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Human Resource Management Assignment: Impact Of Cultural differences On HR Practices


You are supposed to write a report on human resource management assignment illustrating the impact of cultural differences on HRM practices.


Executive Summary
The present report on human resource management assignment talks about human resource practices which are slowly and steadily becoming an integral part of every organization which aims to achieve Global Heights. The cultural diversity has somehow brought in contrasting and divergent functions in Human Resource practices. Irrespective of the cultural diversities, the multinational corporations are implementing these practices and gaining tremendous benefits. The essential inspiration driving the study is to appreciate the impact of culture on HRM practices relating to Japan and U.S. In order to achieve the advantages right now associations are focusing in on the HRM practices close by the HRM style and strategy.

HRM is a peculiar method to manage employment business which attempts to achieve an advantage through the key game plan of an incredibly committed and capable workforce. It uses the consolidated bunch of social, fundamental, and staff techniques. In this study, we are going to take three HR practices. We will analyse these practices in the light of theory. We have selected two countries namely United States and Japan to understand the cultural difference and its impact on HR practices. Under the selected three HR Practices we will analyse the different tendencies of different cultural under different practices. In different cultures, there are different HR practices. The purpose of this study developed in the human resource management assignment is to show the impact of cultural differences on HR practices. The Impact of culture on HRM practices is crucial considering the way that it chooses the technique for cooperating and manages the work. Subsequently, the study has focused on the social issue relating to HRM practices.

Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment and selection is a pattern of perceiving, screening, short listing, and utilizing conceivable resources for fixing off the unfilled circumstances in an affiliation. It is a core limit of Human Resource Management. While recruiting people from two countries Japan and U.S., the international HR managers must recognize the overall earnestness of the reasonable applicants at the time of the enrolling cycle. There are different cultures in both the countries. The workforce of a worldwide affiliation must aware of the nuances of the overall business.

Functions and critical reviews
In the recruitment and selection process, firms consider both headquarters' practices and those wide in the countries of its subsidiaries. Neighbourhood culture moreover has a great impact on enlistment and decision practices. Sometimes laws require a specific system while recruiting from other countries. In picking the worthy candidate, it is relied upon to make the balance between internal corporate consistency and affectability to local work practices.

The human resource management assignment examines that words of Suzuki et al (2019) that recruitment desires not only intercultural-delicate recruitment but also the language-fragile as a critical part of intra-legitimate data sharing. Suzuki et al (2019) also suggests that local agents with intercultural wellness can improve assistant execution through data bestowing to parent firms if they are given capable training while recruiting. It is basic to understand the IHRM frameworks used by the MNCs so proper and convincing overall recruitment and selection systems can be confined for the affiliation selection of Japan and Australia. With the industrious improvement of the work market, increase in globalization and mechanical movement and progression in different countries close by progress in media transmission workplaces and techniques for transportation, the affiliation at present are looking for the overall business.

What is the impact of cultural differences discussed within the human resource management assignment?
The cultural differences in affiliation have influenced distinctive HR practices. It has moreover provoked deficient correspondence, conflicts, and confusion among HR and various workers.

The different cultural analyst has made on the idea out of culture like Hofstede, 1980. Hofstede's cultural measurement theory is a system for all-round coherence. It is originated by Geert Hofstede. It demonstrates the effects of a comprehensive people's lifestyle on the evaluations of its people, and how these properties present to lead, adopting a form got from determinant analysis (Hofstede, 2011).

The premise behind picking Hofstede's on cultural edges is being chosen out the grounds that he built up the structure for research on open cultural orders and his work is the most insinuated among various researchers who have achieved their work in a comparative field for instance of the national culture. Hofstede's disclosures suggest that the hiring cycle in a collectivist society considers in-get-togethers. It recommends that individuals from such social requests think about expert security as a noteworthy point of view at the workplace. Hofstede also supports this with the conflict that in collectivist social orders, the relationship among business and laborer in an affiliation resembles the relationship in a family where there are shared duties of protections as an end-result of the immovability.

Example of Companies
In the latest decade, Japanese associations have been altogether reconsidering their utilizing practices and re-trying the ordinary capacity of the board system to deal with the changing money related condition. Sony Corporation is commonly insinuated as Sony is a multicultural mixture association in Japan. The company is headquartered in K?nan Minato, Tokyo, Japan. Its widened business is based on the devices, game, preoccupation, and money related organizations regions (Das, 2013). The affiliation is one of the primary creators of electronic things for the purchaser and master business parts.

The association conducts recruitment and selection measures every year to pick new candidates. The decision pattern of the organization includes 3 rounds. These rounds involve a written exam, technical interview, and lastly HR interview. The people who are selected would be acquired for the specific gathering round and HR round. In the HR round, the up-and-comers would be given the delayed consequence of the assurance cycle.

Amazon is an American electronic business and distributed computing affiliation arranged in Seattle, Washington. It was made on July 5, 1994, by Jeff Bezos. Amazon conducts various rounds to pick fresher’s in connection (Leonand Kuehn, 2014). The recruitment and selection process involves the following: composed round, web-based coding round, various specialized rounds, recruiting chief round, HR round.

It utilizes engineers and managers in gigantic numbers each year. Reliably there are in like manner innumerable segment level openings at Amazon. In any case, as a web retail association, Amazon's central community is the customer. Likewise, the brand enrolls people who fit in its work culture (Leon and Kuehn, 2014).

Impact of culture on HR practices
As discussed in the human resource management assignment, culture has a critical influence on human resource management that heads draws near and practices. In case the organization modifies its procedures to the social components, by then this would achieve extended agent obligation and can achieve cost sufficiency moreover. In Japan, HR impacts association culture and expect a key capacity in helping with ensuring an affiliation's cultural stays significant (Kooij et al., 2012).

The essential associations among culture and recruiting among both the countries are connected with employee’s interest, selection by HR. From an interesting point, culture is basically about the brand picture an association adventure. U.S. focuses on their culture adequately and publicizes their working condition to employees. This pulls in people who will thrive in the affiliation and repels people who may be all the more impressive working elsewhere. Another inspiration to HR to select around culture is that while work solicitations and requirements ceaselessly move, a describing typical for culture is that it remains steady despite progress. HR impacts association culture in a different way. In both the countries, HR develops a cycle where the employees regularly evaluate the affiliation's culture, and a while later works to make sense of what makes to intensify the culture's impact on the essential concern.

Training and Development
It is evident herein human resource management assignment, in Human Resource, training and development is a very vital enactment for the organization. It assists the firm to improve employee functioning and record its yield. The training and development involve evolving the expertise of the workforce, enhancing competence and aptitude, human resource efficacy, and imparting better perspectives and theories.

The surrounding in the large companies and Groups surpasses several revolutions. The training and development programs are enforced to cope with the evolving surroundings of the corporate. Since human resources will be unable to satisfy every expert requirement of the corporate as they emerge.

  • Reinforce morals, knowledge, cognizance, and pliability
  • Maintains development specifications for the firm
  • Facilitates the human resource manager in expertise appraisal of employees
  • Enhanced execution of organizational rules and regulation
  • Simulates development and learning skills within the workforce
  • Imparts the basic skills and efficiency which the employees lack
  • Employees become uniform and develop problem-solving skills which reduce employee turnover
  • Human resources are utilized most conducive to the best possible outcome

Critical review
The activities of training and development do not come to an end unless there are some optimistic modifications in the functioning of the employees. To manage the emerging challenges and encounter diversity and complicated behaviour in the organization, Human Resource is essential. The capability enhancement, skill and competency development, and problem-solving must be results to bring value in the money invested by the owners.

Torraco (2016) reveals the fact that the development in the domain of human resources was initiated decades ago with the blooming of training and development programs. According to Churchill (2018), training and development will help in improving the performances and skills resulting in enhance functioning.

Impact of cultural differences
The cultural framework between diverse countries can be better comprehended through to Global Leadership and Organisational Behaviour Effectiveness (GLOBE). The theory was contrived by Robert J. House in 1991. The GLOBE Theory without involving any intermediary has 170 ‘country co-investors’. This theory outlined in this segment of human resource management assignment provides the executive new perspective for an enhanced apprehension about functioning in an international abode (Mishra, 2016).

The Globe Theory unveiled 9 diverse cultural aspects. Among the nine cultural dimensions, seven of them are much the same as those in Hofstadter’s cultural dimension. The nine dimensions are (1) unreliability abstinence (2) power gap (3) long-term intentions (4) self-assured intentions or manliness (5) gender egalitarianism or feminism (6) conventional (7) societal communism (8) functioning intentions (9) compassionate intentions.

As done in Hofstede, the GLOBE Theory has also classified countries into clusters having indistinguishable cultural features. The clusters in the theory depict societies with indistinguishable cultural contours enabling the modifications in the international platforms easier.

The United States is clustered under the head of Anglo whereas Japan is categorized under the head of Confucian Asian countries. Comparing the cultural differences and impact upon the United States and America will reveal the proclivity for a particular leadership approach that is compatible with the cultural perspective focused on their respective clusters.

The leadership approach followed by the United States discussed in the human resource management assignment is highly captivating whereas Japan inculcates a relatively less hypnotic leadership technique. The attention paid in collaboration and cooperation among employees is mediocre in the United States but ranges from medium to high in Japan. The leadership in the United States depicts less self-protect but Japan incorporates high self-protectiveness. The Americans are highly sympathetic however Japan ranges from medium to high in case of leniency. The American leadership style includes higher participation whereas Japan has relatively very less participation. However, a similarity can be found between America and Japan in terms of self-governance and sovereignty.

Examples from Companies
Walmart is the largest company in the world in terms of revenue, was first opened in 1962 (McGee, 2018). It is an American multinational retail company that acknowledging the company’s human resource competence for universal enlargement. The global expansion of the company determines the requirements for the training and development of the workforce. The employee training and development needs analysis in Walmart is broken down into three stages.

  1. Work/Task
  2. Cost-benefit
  3. Organizational

The work analysis apprehends the particular expertise and skills required for a specific job. Cost-benefit analysis assists in determining the type of training with the least expenses and maximum benefits. Organizational analysis recognizes emanating management issues that require modifications. The development program in Walmart is addressed to identify issues and resolve them through human resource programs (Song, 2018).

Mitsubishi Corporation is Japan’s largest multinational Trading Company established in 1870. The company considers its people as its greatest assets. The company with the Global workforce of 90,000 is determined for an in-detailed enhancement of a secure moral compass, developed perception, and its implication (Kobayashi, 2020).

The training program initiatives with furnishing employees with fundamental business, transmission, systematic and regulation knowledge are to be done. The new employees are inculcated with the knowledge and skills required by working professionals. The business basic skill and advanced skill program must be covered by employees who are in the first three years in the company. Lastly, it is stated in this human resource management assignment that the employees in their first eight years of service and company are to undergo a Global trainee program to cope with the Global expanded business of the company.

Impact of culture on HR practices
The top executive in Japan has insights into corporate indebtedness to offer work, remuneration, and an assured future. The insights are targeting to influence the presumptions of the employees and preparing the workforce for a minor adjustment which will ultimately decline the conventional Japanese employment structure. Considering the United States of America and equality to possibilities is offered to everyone unconcerned about the social status or origin. Americans are open-minded and accommodating to acknowledge new concepts and ideas.

Both the countries having a diversely accepted set of convictions are seemed to be benefited from the cultural impact upon human resource practices. The cultural impact upon the training and development varies from country to country due to the diverse culture across the globe. However, one basic similarity found in diversity is the mutual desire of Companies to develop and acquire a top-ranking Global Position. Due to the organizational culture, the employees of the organization are inclined to work more efficiently (Bondarouk 2017).

Rewarding and Compensation
Compensation would join rewards when the affiliation offers cash related portion, for instance, incentives, various bonuses, and execution rewards. Affiliations reward their staff when they achieve the targets or spotlights on that they have together set with the employees. Rewards can be non-budgetary, for instance, a paid trip for two.

Functions and Critical Review
To develop an international course of action of compensation and benefits, firms have two fundamental concerns. The first is similarity. A good compensation system disperses remunerations to delegates that are inside practically identical and genuine inside the business place. The international affiliation ought to in like manner consider the pay of people who may move from various territories. The second critical concern is cost. Affiliations fight to reduce all expenses, and money is one of the greatest.

According to the words of Bar-Isaac and Levy (2019) considered in this section of human resource management assignment, it is clear that the types of compensation and reward practices used by an affiliation expect a noteworthy capacity in motivating the employees to perform. This finally impacts the introduction of the affiliation. It moreover offers well that improper reward practices may bring about more awful than ordinary progressive execution.

Kim et al (2018) state that ousts compensation is seen as one of the most inconvenient issues in the segregate system, yet it is a noteworthy area of worldwide HRM since it can pull in and hold high skilled laborers, growing satisfaction and reducing turnover.

Impact of cultural differences
Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner have provided seven dimensions of diverse culture which has helped in enhancing the apprehension about culture. The model of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner was identified by 2 management Consultants and was issued in 1997 in a book named ‘Riding the Waves of Culture’. Similar to Hofstede and Globe's theory different dimensions are identified according to the cultural preferences. The seven dimensions are (1) universalism against particularism (2) individualism contrary to communitarians (3) Pacific opposite to diffuse (4) neutral at variance with emotional (5) achievement in defiance of ascription (6) Sequential time against synchronous time (7) inner directions contrary to external directions ("Expert Program Management", 2020).

It can be stated in this human resource management assignment that the United States of America and Japan differ widely in terms of cultural and communal approach. The United States follows a typical culture of individualism where praise and reward are allocated to two individuals. Whereas Japan strictly follows communitarians and believe that groups are better than the individual. Praise and rewards are also assigned to group performances. America allows personal liberty and procurement although Japan prioritizes groups as compared to individuals.

In the United States, the culture acknowledges performance irrespective of title. Achievements and victories are properly recognized and rewarded. However, in Japan, title and status matter. Here behavior is defined according to the status and position of the person.

The people of the United States follow sequential time and are punctual. Moving off track from the schedule is not appreciated in America. However, in Japan people adopt synchronous time and consider the past present, and future to be intertwined. People work on several projects at a time in Japan due to a lack of rigidity. In the United States, the deadlines are set to clear and are rigidly followed whereas in Japan flexibility is permitted.

The people of the United States follow sequential time and are punctual. Moving off track from the schedule is not appreciated in America. However, in Japan people adopt synchronous time and consider the past present, and future to be intertwined. People work on several projects at a time in Japan due to a lack of rigidity. In the United States, the deadlines are set to clear and are rigidly followed whereas in Japan flexibility is permitted.

Example of Companies
As demonstrated by an overview of the 200 most liberally repaid CEOs at the best open relationship of U.S., in 2012, J. Ellison was considered as the best-paid CEO, getting about $96.2 million compensation as a complete year. The least paid on a comparative outline is General Motors. It is owned by D.F. Akerson, who received $11.1 million. The normal public compensation for a non-regulatory U.S. expert was $51,200 in 2012, recommending that the ordinary of the dominant CEOs made on different occasions more than the standard non-authoritative worker in 2012 (Salazar & Raggiunti, 2016). Japanese CEOs paid less remuneration and pay when analyzed from America.

The CEO, Akio Toyoda, of the company Toyota (the world's most recognizable automaker), earned 184 million yen in the year 2012. There was a growth of 35% from the last year. He is considered as the least paid top automakers around the world and in 2012 drove Toyota to make the best yield among the significant five as a rule automaker. Toyota's viewpoint for creating a favoured position induced the automaker to help the best compensation for workers as of on-going years. Alan Mulally, the proprietor of Ford Motor Company get back $21 million of each 2012 and the best paid amid the fundamental five (Salazar & Raggiunti, 2016).

Impact of culture on human resource practices
The remuneration paid in connection to performance, the reduction in the management status, or eliminating workforce has brought a modification in Human Resource practices in Japan. However, these practices appeared to be moderate and gravitational. The practices are meticulously avoiding sudden or distressing interruptions with history. The Americans believe in appreciating people by rewarding them individually and encouraging them to work more dexterously. Japan is expected to spend more of the monetary resources for social and restoration pursuits than America. The rewarding procedure is different in both the companies as Japan supports group performances and America believes in individual work. However, the appreciation given to employees in the form of rewards brings a satisfactory increase in productivity.

Human resource practices have enlarged in recent times due to the noticeable importance of these practices which cannot be ignored. The human resource management assignment has displayed that human resource practices from place to place due to cultural manifoldness. The context of practices in one place might produce different outcomes due to the cultural frame of reference. The human resource practices namely recruitment and selection, training and development, rewarding, and compensation are analysed gravely to enlighten their effects.

The intertwined cultural influence upon the interchange ability of practices on the implication of International human resource management practices is discussed which provides an integral knowledge about it. The recruitment and selection procedure culminates that the ultimate plump for an ideal candidate is done after analysing several applicants. Training and development procedures have to be followed mandatorily for the achievement of long term goals. The employees must be appreciated and encouraged to work more efficiently by rewarding and compensating them.

Bar-Isaac, H., & Levy, R. (2019). Motivating Employees Through Career Paths. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Bondarouk, T. (2017). Electronic HRM in the Smart Era (The Changing Context of Managing People). Electronic HRM in the Smart Era, 1, i-xxvi. doi: 10.1108/978-1-78714-315-920161013

Churchill, R. (2018). Therole of employee training and development in achieving organisational objectives: A study of ACCRA Technical University. Human resource management assignment Archives Of Business Research, 6(2).

Das, B. (2013). Sony and Japanese Culture. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Expert Program Management. Expert Program Management. (2020). Retrieved 21 September 2020, from

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings In Psychology And Culture, 2(1).

Kim, K., Halliday, C., Zhao, Y., Wang, C., & Von Glinow, M. (2016). Rewarding Self-Initiated Expatriates: A Skills-Based Approach. Thunderbird International Business Review, 60(1), 89-104.

Kobayashi, K. (2020). Corporate History | Mitsubishi Corporation. Mitsubishi Corporation. Retrieved 22 September 2020, from

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LeonV.P., & Kuehn, A. (2014). Political Economy of Critical Internet Resources: South America vs. Amazon, Inc.: The Battle for Amazon (Economma political de Los Recursos critics de Internet: America del Sur vs Amazon, Inc.: La Batalla por la Amazon). SSRN Electronic Journal.

McGee, R. (2018). How Large is Walmart? A Comparison of Walmart Sales to Nationss GDP. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Mishra, G. (2016). Study of an extant of applicability of leadership theories in different culture clusters- An analysis through the lens of GLOBE Project. African Journal Of Business Management, 10(21), 522-528.

Salazar, A., & Raggiunti, J. (2016). Why Does Executive Greed Prevail in the United States and Canada but Not in Japan? The Pattern of Low CEO Pay and High Worker Welfare in Japanese Corporations. Human resource management assignment The American Journal Of Comparative Law, 64(3), 721-744.

Song, X. (2018). A Study on Management Model of Human Resources in Multinational Companies Based on Cultural Differences -- Taking Walmart as an example. Proceedings Of The 2018 International Conference On Sports, Arts, Education, And Management Engineering (SAEME 2018).

Suzuki, M., Ando, N., & Nishikawa, H. (2018). Recruitment of local human resources and its effect on foreign subsidiaries in Japan | Emerald Insight. Retrieved 21 September 2020, from

Torraco, R. (2016). Early History of the Fields of Practice of Training and Development and Organization Development. Advances In Developing Human Resources, 18(4), 439-453.


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