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Indigenous Health Issues Essay on Participatory Health Research



Your self-reflection on indigenous health issues essay addresses the following points:

Reflection and Self-Assessment:
Demonstrates a developing sense of self, building on prior experiences to respond to new and challenging research contexts: which should include

Envisions a future self (and possibly makes plans that build on past experiences)that have occurred across multiple and diverse contexts.

Integrative learning:
Synthesising learning of research design to new, complex situations: which should be like?

Adapts and applies, independently, skills, abilities, theories, or methodologies gained in one situation to new situations to solve difficult problems or explore complex issues in original ways.

Indigenous knowledge:
Develop clear understanding of indigenous research on health issues, Knowledge of indigenous world view frameworks.


1. Introduction
The process of self-reflection initiated in this context of Indigenous health issues essay involves self-introspecting of understanding, knowledge, and skills developed regarding a particular topic or module (Peters-Burton et al, 2015). In this current reflective analysis as a researcher in the public health domain Burton's model of self-reflection has been adopted which includes a three-step reflective practice of What, So What, and Now What. By way of accommodating these three simple steps, it has been possible to understand by current levels of knowledge and skills, and steps I need to undertake to enhance this knowledge in the future (Peters-Burton, and Botov, 2017). In this reflection, my integrative knowledge and knowledge regarding indigenous people have also been evaluated.

The healthcare industry is witnessing massive technological transformation and the robotics and artificial intelligence markets are expected to grow by $6.6 Billion and $2.8 Billion by 2021 respectively.

2. Analysis

2.1 Reflection and Self-Assessment

Researching in the public health domain can be extremely challenging owing to the vastness of scope and different participatory health approaches present (Saks, and Allsop, 2012). Several different approaches are currently available in public health research and I feel that I have a good understanding of the strengths and limitations associated with these approaches. Though I have effectively developed theoretical knowledge in these research approaches yet I feel I have not developed the capabilities to be able to apply them in practicality. However, I have understood that as a researcher we need to collaborate the process and we are not experts hence we need to undertake action by relying upon our strengths. A prominent public health research issue of interest to be is Breast Cancer, which has increased incidence amongst indigenous as well as the non-indigenous population. I undertook desk research in breast cancer and saw a sharp increase in breast cancer rates in the recent decade with indigenous people being at higher risks and highly vulnerable to the absence of knowledge and lower rates of screening for cancers. Breast cancer has been seen to cost hundreds of lives in the past decade and also bears a significant burden on the health system. Hence this topic covered in the Indigenous health issues essay requires significant attention from participative health research. However, in conducting these kinds of research considerable prior experience and self-building are necessarily such that it is possible to respond to challenges that might arise in the research context (Warren, and Garthwaite, 2015).

So What?
My approach to researching the public health domain is focussed on ontology. This implies that the philosophical view regarding the dominance of cultural view which has led breast cancer to become an issue in public health amongst indigenous people in Australia (Levy, and Sidel, 2013). This ontology is the philosophical underpinning that can reveal regarding the understanding of the basic elements. This ontology will directly affect the epistemological belief. With ontology, the concepts related to the past, present, and reality can be understood for the determination of the existence of the research topic by establishing a connection to it. Hence with my current levels of understanding and theoretical underpinning, I have been able to establish that cultural trends in the past, present scenario leads to a higher incidence of breast cancer occurrence amongst indigenous people however it can be treated. With this background in participatory health research, it will be possible to respond to challenges arising in my research and envision aspects to inform research across multicultural and diverse context (Simonds, and Christopher, 2013).

Then What?
Once the ontology for participatory health research is determined, my approach is to examine the axiology of the research (Cohen et al, 2013). As axiology links itself to aesthetics and ethics, it can be applied for classifying research such that they can enhance the current health scenario. This will assist in understanding the philosophical debate's outcome as to what is intrinsically valuable in human life (Jamieson et al, 2012). With the application of public health research, it will be possible to consider all the factors that lead to a higher incidence of breast cancer disease amongst the indigenous population and by application of appropriate ethical principles, it will be possible to arrive at a conclusion that can be beneficial for the current population. As a public health researcher, my position is to undertake research ethically by considering ethical standards and guidelines also while selecting participants (Castellano, 2014). I will identify motivational factors behind the research along with associated health risks and other factors such that the implications of my study can easily be transferred.

2.2 Integrative learning

While researching public health, it is crucial to ascertain a research design that can match the new complex situation. While undertaking this unit there have been taught several different methodologies that can be applied to researching in a public health situation however, application skills need to be developed while adopting an appropriate methodology (Hennink et al, 2020). As a researcher, I will need to select designs that strategically align with the components of the problems of the study. The research design selected by me will be such that it is adaptable and can be applied independently by me using my abilities with appropriate theories and methodologies.

So What?
Amongst all the different methodologies available in public health research, the most appropriate one is the survey research that will be suitable for my profession. The methodology carried in the Indigenous health issues essay includes the data gathering procedure that will be undertaken by me for breast cancer research will be influenced by ontological perspectives and will be from an epistemological standpoint. I aim to undertake survey research as it will enable me to test theories that are currently available in the domain of breast cancer and can easily be applied for the indigenous people to understand the phenomenon of increased occurrence rates amongst them (Fowler Jr, 2013). With this methodology, I will collect data from the vast populace of samples of indigenous people, which will be representative of the larger population for undertaking opportunities for generalization. Also applying this method will enable me to arrive at my research findings easily by undertaking statistical analysis. Further, as methodologies rely upon qualitative methods, it will be easier for me to undertake observations in the context in which they take place.

Then What?
It is not sufficient to ascertain research design while undertaking study for the indigenous people rather there will be needed to decide upon approaches. Amongst the two approaches, I will select the inductive approach in my research on examining breast cancer amongst indigenous communities. As in this approach, general questions will be determined regarding what to study and then observations will be gathered. So relativist’s ontology, emic epistemology, and survey methodologies will enable quantitative measures. Determining paradigms of the research is important and I will make use of post-positivism, which is value-bound research. It will form its basis on critical realism with the reality that cannot be manifested.

2.3 Indigenous knowledge

Ingenious people in Australia consist of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Though it might appear that I already have all the knowledge, skills, and tools for researching with the indigenous community, it is rather difficult to research with them. At the onset, I thought before that it would be easy to communicate with "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders" and observations can be easily made (Stewart et al, 2012). However, I have discovered, that because of the hardships and traumatic past they faced, they are generally averting to all sorts of inquiries. Also, during inquiries, an interpreter is often needed to be available as the indigenous people cannot converse in English. It is important to hold interviews and inquiries to learn about the exact dietary and lifestyle habits of indigenous people. Indigenous people are generally averting to researchers and health practitioners from their cultural perspective (Tervonen et al, 2017). For their medical needs, they are more dependent upon spirituality and culturally appropriate services. Hence, my approach while indulging them in research on Indigenous health issues essay will be to engage with them and empower them through discussion such, they can relate experiences openly. Specialist approaches with open-mindedness must be adopted for indigenous communities to be able to collect reliable and valid data from them (Wallerstein et al, 2017). I will make effective use of my communication skills to be able to engage with them in meaningful conversations and such that they can disclose information to me, which is crucial for my research work.

Qualitative and quantitative approaches for designing a questionnaire are suitable for researching the indigenous communities. Qualitative research usually focuses on a descriptive analysis that helps me to analyze in-depth ideas and experiences. The questionnaires asked by me in the form of a survey to aboriginal people about their health symptoms and problems. The questionnaires will be structured based on the health systems of the various aged groups, as the symptoms varying from one woman to another. Thus, regression and statistical techniques will be applied to evaluate the sample size of more than 200 people. The sample size of women participants needs to be of diversified age group such that they represent the overall population sample of breast cancer patients present in Australia. The findings obtained in the Indigenous health issues essay will be measured with the latest literature and my expertise for the design and implementation of strategies to enhance indigenous people's lives.

So what?
Participatory inquiries into the rights obligations and benefits of the indigenous community should achieve balance. With dedication and equal collaboration, I will pursue this survey study. Thus, the entire process of participatory research will be transparent and open to all participants. All participants will be made to sign the consent form before taking part in the study procedure. My study would also concentrate on meeting indigenous people's needs and goals. This study will aim at attending to the principle of “Closing the Gap (CTG)” (Roder et al, 2012). I will apply ethical principles that allow public health investigators to deal with indigenous peoples' intractable health problems in a positive manner. All the questions will be self-explanatory and will assist the participants to take part in the study.

Then What
The study will help to identify ways to manage breast cancer by increasing screening, increasing awareness, and changing lifestyle factors. Such screening and education interventions will be intended at bringing a positive change in the indigenous women bringing them at par with other non-indigenous women in their rates of breast cancer (Haigh et al, 2018).

3. Conclusion
In conclusion, breast cancer rates have sky-rocketed and it is especially true amongst indigenous Australian women. Participatory health research approaches can bring about a significant impact on these women by conducting research and bring to the forefront of its implications. Various government agencies are working in the same domain as well. As a research practitioner, this field will provide me with the perfect opportunity to enhance my skills and knowledge of research learned so far. In this unit, there has been an extensive transfer of learning, with theories and relevant research tools, applying them are crucial. Though I have been able to develop competency and expertise in certain topics, I am yet to develop in some areas. This reflective exercise done in this Indigenous health issues essay has provided me a brief comprehension of those topics which I will need to undertake to emerge a professional researcher in my domain.

4. References
Castellano, M.B., 2014. Ethics of Aboriginal research. Global bioethics and human rights: Contemporary issues, 273.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., and Morrison, K., 2013. Research methods in education. routledge.

Fowler Jr, F.J., 2013. Indigenous health issues essay Survey research methods. Sage publications.

Haigh, M., Burns, J., Potter, C., Elwell, M., Hollows, M., Mundy, J., Taylor, E. and Thompson, S., 2018. Review of cancer among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet.

Hennink, M., Hutter, I., and Bailey, A., 2020. Qualitative research methods. SAGE Publications Limited.

Jamieson, L.M., Paradies, Y.C., Eades, S., Chong, A., Maple-Brown, L.J., Morris, P.S., Bailie, R.S., Cass, A., Roberts-Thomson, K. and Brown, A., 2012. Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations. Medical Journal of Australia, 197(1), pp.16-18.

Levy, B.S. and Sidel, V.W. eds., 2013. Social injustice and public health. Oxford University Press.

Peters-Burton, E.E. and Botov, I.S., 2017. Self-regulated learning microanalysis as a tool to inform professional development delivery in real-time. Metacognition and Learning, 12(1), pp.45-78.

Peters-Burton, E.E., Cleary, T.J. and Forman, S.G., 2015. Professional development contexts that promote self-regulated learning and content learning in trainees.

Roder, D., Webster, F., Zorbas, H. and Sinclair, S., 2012. Breast screening and breast cancer survival in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women of Australia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13(1), pp.147-55.

Saks, M. and Allsop, J. eds., 2012. Researching health: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods. Sage.

Simonds, V.W. and Christopher, S., 2013. Adapting Western research methods to indigenous ways of knowing. Indigenous health issues essay American journal of public health, 103(12), pp.2185-2192.

Stewart, J.M., SANSON?FISHER, R.W., Eades, S. and Fitzgerald, M., 2012. The risk status, screening history and health concerns of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service. Drug and alcohol review, 31(5), pp.617-624.

Tervonen, H.E., Walton, R., You, H., Baker, D., Roder, D., Currow, D. and Aranda, S., 2017. After accounting for competing causes of death and more advanced stage, do Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with cancer still have worse survival? A population-based cohort study in New South Wales. BMC cancer, 17(1), p.398.

Wallerstein, N., Duran, B., Oetzel, J.G. and Minkler, M. eds., 2017. Community-based participatory research for health: Advancing social and health equity. John Wiley & Sons.

Warren, J. and Garthwaite, K., 2015. Whose side are we on and for whom do we write? Notes on issues and challenges facing those researching and evaluating public policy. Indigenous health issues essay Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice, 11(2), pp.225-237.


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