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Influence of Primary Schools In India on personality of Children


Description of the Task
Whilst more direction, including assessment criteria, will be given for this assignment on the LMS website and during the first two face-to-face meetings, the Literature Review is expected to be a scholarly piece of writing that meets the writing standards expected for post-graduate studies. The Review should include a critical analysis of at least SIX (6) peer reviewed journal articles. The analysis should include an overview of the theoretical significance of selected articles for your research topic of interest and possible implications for your intended research approach. APA 6 referencing should be used. References will be checked.

Information concerning ineffective (or failing HRM)

In brief, critical thinking in the literature review should highlight…

  • What is the purpose of the study?
  • What is the focus of the study?
  • What types of data were collected?
  • How were the data managed?
  • What analytical approach is used?
  • How is validity addressed?
  • How are ethical issues handled?


Introduction to Indian school education
Research methods in education are intensifying due to increasing competition. This has made it important for students to seek professional assistance to help them crack their exams and secure good jobs. It is estimated that India has about 1.5 million schools spread across the country and there are about two hundred and fifty million students enrolled in these schools (Indra, 2017). The mammoth size of the education system, its coordination administration gives it a status of one of the largest education systems second only to China. This vast educational establishment is evolving and changing constantly and has achieved remarkable feats in the last two decades. The net enrollment rate of primary education has crossed the target of 95 percent. i.e. ninety-five percent of the children in the age group of 6 to 11 years age are enrolled in schools and are attending the classes(Mitra, 2018). The present education system has adopted many new goals and objectives but is yet to let off the influence of policies of the yesteryears.

As the academicians across the world consider the Indian school system as one of the largest and most complex in the world, making students need thorough research methods in education. Indian education system especially the primary and high school has the following unique characteristics (Ghosh, 1989). First India is trying to maintain a standard and uniform educational system across the country, second, schools are providing space for diverse Indian culture and heritage to flourish in schools in a balanced manner, and third, the Indian education gives importance to explicit knowledge in various subjects and its academic applications. After India achieved independence, it has tried hard to provide access to basic education to all. Currently, the primary and high school education has begun to receive attention to the quality of education and the learning outcomes of the children.

Introduction to the influence of school on personality
To register high success rates, research methods in education require the schools and schooling process has direct effects on children's personality, and educational attainment. The Schools provide the primary school children with basic knowledge to build on disciplines such as geography, history, science, mathematics, language, etc. The primary schools provide the children an opportunity to have formal education and training. Not only the cognitive aspects of personality are enhanced, the social skills and self-management are shaped in the primary schools (Diaz-Guerrero, 2017). Indian schools provide a uniform educational opportunity to all children and only a few schools provide individual attention to the students. The indirect effects on the student’s development are contributed by the quality of the curriculum, the peer group, the teacher’s involvement in development, the social environment of the school, etc. The children’s cognitive abilities, the personality traits, and the motivational inclination also work as the mediating factors in their development.

Three levels of Personality
Before we explore factors influencing Research methods in education and their effects on student personality, an understanding of the scope and dimensions of personality is necessary. For almost several decades, the behavioral scientists were struggling to formulate an appropriate definition of personality and also were trying to enumerate the components of personality. The recent personality researches have achieved a fair degree of success in ordering the personality elements in a coherent manner (McAdams, et al, 2004). Some researchers have proposed to view personality in three levels. The first level of personality is comprised of the traits of a person i.e. the dispositional factors of a person. The traits are considered as the core of a person’s personality. The traits may include friendliness, emotional stability, being organized, outgoing, talkative, moody, etc. and are enduring characteristics of a person. The traits of a person are considered as biologically determined patterns of responses. The second level of Personality is the adaptation characteristics which refer to the patterns of responses to the contexts of time, place and roles. The adaptation mechanisms of a person are manifested as characteristic motives, social interactional orientation, relational styles, coping strategies, defense mechanisms, interests, values, etc. Traits are deeper aspects of personality which are not readily observable or recognizable, but the adaptation characteristics are observable in action and more recognizable. The third level of personality is the social and psychological identity they carry along as they move in the world i.e. integrative life stories or narrative self-identity. These narratives are sum total of a person’s experience with the world and own perceptions about the self. Students carry their stories with them (their self-concept, self-esteem and life narrative) as much as they carry their traits. A school is likely to influence the adaptation characteristics and the life narrative of a person.

Framework to assess School influence on personality
It is likely that there are many factors of a school that has potential to contribute with respect to the shaping of the personality of students. In order togain a comprehensive picture of Research methods in education and the factors of influence are classified into three broad categories i.e. people, processes, and place in a school. These categories are likely to have overlapping influence on the students. Some the subfactors of each of these categories are discussed briefly here. The contexts of Indian schools are considered as much as possible to explain the influences.

People factors
In a positively functioning school, the human relationships and interactions are very significant. Among the three broad factors of influence on the learners, people factor is very vital. Along with cognitive development, social skills development is also critical for the students to succeed in a career. The social relationships in a school, especially the friendship groups and a teacher's attitudes towards the school, teaching, and students have a profound influence on the primary school students of a school (Pena, 2000).

Friendships and relationships in school
The researchers, practitioners, teachers, parents, and students themselves attach significance to friendships and relationships in a school. The day to day experiences is enhanced by the fun of interactions and feeling of belongingness. Students who have a healthy relationship with peers are found to be enjoying learning tasks and are likely to overcome the barriers to learning (Hughes, & Kwok, 2007). A male parent from India once commented that a school is a place where social time has to be utilized to form deep friendships and intellectual relationships.

Research methods in education surveys conducted on Indian schools have indicated that the students, teachers and the parents are aware of the significance of social relationships and encourage their children to form a friendship with students of different grades. Student respondents saw this in terms of friendships with their classmates or students from different grades, and their relationships with teachers. Previously, due to cultural norms the parents and other guardians were reluctant to go to their children’s school;now many parents actively participate in the school programs and encourage a positive relationship with teachers and school management. Due to this shift in parental attitude, many schools are able to run community programs successfully. In a village school in Uttar Pradesh, India, the attendance rate of parent teacher’s association members is 125%, i.e. along with parents, the grandparents of primary school children also attend the parent teachers meeting. Participation in community function is part of Indian culture and people do not hesitate to visit their children's' school.

In many private schools in India, especially run by Christian missionaries, there are multi-grade houses such as daffodils, lotus, shamrock, etc. in which every child will belong to any of these houses. Students belonging to a house is required to wear a colored band, tie, tee shirt or cap common to all members of a house and complete with students of other clubs in school sports events, exhibitions, shows, etc. This multi-grade clustering of students promotes relationship development and extends the bonding to the student's respective families. The social interactions in school bring out the personality traits of a student and help them to acquire appropriate adaptation characteristics and form healthy self-concept.

Teacher’s attitudes
A teacher's interaction with a student is critical information of his or her personality. The effect of positive attitudes and attributes has far-reaching consequences for the students. Most parents, students, and teachers have agreed about this factor. Once a student from India said” teachers must not be strict and impose on the students regarding marks, projects and other activities. The teacher can help the students learn without being too critical; the attitude of the teachers matter most in school” (Hughes, & Kwok, 2007).

Many urban schools have recognized the importance of teachers who encourage; interact with positivity and who are innovative in teaching and kindles fun in class. Students like teachers who are friendly and have a sense of humor. Once during a parent-teacher meeting, a parent suggested that recruitment and selection of teachers must meet the criteria of good attitudes towards students. The teachers' personality, attitude, and skills must match the profile of the available teaching role. Teachers who have "I teach – you listen “attitude can have a negative effect on the personality of the students. Many teachers in India are not liked by the primary students as the teachers are showing high handedness.

A solution to the issue of teacher-student attitude, the practitioners are recommending to create a sense of family in the school premises. The second recommendation is to set priorities regarding, personality, attitude and ethics of the prospective teaching candidates during the recruitment and selection of teachers. The selection procedure for primary teachers needs to be rigorous as the teacher can have a profound influence on the students' personality.

Infusing positive values
There is a practice in India to fill the walls of the schools with statements, quotes, and sayings of great men. Many of these statements infuse values among the students. Most of the statements are focused on common values of integrity, education, commitment, appreciation, respect, cooperation, knowledge, altruism, tolerance, independence, creativity, diversity, etc. Mostly these sayings are colorful representations of underlying values, the wall messages are meant to remind the students, but are also influencing all in the school. Many contemporary issues are also presented on the walls as values (Wall, 2018). For example, global warming, environmental protection etc. are represented on the walls and posters. These displays are significant in shaping the personality of the students, epically the value education.

Process factors
Teaching and learning functions are basic processes in a school. The teaching and learning methods in a class to a large extent determine the interest in learning and classes. Effective learning and teaching methods can help the learners to gain nonacademic skills too. The teacher's classroom management can affect the student's feeling of freedom to express themselves and be creative in their approach. Two of the process factors are discussed here. i.e. types of disciplines and learner freedom that can influence the personality of the students.

Type of discipline used
Most students in primary schools prefer to have positive discipline in school and classroom rather than being exposed to physical and emotional punishment (Osher, Bear, Sprague, & Doyle, 2010). Presence of these kinds of punishment is disliked by the students and can have a long-lasting effect on the personality of the students. One of the most hated teacher behaviors by the primary students in India is the frequent comparison of students with each other for example the achievements, behaviors, appearance, etc. Instead of motivating the students, the comparison creates an erosion of self-confidence and development of hatred towards the teacher.

Most students in primary schools prefer to have positive discipline in school and classroom rather than being exposed to physical and emotional punishment (Osher, Bear, Sprague, & Doyle, 2010). Presence of these kinds of punishment is disliked by the students and can have a long-lasting effect on the personality of the students. One of the most hated teacher behaviors by the primary students in India is the frequent comparison of students with each other for example the achievements, behaviors, appearance, etc. Instead of motivating the students, the comparison creates an erosion of self-confidence and development of hatred towards the teacher.

Learner freedom, engagement, and creativity
Successful research methods in education require for self-confidence and learning freedom. Some parents in India feel that the schools discourage self-initiatives of the students and suppress their academic freedom. The opportunity for expression of creativity is curtailed, which can lead to stunted thinking skills and personality. One of the parents in India has disclosed that his child is afraid to talk about new ideas and suggestions because the school environment discourages making mistakes and ridicules impractical ideas. The western education, on the other hand, allows the students to explore their ideas and tolerates the mistakes done by the students. However, many schools in India have begun to recognize the significance of making mistakes and facing failures. Now mistakes and failures are considered as a natural part of learning. The current education directs the attention of the students towards mistakes and encourages them to improve their performance and master it in cycles of learning. Too much critical comments on the mistakes of students make them cynical.

Mats and O’Brien (2014) suggests that allowing students to make mistakes in the classroom removes the fright out of the students and creates an environment that is safe to try out new and creative things. The teacher can have creative dialogues with the students who propose different ideas and suggestions. By acknowledging their viewpoints, the teacher can shape their personality and avoid the guilt feeling among the students. Another important aspect of learner freedom is the freedom to ask questions of the teacher. An effective tutor must allow and encourage the students to ask questions and should not hesitate to say ‘I do not know' when an answer is not known to the teacher.

Place factors
Schools have tremendous potential to provide a positive environment to the students. The place factors can have wider and all-encompassing influence on shaping the personalities of the students.

School vision and philosophy of education and leadership
Many school authorities in India are not aware of the benefits of having a written vision for a school and do not invest towards research methods in education which can enhance learning. Some of the private schools especially funded by successful industrialists have a school vision and mission published in the school premises. The school visions, punch lines, logos, slogans, mottos, etc. with direct reference to the outcomes of the educational process have the potential to create a positive feeling among the students and parents. They can even feel proud of their educational institution. A reputed school can influence the third level of personality i.e. life narrative of a student. Students, who are studying in a school that is grounded in strong philosophy and vision, are likely to feel proud of their school and have a positive personality.

Control systems and beliefs of the school management
One of the most frequently observed factors of an unsafe school environment is the presence of bullying in the school campus. As most schools in India accommodate large sections of students, it is likely that some students may have an inclination for bullying. But, it is the responsibility of the school management to control the bullying and harassment behavior in the school campus (Skinner, Wellborn, & Connell, 1990). If negative behaviors such as bullying, harassing, etc. are not controlled in the campus, the victims are likely to experience traumatic experiences, and their personality may be damaged. The psychological effect of bullying may be heightened fear, abnormal anxiety, development of low self-esteem, lack of interest in school activities, etc. Continued exposure to bullying can have serious damage to the self-concept and personality of the students. The control systems and the approach to running a school can have an influence on the personality of the students who are influenced by the school environment.

Some Causes of poor personality development in India
One of the factors that contribute to poor personality development among primary school children in India is related to the interactions between a school and the stakeholders in the community (Karande, &Kulkarni, 2005). Schools whose functioning is misaligned are likely to create a poor environment for the school students and can have a devastating effect on the personality of the students. The second critical factor that contributes to poor personality development is the negative school atmosphere.The feelings of indifference, apathy, lack of ownership of the educational process, etc., are the components of the bad school atmosphere. The third factor of negative influence on the students is the negative teacher attitudes expressed in behaviors of strictness, unkindness, unfairness, lack of support, insincerity, etc. teachers lack the interest towards performing research methods in education and developing strategies to communicate theories. Without practical examples to demonstrate theories many students find themselves lacking the desired understanding. When these teacher behaviors are present, the students are likely to develop maladjustment with school and the peers. Another related factor that contributes adversely to the personality of the students is the discordant relationship with the school community.

Schools that house bullies, delinquents, etc. have an aura of dismal mood, lack of smiles among the school community, lack of care, absence of empathy, etc. Most such schools are run by government administration; the researchers have reported that students who join such schools are belonging to an economically backward community.

There is sufficient evidence to propose that quality of education – as substantiated by the objective assessment has an influence on the development and shaping of the personality among children. By having best practices in schools, the speed with which the communities can become stronger and healthier entities is established by the literacy drives in India (Jayaram, 2017). Years of education and acquisition of cognitive skills, social skills, self-concept, have economic and social payoffs. It is important for the schools not only to impart education through cognitive exercises but also the overall development of personality of students.

Two powerful conclusions can be drawn based on the information gathered from this document. First, the impact of a school has far-reaching consequence, when schools are governed by visionary based management and teaching strategies aimed at overall development of the personality of the students. Second, many of the influences of schooling are indirect, which means that the effect of education is mediated through the cognitive development, value education, personality enhancement of the students, etc. this makes it important to infuse practical research methods in education so as to benefit all stakeholders.

Indra, C. T. (2017). Introduction. In Language, Culture, and Power (pp. 21-39). Routledge India.
Mitra, S. (2018).Re-Assessing “trickle-down” Using a Multidimensional Criteria: The Case of India. Social Indicators Research, 136(2), 497-515.
Ghosh, S.C. (1989), Education Policy in India since Warren Hastings, NayaPrakashan, Calcutta, 23-26.
Diaz-Guerrero, R. (2017). Personality development of Mexican school children: A research project. Revista Interamericana de Psicologia/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 4(3 & 4).
McAdams, D. P., Anyidoho, N. A., Brown, C., Huang, Y. T., Kaplan, B., & Machado, M. A. (2004). Traits and stories: Links between dispositional and narrative features of personality. Journal of Personality, 72(4), 761-784.
Pena, D. C. (2000). Parent involvement: Influencing factors and implications. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(1), 42-54.
Hughes, J., & Kwok, O. M. (2007). Influence of student-teacher and parent-teacher relationships on lower achieving readers' engagement and achievement in the primary grades. Journal of educational psychology, 99(1), 39.
Wall, T. (2018). 23 Infusing ethics in leadership learning and development. Leading Beyond the Ego: How to Become a Transpersonal Leader.
Osher, D., Bear, G. G., Sprague, J. R., & Doyle, W. (2010). How can we improve school discipline?. Educational Researcher, 39(1), 48-58.
Skinner, E. A., Wellborn, J. G., & Connell, J. P. (1990). What it takes to do well in school and whether I've got it: A process model of perceived control and children's engagement and achievement in school. Journal of educational psychology, 82(1), 22.
Karande, S., &Kulkarni, M. (2005). Poor school performance. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 72(11), 961-967.
Jayaram, N. (2017). Compulsory Primary Education as a Human Right: Prospects and Challenges. NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION INDIA.

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