Task: My topic is hydrogen roadmap for South Australia and we have to give a critical review that it is possible or not means we have to take one side and we have started with introduction then body part main body part and conclusion and we have to also add up the table of content and everything that makes an assignment
Abstract: As a matter of fact, hydrogen holds the power to provide a clean, proper and affordable supply of energy that can increase the economy together with the environment, as well as security. The Roadmap leads to a blueprint for the efforts that are needed in the development of hydrogen energy. In this report, the major emphasis will be on the hydrogen rod map of South Australia. The hydrogen roadmap was announced in the year 2017 that will provide a leading advantage to the State. Further, the hydrogen road map is discussed together with its extent of possibility. The actions that can be undertaken are put to discussion and it comes to the forefront that Australia is in an effective position to develop hydrogen technologies
Introduction: The government of South Australia announced a hydrogen roadmap for itself in the year 2017 so that it can capitalize its competitive advantages and enhance the State’s transformation to a safer, cleaner, and sustainable consumer, exporter, and producer of hydrogen. Moreover, the country has sufficient sources of renewable energy and the expertise for research or industry that can assist it in developing an international class sector of hydrogen. With such roadmap, South Australia can get inputs from domestic, national, and international partners, thereby facilitating a fast-tracking green hydrogen economy. Further, the question whether such approach is feasible in nature clearly relies on the fact that reduction of emissions, enhancement of recycling, and utilization of better resources can play a key role in the attainment of a more circular economy (EU, 2011). Besides, hydrogen can provide enormous opportunities to create a new industry in the country and export various wind and sun resources to the entire world. Nevertheless, such tool is possible in South Australia and through the development of such technology; motorists can attain new choices in hydrogen-powered and electric vehicles together with the required infrastructure to assist such options.
Hydrogen roadmaps: The roadmap designed by the South Australian Government recognizes various crucial elements in creating a green sector of hydrogen. Firstly, it will facilitate in supporting early investments in the infrastructure for hydrogen. Secondly, it will assist in attracting equipment distribution, head offices, manufacturers, and services. Thirdly, it will play a vital role in unlocking hydrogen innovation. Lastly, such roadmap will assist in offering an enhanced practice regulatory framework for production, storage, and utilization of hydrogen.
Such roadmap follows the initiatives of the government of South Australia to motivate a hydrogen economy including allocation of more than $8.2 million for the year 2017-2018 for building and operating a production facility in relation to hydrogen and refuelling of vehicle station, and a trial of bus fleet associated to hydrogen fuel. The forty-four pages of hydrogen roadmap of South Australia reflects that it aims to attain total zero emissions by the year 2050 for establishing Adelaide as the first carbon-neutral city in the entire world. Such roadmap clearly provides the potential for production of hydrogen and export throughout Australia, thereby generating electricity through solar and wind, and storing the same as hydrogen transported overseas in the form of ammonia. Various critics have stated that attainment of hydrogen roadmap is not feasible for South Australia but the fact that Toyota and Hyundai have already committed to the first trials with CSIRO in Australia for powering fuel cell vehicles having hydrogen sourced from local ammonia in the year 2018, proves that such strategy is obviously feasible in nature.
Extent of possibility: Hydrogen can be attained from renewable sources of energy like solar energy, wind energy, etc through a procedure known as electrolysis. Additional electricity from the renewable generators can be used in an electrolyser to split fresh water into oxygen and hydrogen. Further, such hydrogen can be utilized in a hydrogen fuel cell to power various vehicles in South Australia and exported thereafter all around the globe (NETL, 2013).
In addition to South Australia, both South Korea and Japan are also few nations who aim to transform their economies to utilize hydrogen as an alternative source of zero-carbon emission. Since, South Australia is considered as the world-leading use of established trade routes, reputation, and use of renewables as a safe exporter of several fuels, it can become the best place to develop or establish such industry. Therefore, if the South Australian government moves now, it can lead the country towards a safe, clean, and the sustainable hydrogen economy. Moreover, the beauty of hydrogen is such that it can be produced by utilizing excess capacity of energy driven by renewables and thereafter, utilized in a broader range of business applications. Nonetheless, the abundant renewable targets and resources of South Australia lend itself to hydrogen solutions.
Further, the role of hydrogen as a vector of energy is gaining a major interest all over the world with the introduction of cheaper renewables. If Australia finds itself a way to export such renewable energy, South Australia can build on their gas and coal export businesses to maintain a role in the future as a regional superpower of energy export. In addition, with Australia’s abundance of wind, sun, and hydro, the country is ideally placed to transition away from depending on finite fossil fuels to renewable resources. These efficacies and plans in relation to the possibility of hydrogen roadmaps clearly specify the fact that the government for the benefit of the entire nation can undertake such measure.
Measuring success: The fact that South Australia has already committed to contribute $8.2 million to a bus fleet that is hydrogen-fuelled in nature proves the fact that the policy of hydrogen roadmap is possible for the government. Moreover, for such purpose, the State’s renewable technology fund of $150 million will be taken into consideration for co-investment in illustrating projects consisting of hydrogen use and production respectively. Besides, another $200 million future jobs fund will also facilitate in targeting the creation of jobs in the rising sector of hydrogen (IEA AFC IA, 2015).
Based on the vision of creating a roadmap, it has been decided that South Australia will motivate diversification of automotive industry along the supply chain to incorporate the uptake of hydrogen fuel cells technologies for heavy commercial fleets and passenger motor vehicles. With the help of such initiative, there is a high opportunity to minimize emissions of carbon by assisting developments of alternative technologies of fuel like hydrogen-fuelled vehicles, etc (Weeda, 2014). Moreover, this is the reason why Toyota and Hyundai have supported this initiative by already having a handful of vehicles that are hydrogen-powered in Australia for raising awareness in relation to the significance of hydrogen fuel. In addition to this, the brand of South Korea has also committed to selling the first hydrogen-powered cars produced in Australia to the public in 2018 (a yet to be named SUV that has attained more than twenty orders in the current scenario already). Nevertheless, based on the statement of Hyundai Australia’s COO (Chief Operating Officer), the measure of hydrogen roadmap can easily serve to be a visionary step towards a greener and cleaner future. However, the role of governments about driving the take-up of upcoming generation transport technologies is crucial in relation to such holistic measure to policymaking.
This is the reason why Siemens has supported such initiative and it has been provided by the government of South Australia that in the upcoming two years, commuters in Adelaide will become capable in riding on the first of a fleet of buses that are hydrogen-powered in nature with locally manufactured or produced fuel. Besides, within upcoming three years, the nation will surely possess the ability to export its first supplies of hydrogen produced by using various renewable assets of energy (Mansilla, 2013). Even if such approach will take few more years to attain proper outcomes, yet if bigger organizations like Siemens (international technology powerhouse that has stood for innovation, engineering excellence, reliability, and quality) have supported the notion of hydrogen roadmap, it surely is feasible in nature (Rabiei, 2012). The only requirement in this scenario is the prevalence of proper government policies and procedures so that the overall outcomes of such ideology can be effectively attained.
Action themes for attaining complete effectiveness: From the previously mentioned analysis, it has been ensured that attainment of hydrogen roadmap for South Australia is entirely feasible in nature. However, there are various action themes that must be duly considered by the government of Australia so that overall goals are easily attained (Suresh, 2013). Firstly, the country must assist early investments in hydrogen infrastructures and for such purpose, the government leadership and powers of the State must be procured to establish proper demand for hydrogen and thereafter, incentivize investments in the production of infrastructure. Furthermore, as mentioned earlier, co-investment in illustration projects must be a very crucial step in incentivizing eligible projects respectively (Giner Inc, 2013). Moreover, if investors are offered up-to-date data on the significance of hydrogen technology measures in the nation through Green Hydrogen Study, it will be more beneficial.
The second action theme for ensuring the feasibility of hydrogen roadmap in South Australia is the enhancement and promotion of attractiveness of head office places, distribution of equipment, etc. In relation to this, South Australia can offer intensive management cases for FDI in the hydrogen economy through Investment Attraction that is an agency having an effective record of accomplishment of assisting global companies to relocate and invest (Gahleitner, 2013). In addition, the supportive environment of South Australia can be promoted for business including lower labor expenses, reforms in tax and workers’ compensation, etc. Besides, international promotion of South Australia as an effective place of investment destination must shed light upon Adelaide’s international reputation as a liveable city supporting innovation (NREL, 2010).
The third action theme in relation to the feasibility of hydrogen roadmap in South Australia is the facilitation of powerful government-to-government interconnections, especially with Asia-Pacific trading partners who can play a crucial role in unlocking various export markets. Furthermore, they can also assist in attracting inbound investments in hydrogen infrastructure and illustrations of technologies that can, in turn, attract newer companies to South Australia (EVI, 2015). The next action theme in relation to South Australia is the assurance of a strong statutory framework for production, use, and storage of hydrogen. Moreover, South Australia’s statutory approach towards hydrogen is to offer predictable, fair, and trustworthy laws that can establish public trust in the capability of industry, its performance, and offers public safety on a whole. Besides, the compliance policy of South Australia is centered on the mitigation of harmful incidents, the effectiveness of industry, sustainability, and preservation of natural resources (Schiebahn et. al, 2015).
Overall, South Australia is in an effective position to develop hydrogen technologies with prior inputs from domestic innovators, industry, and academics owing to the present innovation ecosystem in the entire State. Therefore, facilitation of hydrogen roadmap in South Australia is possible in nature if such actions themes are adequately taken into account and support from companies like those that Siemens are regularly obtained.
Conclusion: Hydrogen is regarded not only the most plentiful element in the world but also the ultimate clean energy fuel. Moreover, in relation to South Australia, the establishment of hydrogen roadmap for transforming into a zero-emission nation is entirely feasible in nature, taking into account its competitive advantages in the industry of energy and resources. This is the reason why South Australia has already invested huge sums of money for such project and has obtained many appreciations from companies like Hyundai, Siemens, etc. Overall, South Australia clearly recognizes a rising opportunity in the upcoming tenure to accelerate the State’s transformation to a hydrogen economy so that it can attract the investment needed to establish a nation-leading hub for use, export, and production of hydrogen. Thereby, it must make use of the opportunity and ensure that the hydrogen roadmap is completed. It will be beneficial in all perspective to the region.
European Commission. (2011) White Paper: Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a Competitive and Resource Efficient Transport System. European Commission, Brussels.
EVI. (2015) Global EV Outlook 2015. Electric Vehicle Initiative, Paris.
Gahleitner, G. (2013) Hydrogen from renewable electricity: an international review of power-to-gas pilot plants for stationary applications. Hydrogen Energy. [online]. 38(5), pp. 2039-2061. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.12.010 [Accessed 24 April 2018]
Giner Inc. (2013) PEM electrolyser incorporating an advanced low-cost membrane, 2013 Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review Meeting. Giner Inc.
IEA AFC IA. (2015) International Status of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells Technology. IEA Advanced Fuel Cells Implementing Agreement Annex 23 - MCFC, Rome.
Mansilla, C. E. (2013) Economic Competitiveness of Off-peak Hydrogen Production Today - A European Comparison. Energy. [online]. pp. 996-1001. Available from: https://www.connaissancedesenergies.org/sites/default/files/pdf-pt-vue/technologyroadmaphydrogenandfuelcells.pdf [Accessed 24 April 2018]
NETL. (2013) Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies. National Research Council.
NREL. (2010) Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden
Rabiei, Z. (2012) Hydrogen management in refineries. Petroleum & Coal. [online]. 54(4), pp. 357-368. Available from: www.vurup.sk/petroleum-coal [Accessed 24 April 2018]
Suresh, B. (2013) Chemical Economics Handbook. IHS Chemical.
Schiebahn, S., Grube, T., Robinius, M., Tietze, V., Kumar,V. and Stolen, D. (2015)
Power to gas: Technological overview, systems analysis and economic assessment for a case study in Germany. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. [online]. 12(6),4285-4294. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.01.123 [Accessed 24 April 2018]
UK H2. (2017). Production and distribution. [online]. Available from: http://www.ukh2mobility.co.uk/the-project/production-and-distribution/ [Accessed 24 April 2018]
Weeda, M. (2014). Towards a Comprehensive Hydrogen Infrastructure for Fuel Cell Electric Cars in View of EU GHG Reduction Targets. Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transport (HIT).