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HVAC System Design Assignment: West Gate Tunnel

Question

Task:I required report which critically analyses the conceptual design phase of a systems engineering project. My project is " heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)".

The report is to analyse the following phases of the project:

  • Needs definition
  • Conceptual system design

To demonstrate your research skills and understanding, the report must draw upon relevant sources like journals, books or reputable trade publications in analysing the project. You must also present the case study in terms of the above two lifecycle phases and evaluate the proposed conceptual design against the identified needs / requirements.

Answer

Executive Summary
The aim of the discussed HVAC system design assignment is to offer an insight into the use of the HVAC system within the West Gate tunnel. Hence, the paper has discussed different aspects of the system and the tunnel. Insights into the challenges offered by the tunnels that are relevant to the health issues have been discussed. The performance and physical parameters along with the utilization and modelling of the system in the tunnel have also been discussed before summarizing the paper to state the vitality of the HVAC system into the West Gate tunnel.

Introduction
Development in the field of science & engineering has offered multiple benefits in different sectors of the day-to-day life of the commoners. One of the most prominent benefits that engineering have offered is the construction of roads, highways, tunnels and more. The development in the field of engineering has enabled the tunnel engineering to develop tunnels that are kilometers in length depending upon the needs. However, it has also amplified the threat to the human life and hence adequate security measures are deemed to be considered (Cucchi et al. 2016). One of the major threats is the excessiveness of the thermal heat and spoiled air quality inside the tunnels (Harris et al. 2018). To mitigate the threats several techniques have been developed and the most prominent of them is the HVAC. The HVAC system design assignment aims at discussing the conceptual design of the HVAC system in the tunnels. The overview of the system followed by the problem & mission definition along with the physical parameters and other crucial discussions have been made before summarizing the paper to conclude the paper with appropriate recommendations.

Overview of HVAC based Tunnel
HVAC abbreviated for Heating, Ventilation and air conditioning is the technology that is aimed at offering indoor & vehicular environment comfort (Afram and Janabi-Sharifi 2014). The technology in the discussion is based on the principle of mechanical engineering and pursues the laws of fluid mechanics, heat transfer and thermodynamics. However, the implementation of the discussed system is done by the civil and construction engineers. From small houses to large tunnels the discussed system is being installed to gain thermal comfort and suitable quality of the air. H in the subject's name stands for heating and represents the control of the healing done by it. V stands for ventilation and is aimed at replacing and exchanging the indoor air to control replenishment of the oxygen and removing of CO2 (Carbon dioxide), airborne bacteria, smoke, moisture and other air associated compounds (Lin et al. 2015). Different types of equipment and processes integrate together to offer an acceptable temperature and air quality. It is greatly helpful in houses however, it most prominence is evident at megastructures such as skyscrapers, large tunnels, mines and many other mega closed structure. Hence, it would be justified to state that the system in discussion is capable of offering great health safety in the areas where it is difficult to mitigate the impact of heat and harmful air. Therefore the report in the discussion has aimed at offering an insight into the HVAC system at West Gate tunnel.

Needs Identification
Problem Definition: Tunnels are developed to mitigate the distances and to achieve the discussed aim, the tunnels are often designed to be of Kilometers in length which consumes a lot of time to pass through it. West gate tunnel that has been considered as the subject of the HVAC system design assignment and is proposed to be of 5 KM in length which would take a considerable amount of time to pass through it (Davis 2018). However, several scholarly works show that while inside a tunnel an individual is exposed to many harmful gases such as CO2, NO2, CO, NOx and multiple others (Fang et al. 2016). Furthermore, the heat, moisture, smoke and others are also subjects that could be harmful to the passersby. Additionally, the discussed challenges amplify for the individuals who are or have a heart-related history (Malecha et al. 2017). Hence, it becomes of great prominence to counter the health challenges posed while inside of the tunnel. Hence, the proposed paper is aimed at discussing the technology that is capable of mitigating the threat posed by the tunnels and in the process makes tunnels desirable.

Mission Definition: The mission of the paper is to mitigate the threat posed by the tunnel while inside it. The discussed measure could be achieved by maintaining the air quality and balancing the heat inside of it. The discussed feat could be achieved with the assistance of technology. The technology that could assist in attaining the discussed measure is HVAC that is designed to balance the thermal needs and offer a high air quality. Hence, the paper's mission is to discuss the conceptual design of the HVAC system inside of the West Gate Tunnel that is in its development stage and could use the services of the discussed technology. To attain the discussed mission the HVAC system design assignment specific discussions have been performance and physical parameter of the system followed by the utilization requirement and environmental factor as sub-section of the discussed section.

Performance and Physical Parameters: HVAC systems are capable of consuming a large energy because of the multiple processes that are part of its basic objective. Hence, it would be of great need that the system is made energy efficient to save cost, energy and emission. To attain the discussed measure several measures could be adopted one of which is to develop an extended comfort zone that could offer savings over 40% (Kumar et al. 2016). The extended comfort zone is the techniques that aim at equipping technologies to support the HVAC system. As part of the employment, the zone accounts for the concepts such as the drier air with the assistance of desiccant dehumidification, installation of warmers and several others. Hence, the equipping of the discussed techniques and concepts are proposed to be part of the HVAC system (Sultan et al. 2015). Furthermore, it had also been aimed to test the performance of the HVAC system to ensure the quality of the output. The test will be subjected by COP (Coefficient of Performance) for the power efficiency and PMV (Predicted mean vote) that aims at identifying the comfort offered by the system (Deng et al. 2018). Hence, post analyzing the results of the discussed test the selection of the system would be made. Furthermore, other measures will also be adopted to ensure that the system is feasible in nature and will be able to attain the objective posed to it.

Utilization Requirement: The system is intended to offer the comfort of air quality and heat balance inside the tunnel of the West gate tunnel. The installation of the discussed system into the tunnel will enable the passerby to enjoy high-quality air without much of its toxic effect. Furthermore the circulation of fresh air will also offer ample oxygen and will also balance out the heat flow inside the tunnel (Midani, Subagia and Widiantara 2018). West gate tunnel is aimed at attracting a major traffic and at times it may be flooded with traffic and would ultimately lead to halting of the vehicles and at that dire situation, fresh air would play a major role in calming the people. Additionally, the system will offer a feeling of warmth in the cold seasons while in the hot season the fresh air would calm them down. Hence, the installation of the system inside the tunnel would be utilized with adequate efficiency and will offer a very vital and feasible environment for the passersby.

Environmental Factors: The proposed system as discussed in the sections above will be checked for the efficiency and comfort offered to the passerby with COP and PMV. Hence, an efficient system would offer sustainability and support to the environment (Schuster and Yan 2018). Furthermore, the system is also proposed to be supported by the extended comfort zone that will offer sustainability the environment because of the environment-friendly measures that are part of the zone. The installation of the warmer windows and ventilation will be done wherever it is feasible in nature. Finally, the aim of the system is to offer a suitable environment within the tunnel which will be tested by the PMV. The system will omit the harmful gases and heat from the tunnel to develop a sustainable environment within the tunnel (Wang et al. 2016). Another notable fact is that the West Gate tunnel is still in its development stage which offers the opportunity to the development team to assess and test the impact and support of the system to the tunnel which could be further modified to support the environment. Hence, the HVAC system design assignment justifies by stating that the discussed system is feasible in nature and is capable of supporting the environment with great accuracy. Furthermore, the conceptual design of the system and the tunnel also offers the opportunity to modify the system or tunnel or both to support the environmental factors.

Conceptual Design
Location of the Tunnel: One of the most anticipated projects of Australia and the state of Victoria is the West Gate tunnel that is in its development phase. It will offer a prominent advantage to the transportation and travel motives of the state. The discussed tunnel is aimed at offering upgrades to the existing road infrastructure of West Gate Freeway (Smith 2017). The freeway connects the Williamstown road and the M80. However, the most prominent advantage of the discussed project is that it will offer a 3-way lane under the Yarraville that is also aimed at establishing an elongated connection to the CityLink. The connection will be established through tunnels and as part of the project a bridge is also proposed that will move over the Maribyrnong River. The tunnels in development will redirect a fleet of 9300+ trucks from the residential zones of the inner west. It will enable them to establish a 24-hour ban at the inner west for the trucks and the tunnels will accommodate for all the traffic (Davis 2018). The toll road (tunnel) in the discussion will be 5 Km in the length and is being developed at a budget of $5.5 billion. The estimated completion of the project is 2022 that fast forwarded from the initial deadline of 2023 (Norman 2018). The selection of the project could be justified by the fact that redirecting a fleet of 9300 trucks to the truck would make the tunnels very busy and hence, it is of great prominence that the drivers of the trucks along with other passerby get a comfortable journey while inside the 5KM tunnel.

Modeling of the selected Option
A comprehensive set of the transient and 3D simulation is proposed for each of the safety requirements and the system functionality (Satyavada and Baldi 2016). 3D Navier Stokes equation for obtaining the flow fields of the transient that will equip a finite volume method. Furthermore, a turbulence model suitable to support the tunnel and the desired flow of nature will also be equipped for modeling. The tunnels should be developed to be radiation proof so that it could be compatible in nature with the system. Adequate opening for the gases that are combustible in nature should also be available to pave way for their exit. The initial structuring and designing of the HVAC system should also be designed to be compatible with the vibration and noise that would be produced while the tunnel is in use (Villarino, Villarino and Fernandez 2017). Another notable feature that the tunnel should offer is the development of the escape routes in such a manner that it could offer visibility. The discussed measures could be gained by use of the computer modeling and hence should be equipped as part of the process of installation of the HVAC system into the tunnel. Additional, tools and techniques could also be equipped in the installation process depending upon the need of the tunnel which could be identified post analysis of the tunnel in the discussion. The images below are the images of the HVAC system and the HVAC system in the tunnel which have been collected from the internet.

Functional Diagrams

HVAC System Design Assignment

HVAC System Design
(Source: Afram and Janabi-Sharifi 2014)

Conclusion
Hence, the paper in the discussion could be summarized to state that the tunnels are one of the most prominent needs of roadways however; they are not immune to challenges and could pose a significant threat. Hence, the HVAC system design assignment has identified the threat that tunnels could pose and how the HVAC system is capable of mitigating the threat in the discussion. Furthermore the paper has also offered an insight into different factors that need to be considered to ensure adequate use of the system in the tunnel to mitigate the threat posed by the tunnels. Hence, it can b concluded on the HVAC system design assignment that’s it would be justified to state that tunnels pose some threat that could be mitigated with the adequate use of the HVAC system.

References
Afram, A. and Janabi-Sharifi, F., 2014. Theory and applications of HVAC control systems–A review of model predictive control (MPC). Building and Environment, 72, pp.343-355.

Cucchi, G., Lusardi, A., Mostacci, D., Tositti, L., Tugnoli, F. and Vichi, S., 2016. Radiation protection issues in the excavation of road and railway tunnels, a preliminary assessment. Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, 171(9-10), pp.801-807.

Cucchi, G., Lusardi, A., Mostacci, D., Tositti, L., Tugnoli, F. and Vichi, S., 2016. Radiation protection issues in the excavation of road and railway tunnels, a preliminary assessment. Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, 171(9-10), pp.801-807.

Davis, D., 2018. Whether the West Gate Tunnel?. Planning News, 44(2), p.7.

Deng, Y., Feng, Z., Fang, J. and Cao, S.J., 2018. Impact of ventilation rates on indoor thermal comfort and energy efficiency of ground-source heat pump system. Sustainable Cities and Society, 37, pp.154-163.

Fang, Y., Fan, J., Kenneally, B. and Mooney, M., 2016. Airflow behavior and gas dispersion in the recirculation ventilation system of a twin-tunnel construction. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 58, pp.30-39.

Harris, P., Riley, E., Sainsbury, P., Kent, J. and Baum, F., 2018. Including health in environmental impact assessments of three mega transport projects in Sydney, Australia: A critical, institutional, analysis. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 68, pp.109-116.

Kumar, S., Mathur, J., Mathur, S., Singh, M.K. and Loftness, V., 2016. An adaptive approach to define thermal comfort zones on psychrometric chart for naturally ventilated buildings in composite climate of India. Building and Environment, 109, pp.135-153.

Kumar, S., Mathur, J., Mathur, S., Singh, M.K. and Loftness, V., 2016. An adaptive approach to define thermal comfort zones on psychrometric chart for naturally ventilated buildings in composite climate of India. Building and Environment, 109, pp.135-153.

Malecha, Z.M., Poliski, J. and Chorowski, M., 2017. Evaluation of the consequences of a cistern truck accident while transporting dangerous substances through a tunnel. Risk analysis, 37(12), pp.2475-2489.

Midiani, L.P.I., Subagia, I.W.A. and Widiantara, I.B.G., 2018, May. Characterized Temperature and Humidity for Classroom Comfort Zone in Bali. In Proceedings (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 248-251). Norman, B., 2017. Planning in the news. Planning News, 43(9), p.30.

Satyavada, H. and Baldi, S., 2016. An integrated control-oriented modelling for HVAC performance benchmarking. Journal of Building Engineering, 6, pp.262-273.

Schuster, D.A. and Yan, C., Trane International Inc, 2018. HVAC components having a variable speed drive with optimized power factor correction. U.S. Patent 9,973,129.

Smith, R., 2017. The west gate tunnel project should be downsized. Planning News, 43(4), p.26.

Sultan, M., El-Sharkawy, I.I., Miyazaki, T., Saha, B.B. and Koyama, S., 2015. An overview of solid desiccant dehumidification and air conditioning systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 46, pp.16-29.

Villarino, J.I., Villarino, A. and Fernández, F.Á., 2017. Experimental and modelling analysis of an office building HVAC system based in a ground-coupled heat pump and radiant floor. Applied energy, 190, pp.1020-1028.

Wang, C., Yan, D., Sun, H. and Jiang, Y., 2016. A generalized probabilistic formula relating occupant behavior to environmental conditions. Building and Environment, 95, pp.53-62.

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