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Information Technology Assignment: Introduction To 5G

Question

Task:
Write a report on information technology assignment critically discussing about the 5G technology.

Answer

Introduction
This information technology assignment sheds light on the concept of 5G NR which is the protocol that is used to receive and send wireless signals from varied devices like smartphones to cellular network infrastructure. It is a new kind of network that is designed for the virtual connection between everything such as machines, devices, and objects (Campbell, 2017). This study will highlight the importance of 5G NR, the development of this topic, the technical description and its usage, the technological platforms and software’s, the businesses and the organizations using this 5G technology as well as the usage of 5G as a software along with its effectiveness.

Discussion
Importance of 5G

5G can be considered to be important because of its potentiality to support varied users at ultrafast speed as well as the transformation of the lives of varied individuals across the world (Cayamcela and Lim,2018). On the other hand, there should be careful attempts made in extending the reach of the particular mobile brand. This is possible only when the 5G promises can make improved levels in the 3D holograms, the augmented reality, and virtual reality. Moreover, it has been found that with the help of 5G technology, there is an improvement in the health, safety, and security aspects. With the help of the 5G technology, there are careful attempts made for the improvement of the critical services affecting the security and the safety services. The varied types of opportunities that can be developed with the help of 5G technology include the potentiality of development of the remote services, the improved level of traffic control, and the varied applications that are dependent on the instant response time.

Development of 5G
5G cannot be considered to be a fixed standard and it cannot be considered to be such an aspect that replaces the 4G thereby continuing consistently. The development of 5G has started with the core baseline technical standards that are managed by the telecom industry and thus improvements were made in the baseline with time (Ahmad et al. 2020). Moreover, in case of the wireless technology, the different baselines are generally defined with the help of industrial organizations known as 3GPP that defines the worldwide standards for the development of the 3G network (Dahlman et al. 2020). On the other hand, the 3GPP document, Release 16 is also on the verge of completion and thus its formal release has been expected in June 2020. As it has been found that the telecom industry is always aimed at looking ahead, there has been an improved level of deals made in tackling the work done for Release 17 associated with enhancements of IoT and the other advanced standard applications. Although it cannot be considered to be critical to gather knowledge on the Release documents, there have been occasional references made to them by following the industrial norms accordingly.

Description of the technology used in 5G
The specification requirement of 5G technology includes a 106 Gbps data rate which might be greater than 100x speed improvement than the 4G and the 4.5G networks. The bandwidth can be considered to be 1000x bandwidth per unit area and there are provisions for connection of 100x number of connected devices per unit area. The availability can be considered to be 99.999% where the coverage includes 100 %. Further, it has been found that is the reduction of the network energy usage to a great extent where the battery life is considered to be 10 years for the IoT device.

5G technology is based on Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing which is one of the vital methods used for the modulation of the digital signals across different channels. The 5G technology utilizes the 5G NR which is an air-based interface along with the principle of OFDM. It also uses the wider bandwidth technology known as the mmWave and the sub-6 Hz. However, it can be said that the operation principle of the 5G is the same as that of the 4G. In the case of the air interface, there are chances of further enhancement of the OFDM to deliver a much higher degree of flexibility and the scalability process.

The utilization of the wider level of bandwidths as well as the expansion of using the spectra resources from Sub 3 GHz utilized in the 4G to 100 GHz and more. On the other hand, it has been found that 5G can also be operational in the lower bands along with the mmWave enhancing the capacity, the latency, and the multi-Gbps to a great extent. With the help of this process, the developed and the new 5G INR air interface technique will assist in designing the self-contained TDD subframe.

Technological platforms and software used in 5G
5G technology utilizes a larger variety of spectrum such as the mmWave as well as the radio spectrum that uses higher levels of data at a shorter distance. This development of the 5G technology comes from different vendors that are composed of solutions for the provision of low latency and fast downloadable speed. The millimeter waves are used in broadcasting frequencies that are between 30 GHz to 300 GHz. However, it can be said that only the new and the improved 5G networks will assist in the transmission of large levels of databases by maintaining only a few blocks. There are also provisions for working in lower frequencies and the unlicensed frequencies that use the WiFi status without the creation of conflicts and the existing level of WiFi networks. On the other hand, the smaller cells that are low-powered portable base stations can be tackled across the cities (Baratè et al. 2019). It can be said that both the destination and the source have varied antennas thereby maximizing the efficiency and the speed through improved ways. Moreover, beamforming can also be regarded as the vital 5G technology that assists in the efficient data delivery process to individual users. The utilization of the higher-frequency antennas makes the transmission beans much narrower (Elayan et al. 2018). There have also been careful attempts made in full-duplex communication to tackle the speed of wireless communication. This will assist in the transmission of data by forming a base station as well as the creation of the single interference through improved ways.

Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is used in the 5G services for designing in the cost-effective and agile network process. With the help of SDN, there can be proper attempts made for the dynamic reconfiguration of the network with the help of developed architecture. Moreover, it can be said that with the help of SDN, there can be proper attempts made to carry out the centralization process of the network management along with the use of different entities (Pham et al. 2020). All these different layers assist in the implementation of the open standards and the programmatic access to different infrastructures enabling the SDN controller accordingly.

Type of business and organization using this technology
The businesses that utilize the 5G technology include the smart factory in automation, safety, and the real-time process. Moreover, the connected vehicles, smart mining, the smart port, and the health sector also make proper usage of the 5G technology. On the other hand, it has been found that telecommunications and mobile operators across the world are trying their best to be involved in 5G technology. These telecommunication businesses include Nokia. Ericsson, Nokia, LG, ZTE, Verizon, NEC Corporation, Cisco, AT&T, Huawei, and the Qualcomm. It has been found that Oneplus, the manufacturer of Chinese smartphones is one of the most vital consumer electronic brands has released the 5G handset tackling the prototype of the 5G device (Pham et al. 2020). Moreover, Oppo, another Chinese manufacturer of the smartphone has also developed smartphones using the 5G software focusing on the global market. Lenovo has also focused tightly on the development of the 5G technology for the PC and the mobile (Pawlak et al. 2019). The company has also adopted an alternative approach to develop the claims and thus become the most enabled 5G laptop in the world. The Japanese manufacturer of the phone, Docomo has also planned in the effective launching of the 5G services thereby announcing several other plans for launching the software effectively.

Usage of 5G software as a business tool and its effectiveness
5G software tool is used in the anticipation of the autonomous vehicle. The technology for the development of the vehicle supports the future of the autonomous vehicle along with the onboarding computer system and the computation of power (Chen, 2019). Moreover, the 5G IoT is also used in the development of the smart city infrastructure and the management of traffic. It has been found that different cities are trying their best to provide support to the connected vehicle technology thereby handling the emergency vehicles and the congestion process of the routes. Further, as communication can be considered to be the backbone of providing support to the connected vehicles, the deployment of 5G improves vehicle safety and the role of pedestrians to a great extent (Kostoff et al. 2020). Another vital application of the 5G IoT application includes wireless industrial automation, the viability of applications, and the reduced level of costs. Further, the application of the 5G IoT also helps in operating the drones for photography and filming. Moreover, retail and logistics companies also use drones for the delivery of goods and services.

Relation of 5G with the course content and discussion on the nature of the relationship between old and new digital technologies and emerging theories of business and management
5G can be considered to be one of the alarming topics in the telecom sector as well as for the enterprises across these industries. There have been careful attempts made for the expansion of the ultra-low latency, the higher level of bandwidth as well as reliability and security (Chen, 2019). The new and the developed digital technologies have allowed for the transformation deployment. 5G can be considered to be an evolution as well as a revolution. There has been using of the radio spectrum from the old technologies for the efficient operation of the higher network speed when compared to the 4G spectrum. Further, it has been found that there also exist advanced security features supporting the enhanced connection and the built-in architecture that is responsible for the development of the IoT services.

The game theory of management can be considered to be one of the vital theories of management that assist the managers to analyze the difficult problems of the 5G network known as the cooperative and the non-cooperative games. This also assists in wireless network virtualization and thus it can be considered to be one of the most promising technology for carrying out wireless communication (Chen, 2019). There exists an improved level of relationship between digital technology and the game theory involved in the 5G network. With the help of this theory, It becomes easier to capture the behaviors of the agents with conflicting interests in that particular strategic situation. Moreover, the techniques that are used in the development of the game theory could be applied successfully in tackling the 5G network services (Kostoff et al. 2020). On the other hand, artificial intelligence and the automation process can also be considered to be linked with 5G network services. There have been careful attempts made in the improvement of the support to the machines aiming at lower prices along with the reduced level of battery consumption and the latency process (Kostoff et al. 2020). Further, there also exist billions of connections along with the improved level of communication and mobile broadband in the 5G network. Both the technologies and the game theory can be utilized by the final consumers as a move towards the 5G network deployment.

Conclusion
Thus, it can be said that the application of the 5G services will assist in pushing the limits of the drones in the interactivity and the range. The current limits with higher resolution and lower level of latency of 5G can be managed accordingly. Therefore, it can be said that operators across the world utilize the 5G network deployment to provide an improved solution to businesses within a short period.

References
Ahmad, W.S.H.M.W., Radzi, N.A.M., Samidi, F.S., Ismail, A., Abdullah, F., Jamaludin, M.Z. and Zakaria, M., 2020. 5G technology: Towards dynamic spectrum sharing using cognitive radio networks. IEEE Access, 8, pp.14460-14488.

Baratè, A., Haus, G., Ludovico, L.A., Pagani, E. and Scarabottolo, N., 2019. 5G Technology for augmented and virtual reality in education. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Education and New Developments (Vol. 2019, pp. 512-516).

Campbell, K., Diffley, J., Flanagan, B., Morelli, B., O’Neil, B. and Sideco, F., 2017. The 5G economy: How 5G technology will contribute to the global economy. IHS Economics and IHS Technology, 4, p.16.

Cayamcela, M.E.M. and Lim, W., 2018. Artificial intelligence in 5G technology: A survey. In 2018 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC) (pp. 860-865). IEEE.

Chen, J.I.Z., 2019. 5G technology and advancements in connected living-comprehensive survey. Journal of Electronics, 1(02), pp.71-79.

Dahlman, E., Parkvall, S. and Skold, J., 2020. 5G NR: The next generation wireless access technology. Academic Press.

Elayan, H., Amin, O., Shubair, R.M. and Alouini, M.S., 2018, April. Terahertz communication: The opportunities of wireless technology beyond 5G. In 2018 International Conference on Advanced Communication Technologies and Networking (CommNet) (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

Kostoff, R.N., Heroux, P., Aschner, M. and Tsatsakis, A., 2020. Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life conditions. Toxicology Letters, 323, pp.35-40.

Pawlak, R., Krawiec, P. and ?urek, J., 2019. On measuring electromagnetic fields in 5G technology. IEEE Access, 7, pp.29826-29835.

Pham, Q.V., Fang, F., Ha, V.N., Piran, M.J., Le, M., Le, L.B., Hwang, W.J. and Ding, Z., 2020. A survey of multi-access edge computing in 5G and beyond: Fundamentals, technology integration, and state-of-the-art. IEEE Access, 8, pp.116974-117017.

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