.4 Professional
Tampering with software attacks directly on the expertise and experience of the professionalism of the person or team.Innovative and creative ideas of others are stolen via illegal copying. Using software in multiple devices with a single license causes a major loss of revenues for software development companies. Hackers act in the most unprofessional way of stealing and tampering with software, using other's id, duplication of id, and access of mainframe computer of an organization. These all are common practices in cybercrime nowadays. Individual behavior has a great influence on personal behavior (Raza et al., 2019). Unprofessionalism of a person can influence his professional life personally and at the organizational level.

Organized data from a database including excel can be imported and it is a very simple process in SPSS. Through some basic steps, one can import data. Some SPSS users take this as an advantage. They import data from various data sources, excel spreadsheets, and tamper with them. They did all this very professionally but this is the most unprofessional way of using software and tampering with data.

In brief, there is a need for information technology in everyday life. Demand for computers and the internet will increase more and so there will be a misuse of them. Large personal and professional data transmission will occur daily basis and there is also a high chance of abuse. Proper legal restrictions, social and ethical values, and professional attitude are necessary to prevent misuse of information technology.

4. Conclusion
The IT sectors are using Information Technology systems in their regular works to make things easier.But there are also some misuses of the information technology system are found by using unauthorized software, hardware, and others. SPSS has found some major issues including piracy, theft, and hacking etcetera. Some legal problems can happen as the organizations use some unauthorized software and make a duplicate of it and distribute it to the employees in a single license. To solve this problem, IBM has created SPSS which can help the employees to access the data first. But sometimes the hackers can hack it. There is no specific law regarding the problem.

Information technology also finds some social issues as the employees use social media in the office and communicate with few people only. Hackers can also break the security by using cognitive mode and hacks lots of personal data. Understanding various ethics is also very important for every organization. Unprofessionalism is a significant issue for IT professionals. Using software various times in asingle license or tamperingwith the data can also interrupt professionalism. Organizations should use Artificial Intelligence to make the process easy and hassle-free. It also helps to reduce the workload of the employees. So, there is a very high demand for Information Technology in daily life. As the need of using computers is going high, so the misuse of the system is also increasing. Proper professionalism, ethics, laws and regulations, and proper security can prevent data loss in IT sectors.

5. Bibliography
Cervantes, S., López, S. and Cervantes, J.-A. (2020) 'Toward ethical cognitive architectures for the development of artificial moral agents', Cognitive Systems Research, 64, pp. 117–125.

Ebert, C. and Duarte, C. H. C. (2018) 'Digital Transformation.', IEEE Softw., 35(4), pp. 16–21.

Gadre, M. and Deoskar, A. (2020) 'Industry 4.0–Digital Transformation, Challenges, and Benefits', International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking, 13(2), pp. 139–149.

Kester, R. (2016) 'Demystifying the internet of things: industry impact, standardization problems, and legal considerations', Elon L. Rev., 8, p. 205.

Leikas, J., Koivisto, R. and Gotcheva, N. (2019) 'Ethical Framework for designing autonomous intelligent systems', Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 5(1), p. 18.

Mehta, A. and Jaiswal, R. (2016) 'Legal & Ethical Aspects of IT', pp. 404–408.

Mittelstadt, B. (2019) 'Principles alone cannot guarantee ethical AI', Nature Machine Intelligence, pp. 1–7.

Niazi, M., Mahmood, S., Alshayeb, M., Qureshi, A.M., Faisal, K. and Cerpa, N., 2016. Toward successful project management in global software development. International Journal of Project Management, 34(8), pp.1553-1567.

Nikolaeva, S. and Synekop, O. (2020) 'Social Aspect of Student's Language Learning Style in Differentiated ESP Instruction', Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(9), pp. 4224–4233.

Nnamani, M. O. (2018) 'Misuse Of Information And Communications Technology (ICT) In The Conduct Of Educational Researches: Implication For Research Development In Nigeria'. Olsson, H. H. and Bosch, J. (2020) 'Going digital: Disruption and transformation in software?intensive embedded systems ecosystems', Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 32(6), p. e2249.

Park, S.-H. and Park, J.-K. (2016) 'IoT Industry & Security Technology Trends', International journal of advanced smart convergence, 5(3), pp. 27–31.

Raza, M.U., Adeel, A., Nazam, M., Akash, R.S.I., Hashim, M., Ahmad, J. and Khan, M.I., 2019. Impact of Individual and Professional Aspects of Employee Behavior on Customer Satisfaction: Empirical pieces of evidence from the Pakistani Banking Sector. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 10 No.4 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 http://TUENGR.COM/V10/489.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2019.47

Yaman, S., Fagerholm, F., Munezero, M., Mäenpää, H. and Männistö, T., 2017, November. Notifying and involving users in experimentation: ethical perceptions of software practitioners. In 2017 ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM) (pp. 199-204). IEEE.

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