Human Resource Management Assignment Detailed Overview on HRM&D
Task: Human Resource Management Assignment Instructions: Study the three articles:
Kaufman, B.E. (Ed.). 2014. The development of HRM across nations: history and its lessons for international and comparative HRM. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/298095833_The_development_of_human_resource _management_across_nations_Unity_and_diversity Date of access: 22 July 2021.
Pietersen, C. 2018. Research trends in the South African Journal of Human Resource Management. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 16(0):a825.
Richman, N. 2016. Human resource management and human resource development: evolution and contributions. Creighton Journal of Interdisciplinary Leadership. 1(2):120-129. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17062:CJIL.v1i2.19
Human resource management assignment questions (do not use question as a heading – rephrase the questions in a heading!!)
1. Describe the purpose of each article and compare with each other.
2. Compare the definitions on HRM&D found in the three articles and conclude by writing your own definition.
3. Analyse the history of HRM&D found in the three articles in your own words.
4. Kaufman (2014) discusses the fields of international and comparative HRM&D. Critically discuss these fields.
5. Evaluate the HRM&D perspectives found in each article.
Chapter 1: Introduction
According to the research on human resource management assignment it is stated that HRM is a holistic and coherent approach to the management of people, which is essential for the organisations around the world to develop potential organisational structure, effective organisational system, and supportive individual attitudes. Generally, HRM&D is determined as management of skill development process of human resources in the organisations. Major objective of this assignment is to provide an in-detailed overview on HRM&D. The definition, history, important fields, and different important perspectives of HRM&D are analysed and discussed in this assignment. In order to analyse and discuss the definition, history, important fields, and different important perspectives of HRM&D in this assignment, three peer-reviewed research articles have been selected. Three articles of Bruce E. Kaufman, Nicole Richman, and Charlotte Pietersen on HRM&D have been selected respectively to understand each and every aspect of HRM&D. Different important perspectives of Bruce E. Kaufman, Nicole Richman, and Charlotte Pietersen on HRM&D are analysed in this assignment.
Chapter 2: Research Purpose
Three selected research articles have three different purposes. First of all, the purpose of article written by Bruce E. Kaufman is to share knowledge on human resource management by discussing the history of HRM, analysing new evidence of international and comparative HRM, and evaluating CHRM-HRM theoretical frameworks. Secondly, the purpose of the article written by Nicole Richman is to understand the history, evolution, purpose, and value of HRM&D. Thirdly, the purpose of the article written by Charlotte Pietersen is to give a typological overview of research trends in the area of HRM, especially in the South African Journal of HRM Publications.
Chapter 3: Definition of HRM&D
Bruce E. Kaufman, Nicole Richman, and Charlotte Pietersen have developed three different definitions of HRM&D in their research articles. According to Kaufman (2014), HRM is defined as the synchronization and utilisation of people and labour input for the manufacturing of goods and offering of services in all types of organisations in all types of economies. According to Richman (2016), HRM is defined as the process of management of the talents of employees in the workplaces to achieve organisational goals. Richman also has defined HRD as a bunch of activities, which ensure learning opportunities and positive behavioural changes for employees. According to Pieterson (2018), HRM is not only an important organisational resource, but also an inside/outside approach through which the influence of stakeholders and external environmental factors are easily identified.
In terms of comparison, it is easily determined that the definition of HRM&D given by Charlotte Pietersen is slightly different between the definitions of HRM&D given by Bruce E. Kaufman and Nicole Richman in their articles. Bruce E. Kaufman and Nicole Richman have very clearly mentioned in their definitions that the development activities related to skill management aspects of employees in the workplace can be determined as HRM&D. On the other hand, Charlotte Pietersen has mentioned in the definition that the understanding of influence of important stakeholders as well as external environmental factors is also important apart from the development activities of talent management of employees in the workplace (Poor et al., 2018). Chapter 4: The History of HRM&D
According to Kaufman (2014), the historical agenda of HRM&D was to enhance labour management practices in different industries. In different countries, it was evident that some industries badly affected due to poor labour management, protest of trade unions, strikes, bargaining, and labour movements. In order to overcome these challenges, the owners and management bodies of the organisations started to take labour management practices very seriously through which the industrial relations between employees and management improved (Shahriari and Hassanpoor, 2019). This is the historical origin of HRM&D.
According to Richman (2016), it is identified that HRM&D activities started to appear in the United States of America during the time of industrial revolution. During this point of time, the concept of HRM&D emerged by taking care of human development activities. Slowly and gradually, the companies started to take care of physiological needs, psychological needs, and social needs of employees to overcome the labour management issues. Apart from basic human development needs, the companies also started to take care of skill development activities for the human resources (Charms and García-Blandón, 2019). These approaches collectively evolved as HRM&D.
According to Pietersen (2018), previously the authors and scholars were engaged in theoretical and conceptual research activities to understand the viewpoints of HRM&D. Slowly and gradually, the concepts evolved. Now-a-days, authors and scholars have started to test, describe, and explain the hypothesis related to the contemporary HRM&D activities in order to accept or reject the created hypothesis (Amrutha and Geetha, 2020).
Chapter 5: Fields of International and Comparative HRM&D
Bruce E. Kaufman has discussed some important fields of the international and comparative HRM&D in his research article. According to his claims, field of HRM&D deals with management approaches of a company towards the employees, motivational aspects of the employees in the workplace, treatment of employees by the management in the workplace, and relationship between employees and management. All of these aspects related to international and comparative HRM&D are discussed below with respect to the facts collected from the research article.
5.1 HRM&D and Management
In terms of research on international and comparative aspects of HRM&D, Kaufman has analysed that the multinational companies have started to expand their business network in different countries. It is the responsibility of the management of the organisations to understand the socio-cultural norms of the host countries while doing business. This integration of cross-cultural diversity can help the organisations to maintain a conflict-free and friendly workplace environment in different countries, which can ensure positive HRM&D in the organisations.
5.2 HRM&D and Motivation
Bruce E. Kaufman has acknowledged in his research article that employees are the major growth drivers of a company. Since industrial revolution, the skill level and performance level of employees decides good business output of the industries. Therefore, Kaufman has indicated in his research article that the employees need to be motivated to perform well. According to Kaufman, it is the responsibility of the management professionals to ensure all kinds of motivational elements for employees like training sessions, compensation management, and cross-cultural diversity in workplace to motivate them and improve their performance level.
5.3 Treatment of People in Organisations
Bruce E. Kaufman also has discussed in the article that effective treatment of employees in the organisations ensures positive HRM&D. According to Kaufman, high value and respect towards the employees of different cultural and national backgrounds can help in managing the employees adequately. This is necessary for maintaining a multicultural workforce in different countries, which can ensure positive HRM&D (Brewster and Hegewisch, 2017).
5.4 Employment Relationships
Bruce E. Kaufman has indicated in his research article that the organisations in this contemporary era are trying to establish a strong employment relationship with the staffs of different cultural backgrounds. Possibilities of language barriers and socio-cultural barriers in the workplace are prohibited through the consideration of effective employee-management relationship. This is an important aspect for any organisation to enhance positive HRM&D (Hameed, 2017).
Chapter 6: Perspectives on HRM&D
Bruce E. Kaufman, Nicole Richman, and Charlotte Pietersen have highlighted different important perspectives on HRM&D in their research articles. The important perspectives of all of these three authors on HRM&D are analysed and discussed below.
6.1 Kaufman’s (2014) Perspectives
Bruce E. Kaufman has discussed three important perspectives on HRM&D in his research article, such as history of HRM, new evidence of international and comparative HRM, and CHRM-HRM theoretical frameworks.
6.1.1: History of HRM
According to Kaufman (2014), the historical agenda of HRM&D was to improve the performance of employees through effective employee management practices in different industries. In different countries, it was identified that some industries were badly affected due to poor labour management practices, strong protest of trade unions, strikes, bargaining, and rising labour movements. In order to overcome these challenges, the owners and management bodies of the organisations in that particular era started to take sustainable employee management practices very seriously by which the industrial relations between management and employees improved (mat and Barrett, 2017).
6.1.2: International and Comparative HRM
According to Kaufman (2014), HRM&D is evolving decades after decades. Previously, it was only limited to effective and sustainable labour management practices during the period of industrial revolutions in the United States of America. Now, this particular aspect has been modernised and evolved due to globalisation as organisations are expanding their boundaries in different international markets. Therefore, the companies are facing socio-cultural challenges, organisational cultural challenges, and language barriers. These are affecting the performance of the firms (Wagner, 2020). In order to improve competitive advantages, the contemporary firms are adopting cross-cultural diversity in business operation activities in international market to enhance HRM&D in more successful ways.
6.1.3: CHRM-HRM Theoretical Frameworks
According to Kaufman (2014), huge efforts and talents are being invested in the development of HRM theories. Kaufman has described that the field of HRM&D is lacking of well-accepted integrative theoretical framework. The author also has discussed that the contemporary firms are using mixture of commitment and control methods in a traditional way to develop CHRM-HRM Theory on employee management, which will be beneficial in this field of HRM&D.
6.2 Richman’s (2016) Perspectives
Nicole Richman has discussed three important perspectives on HRM&D. These are History and Evolution of HRM&D, Purpose and Value of HRM&D, and Issues facing Human Resources.
6.2.1: History and Evolution of HRM&D
According to Richman (2016), HRM&D activities were first identified during the time of industrial revolution. During this point of American Industrial Revolution, the concept of HRM&D emerged by taking care of human development activities. Slowly and gradually, the companies started to take care of management of the firms understood that focusing on physiological needs, psychological needs, and social needs of employees are necessary to overcome the labour management issues (Khan et al., 2017).
Apart from these basic human development needs, the companies also started to take care of skill development activities for the human resources. These approaches collectively evolved as HRM&D.
6.2.2: Purpose and Value of HRM&D
According to Richman (2014), major purpose and value of HRM&D is to take care of the skill development process of employees in the workplaces. Apart from these, positive behavioural traits and attitudes also can be developed within the employees through the sincere consideration of HRM&D.
6.2.3: Issues facing Human Resources
According to Richman (2014), human protection issues are considered as the major issues for human resources. For example, natural disasters, different environmental impediments, terrorism, financial burdens, and strict regulations are considered as major issues for human resources.
6.3 Pietersen’s (2018) Perspectives
Charlotte Pietersen has discussed three important perspectives on HRM&D. These are History and Evolution of HRM&D, Purpose and Value of HRM&D, and Issues facing Human Resources.
6.3.1: History and Evolution of HRM&D
According to Pietersen (2018), the authors and scholars of past decades were engaged in theoretical and conceptual research activities to make readers realise the viewpoints of HRM&D. Now, the concepts are evolved drastically. The contemporary authors and scholars have started to test, describe, and explain the hypothesis related to the contemporary HRM&D activities in order to accept or reject the created hypothesis.
6.3.2: Real Solutions to Contemporary HRM&D Problems
According to Pietersen (2018), some of the contemporary firms are facing some unique and critical problems, which were not faced by past organisations. Therefore, development of hypothesis and testing are important to launch realistic solutions to different contemporary HRM&D solutions.
6.3.3: Practical and Managerial Implications of Study on HRM&D
According to Pieterson (2018), there are gaps between the academic HRM&D concept and practical HRM&D findings. Hence, development and hypothesis of testing is important to enhance action research and knowledge generation in authors and future professionals in this field of HRM&D.
Chapter 7: Conclusion
From the review of all the three articles, it is clearly identified that HRM&D is an important managerial aspects throughout the years. The concept of HRM&D was first drawn during the industrial revolution in the United States of America. Slowly and gradually, it evolved into new theories, new concepts, and new hypothesis as dynamics of global business has changed due to globalisation and business competition in global market. New companies are facing different unique and complex challenges, which are evolving on daily basis. Hence, these three research articles will surely help the future professionals, scholars, and authors in knowledge development activities on HRM&D.
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Hameed, R., 2017. Human Resource Management and Development: A Case Study of Management Training in Malaysia. In The Changing Patterns of Human Resource Management (pp. 192-207). Routledge.
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Richman, N., 2016. Human resource management and human resource development: Evolution and contributions. Creighton Journal of Interdisciplinary Leadership, 1(2), pp.120-129.
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