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Human Resource Management: Literature Review on 5 Articles


Task: You are required to compile a ‘Reviewing the Literature’ of 5 peer-reviewed journal articles.
Step 1. Select one of the options for Essay 3.
Read the Assessment 3 Essay options and identify which one you will work on for
assessment 2 and 3.
Step 2. Undertake research of the recent academic literature since 2010.
Identify five (5) academic peer reviewed journal articles relevant to the
Assessment 3 Essay topic. These must be aligned to the unit themes from Weeks
1 to 5 (e.g. evolution of SHRM, the context of HRM, industrial relations, HR
planning and work design challenges in a global environment). It is recommended
that you undertake your research via the online ‘search’ of CQUniversity Library.
You cannot use the article from your Assessment 1 presentation for Assessment 2.
Step 3. Write 500 words on each article (500 x 5= 2500 words)
For each journal article, write to the headings in the template. These include:
• full reference
• outline of research objective and research question
• outline of the method
• discussion of the findings
• summary of the conclusions
• indication of how this will be relevant for your Essay 3.
Place each article on a new page.
Present your Reviewing the Literature in format provided in the template. For more
information, see the library guide for writing an annotated bibliography.


Article 1
Sarma, A., & Barua, P. (2018). Challenges of Human Resource Management in Hospitals and their probable solutions: A study based on review of literature. Journal of Management in Practice (Online Only), 3(1). 

Objective and research question: The primary objectives of the study include;

  • To evaluate some existing literature connected to Human Resource Management in hospitals
  • To identify challenges associated with the management of human resources in hospitals from the existing literature
  • To recommend some solutions which can enable overcoming of these challenges identified

In order to attain the above research objectives, the following research questions need to be attempted.

  • Explore some of the literature connected with Human Resource Management in hospitals.
  • What are the challenges associated with managing HR in hospitals mentioned in literature?
  • In what ways the identified challenges in Human Resource Management can be overcome?

Method: This article undertakes the evaluation of literature searches from several existing prominent literature to understand the underlying issues associated with HRM. The scope of this article undertakes a qualitative search of all the relevant issues connected with Human Resource Management to arrive at the findings of this study. There have been a total of 10 pieces of the literature identified based on secondary data from varied publications, websites, books, and other relevant online sources.

Findings and discussion: The scope of this article identifies the relevant challenges of Human Resource Management in hospitals by reviewing relevant literature. The key findings of this article are the shortage of skilled workforces, attrition of workforce, diversified workforces in hospitals, round the clock support, inadequate training, lack of proper networking amongst healthcare personnel, leadership challenges in healthcare organizations, the interface between management and workers, negative job attitudes of employees and lack of motivation, and inappropriate evaluation of performance in hospitals. The rapid expansion of healthcare facilities with dynamic transformation has led to an acute shortage of skills and a lack of diversified workforce amongst healthcare staff across healthcare centers, nursing homes, and hospitals. The article suggests that this problem can be easily be overcome by staff forecasting. Attrition of workforce due to socioeconomic factors, policies, infrastructure facilities, lack of motivation has created another pertinent challenge. Incorporation of talent management practices and retention techniques can assist in controlling attrition. Often healthcare workers need to provide service over a 24 hours basis, this can lead to decreased productivity. A well-designed work-schedule can enable overcoming this challenge. There is inadequate training rendered to healthcare staffs hence regular re-orientation courses can assist in overcoming this problem. Healthcare staffs are not able to network with one another appropriately, implementing the Public Health Resource Network can assist in addressing this challenge. Healthcare organizations need to implement appropriate leadership programs for employees and potential leaders for guiding the organization members appropriately. An interface between the management and workers needs to established as per the Ulrich model such that transformations can easily be adopted. Moreover, healthcare organizations need to adopt adequate and appropriate performance evaluation systems that can assist in making promotion decisions and adopt the career development of employees. 

Conclusion: Though managing human resources in healthcare organizations can be challenging in nature yet it is essential to invest in developing systems related to human resources. This will allow for the efficient delivery of healthcare services.

Contribution to my Essay: This article contributes to my essay by exploring the relevant training challenges that are facing in regard to human resources across the healthcare organization. The solution proposed in this article guides to finding suitable solutions for attending to the training challenges of human resources in healthcare organizations. 

Article 2
Prince, A. E., Cadigan, R. J., Whipple, W., & Davis, A. M. (2017). Membership recruitment and training in health care ethics committees: Results from a national pilot survey. AJOB empirical bioethics, 8(3), 161-169. DOI: 10.1080/23294515.2017.1338315.

Objective and research question: The scope of this study evaluates, the manner in which recruitment and training are conducted across health care ethics committees.

Method: This article has conducted a primary search of data for arriving at the results of the study. This research collected data in the form of a survey by examination of useful and appropriate literature with collaboration from the University of North Carolina's Health Care ethics committee members. There were interviews conducted to arrive at the study's findings as well.

Findings and Discussion: The findings of this study reflect that while appointing members at the HCEC committee, there is a certain amount of training and competencies needed. As these members are appointed from interdisciplinary teams, and then thos people are identified who possesses capabilitis to become competent consultants. Though there are no underlying principles that guides recruitment or appointment or a common procedure, yet there is present a strict procedure that enables formalised recruitment. The focus of hiring these new members was primarily focused upon training these employees. The HCEC leadership has the responsibility for selecting suitable candidates and balancing needs of the commiittee members.

Conclusion: The recruitment and training practices of the HCECs have some elements of differences that need to be considered while appointing candidates. This article reveals the professional and credentials as qualifications that potential recruits need to possess so as to be recruited.

Contribution to my Essay: This article provides a valuable contribution to my essay. It enables exploring the relevant areas that are considered while recruiting Health care ethics committees (HCECs) members. It provides crucial elements that need to be considered while fulfilling obligations and appointing members of the ethics committee.

Article 3
Tucker, C. M., Smith, T. M., Hogan, M. L., Banzhaf, M., Molina, N., & Rodríguez, B. (2018). Current Demographics and Roles of Florida Community Health Workers: Implications for Future Recruitment and Training. Journal of community health, 43(3), 552-559. DOI: 10.1007/s10900-017-0451-3.

Objective and research question: The article discusses the underrepresentation community in the health care sector. Thus the objective of the author is to provide descriptive information on health workers in the community of Florida. The author discusses that community health workers are one of the valuable resources in accessing the quality treatment of health care. Hence the author provides recommendations for expanding the roles of community health workers in research intervention.

Research Question: Howcommunity health care workers are recruited in Florida?

Method: Tucker et al (2018) have used primary research for addressing the objective of his research. The research was conducted on primary participants of 396 workers that constituted 85.1% female and 75.5%, males.

Findings and discussion: In the reports of Tucker et al (2018), it was revealed health workers from many religions and communities were underrepresented in the health care sector. Tucker et al (2018) conducted research on 396 adult participants in which 85.1% were females while male participants constituted approximately 75.5% in the Florida Community Health Workers Census. All the participants were recruited through email and telecommunications, the survey revealed that many health workers were underrepresented among the different communities of Hispanic, Latino, Central American, Dominican, Honduran, and others. Thus, it could be said that cultural and community disparity poses challenges in the recruitment of the employees in the health care sector. These health care workers also reported that they had acquired knowledge through on the job experience, attending conference and shadowing. They did not acquire expertise through the certification programs, mentoring and leadership training. The author also discusses that health workers were interested in formal and educational opportunities to enhance their skills and competencies. This identifies workers should be recruited on the basis of their talents. Organizations should conduct recruitment involving all the communities in the region. This helps in uplifting all the social structures while providing the best talents to the health care units.

Conclusion: The author has identified that community underrepresentation is a major defect in the recruitment process of Florida health care workers. The article also discussed that many of the interest employees are not provided proper training that can enhance their performance. It was also found that many of the workers that are affected by health disparities are not properly presented amongst the community health workers. Thus, the author suggests actions should be taken to improve the recruitment and training of the health workers in Florida.

Contribution to my Essay: This article reveals the challenges in recruitment and training of the health care sector in Florida. Thus, in my essay, the challenges can define in detail by this article. This article also gives insight into community representation in the health care sector. Thus, in my essay, recommendations on the community representation can be provided to reduce such challenges.

Article 4:
Reference: Harrison, J., & Dawson, L. (2016). Occupational health: meeting the challenges of the next 20 years. Safety and health at work, 7(2), 143-149. DOI: 10.1016/

Objective and research questions: In this article, the challenges of occupational health, concerning the Human Resource Management practices are discussed. Harrison and Dawson (2016) aim to achieve recruitment challenges in occupational health. The author reveals that workers are often exposed to health diseases during their work hours. Thus, strategic analysis in occupational health will help in recruiting qualified and experienced practitioners that are capable of overcoming the work health hazards. The purpose of the study is to address the occupational challenges of working hazards concerning Human Resource Management practices in health care organizations. 

Research Question: What are the recrutiment strategy that allows healthcare workers to cope with challenges of occuptional health?

Method: The author has used a literature review as a method. Thus, secondary data collection has been used to prepare this report. Secondary data are less time consuming and helps to analyze the past and present literature. This further helps in developing new research problems related to developed thesis thereby solves many issues of the real world.

Findings and discussion: In this report it was discussed that the concept of occupational health came into existence from the 20th century. A health paradigm was developed that discussed focus on health risk management. To cope with working challenges in health care, Human Resource Management practices needed to improve. Thus, workforce planning can review the competence and capacity of the occupational employee. In the developed and developing nations, the mental illness of the employee is resultant of low income and social strata. Thus, workplace setting is the key factor in increasing the incidence of mental sickness. In this regard, WHO and ILO launched basic occupational health services providing occupational health to workforces in the health care sector. It can be said that the author focuses on the health of the workforce while aims to improve the working condition through organizational changes like Human Resource Management.

Conclusion: According to Harrison and Dawson (2016), the development of human resources involves three major components that are planning, production and management. Thus, planning refers to the number of workers required, production includes the supply of employees through training while management is related to the recruitment and retention of the workforce. It can be said that strategic analysis will help in Occupational health models, competencies for occupational health and skill mix of workforce required. This will further help in reducing the challenges of hiring qualified occupational health care personnel. 

Therefore, it can be said that the introduction of new Human Resource Management practices can help the workforce in improving their health conditions which further improves the work performance of the health care industry. The author has researched a topic that should be addressed by the organizations. Training and recruitment of the workforce can reduce occupational accidents in health care organizations. In the health care sectors, the Human Resource Management has restructured in alignment with changing organizational, technological and social needs.

Contribution: This article will provide insights into the Human Resource Management practices that are required for coping with the occupational health of the workforce. Thus, this article is a great resource for my essay. In alignment with this article, we can propose a set of Human Resource Management practices to meet the health needs of the workforce.

Article 5:
Manimaran, A., & Kumar, S. S. (2016). Human Resource Management in the Healthcare Industry–A Literature Review. Journal of Human Resource Management, 4(6), 124-128. DOI: 10.11648/j.jhrm.20160406.14.

Objective and research question: In this article, the author aims to address various issues in the health care industry especially with context to India. In various countries and organizations, health care professionals often face difficulty due to the preference of private health care over the public. In regions like India, people often prefer private-sector health care for better medical service. The government has been spending a huge amount of money but public sector health services are low due to the lack of proper HRM in these organizations.

Research Question: What are the challenges faced in the domain of Human Resource Management in the healthcare industry?

Method: The author has selected secondary methods that are a literature review for conducting research. Owing to the benefits of secondary research, the author has collected information through magazines, journals, the internet and various books on Human Resource Management.

Findings and discussion: In the works of Manimaran and Kumar (2016) another recruitment challenge was addressed. It is noticed that in the health care sector of India, private health care is more preferred that the public. This raises conflict among the professional that work in enormous fields of health care. The conflict further raises variation in the remuneration, morale and employment benefits of the workforce. Manimaran and Kumar (2016) suggest that research should be undertaken, realistic theoretical models should be developed for addressing HRM practices in the Health care industry. The author discusses the basic HRM practices involve recruitment, hiring and retention of the professionals The health care issues that are impacted by the Human Resource Management are different in various regions of the world. In this regard, the articles discuss that health managers participate in the perceptions of organizational support like rewards and recognition. Human Resource Management managers often face difficulty in recruiting health professionals due to the economic factor. The employees do not get incentives for hard work thus are demotivated. The author explains major challenges in health care that are change management, reward- recognition, leadership development, performance and management appraisal, staffing challenges. Leadership development can be improved through the planning of effective training programs in health care units. This helps to shape decision-making skills and other interpersonal skills of the workforce. The health care units are not profitable organizations thus rewards and recognitions are essential for boosting the morale of the employees. The most critical challenge is staffing thus, due to low salary structure inefficient HRM contributes to high attrition rates. Thus, Human Resource Management should be restructured in the developing regions of India to meet the staffing challenges that will further raise the overall service of the health care sector.

Conclusion: The challenges in HRM practices in the developing regions has been discussed. The article is based on secondary research due to which limitations of the article remains. The author suggests the real world and dynamic Human Resource Management models should be restructured for developing nations.

Contribution: This article is another perfect fit for addressing challenges that relate to recruitment, retention and workforce issues in the health care sector. This article will provide greater insights into Human Resource Management and thus helping us to understand the importance of HRM in every organization. 


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