How can social psychology assignments strategies be used to determine asylum seeker rights?
Task: How can social psychology assignments strategies be used to determine asylum seeker rights?
As per research done on this social psychology assignment, Refugees are defined as people who meet the criteria for refugee status according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and asylum seekers are defined as those awaiting their claims to refugee status to be determined, but at times by criteria outlined by specific countries. Refugees and asylum seekers in Australia face discrimination in resettlement areas, including housing, education, neighbourhoods and health care access, with likely health consequences. This is a literature review on the issue of racism and discrimination towards refugees and asylum seekers in Australia.
This works also provides policy recommendations for combatting racism and discrimination against asylum seekers.
social psychology assignmentLiterature review
An individual who has escaped their nation of origin and applied for refugee status is an asylum seeker. A refugee is an individual outside their nation and can't or is reluctant to return because of a well-founded fear of persecution due to their: religion, race, political convictions, belonging to a specific social, and nationality (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2022). During the 2019-2020 financial year, Australia got 23,266 asylum claims from inside the nation and 70,621 cases from outside the country. In the 2019-20 financial year, Australia allowed refugee status to 14,993 individuals, either through protection granted to individuals who had requested shelter in Australia or through resettlement from different nations (Australian Red Cross, 2022). Refugees and asylum seekers in Australia experience discrimination in practice and law. They can encounter discrimination on a few of the prohibited grounds, most essentially race or ethnic beginning, religion and status.
"The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development", which was supported by all UN Member States in 2015, is a common guide for harmony and prosperity for individuals and the planet in the present and future. The "17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)" are at its core, and they are a pressing source of inspiration from all nations, developed and developing, in a worldwide coordinated effort Morton et al., (2017). social psychology assignmentresearch shows, discrimination of refugees and asylum seekers relates to the United Nations Sustainable Goal number 10. Goal ten is to minimize inequality inside and between nations by engaging all individuals to partake in social, political, and economic life, regardless of age, colour, religion, or other distinctions. Moreover, eliminating discriminatory practices, guidelines, and strategies is basic to guaranteeing equitable opportunities and decreasing outcome inequities.
According to literature accessed during this social psychology assignment research, discrimination is predominant in refugee, and asylum seeker resettlement encounters in Australia and abroad, particularly in employment, admittance to social services, and inside neighbourhoods. Besides, institutional bias is apparent in government strategy, especially concerning support limitations for individuals on temporary visas. In Australia, discrimination towards refugees and asylum seekers can take many forms, including:
• Prohibitive entry regulations restrict asylum seekers' and refugees' capacity to uninhibitedly leave their nations of origin, sabotaging the fundamental right to look for and get security from persecution. Policies regularly focus on specific classifications of asylum applicants based on race, ethnicity, or nationality to diminish refugee flows from explicit nations.
• Violent racist attacks against asylum seekers, refugees, and their communities, regularly with the implicit or complicity support of law enforcement faculty and with lacking measures to deal with the guilty parties (Human Rights Watch, n.d.).
• Asylum seekers are mistreated and detained in host nations. Detention is progressively being utilized to punish or discourage asylum seekers who come without fitting travel documents, frequently violating 'Article 31 of the 1951 Refugee Convention", which restricts the discipline of refugees who enter a region without authorization. Asylum seekers are once in a while held endlessly, now and then in regrettable circumstances, and frequently close by suspected or convicted criminals.
• Public officials' and politicians' use of discriminatory rhetoric, as well as the control of xenophobic apprehensions and anti-refugee feelings, habitually for transient political advantage.
• The media's discriminatory depiction of refugees and asylum seekers as criminals, "bogus," and scroungers, and the famous press' utilization of xenophobic anxieties to fuel anti-refugee perspectives Parker (2015).
• Economic and social discrimination against asylum seekers and refugees, incorporating access to education, employment, health care, housing, social welfare and other and other fundamental privileges
The trouble of exploring the educational system is difficult for refugees. As per the social psychology assignment findings, there is no complete national policy for the education of refugee youngsters and youths, and empirical assessment in the school setting has been restricted. Regardless of the way that a large percentage of refugee youngsters arrive in Australia with little or no formal education, there are no normalized mediations for these kids after they enter the Australian educational system, and youngsters' encounters will be very different among educators and schools. Despite earlier schooling experience, educational performance, and knowledge, most youngsters are set in age-fitting courses. This creates huge hindrances for students, especially those entering the educational system at more significant levels. At the point when refugee children's physical constraints and collaborations with peers disable their school performance, extra obstructions create. Trouble concentrating, memory issues, sadness, and tension are normal symptoms of traumatic situations. Learning challenges and scholarly accomplishments have been connected to emotional problems. Adult refugees have the same educational challenges. Refugees who enter the country through the humanitarian class are qualified for as long as 510 hours of English language guidance. However, those hours are limited, and an assortment of grassroots worker education and mentoring programs have jumped up to meet neglected language learning requirements. Adult refugees arriving in Australia face difficulties like admittance to advanced education and the absence of acknowledgement of foreign qualifications Murray et al., (2008).
The kind of discrimination faced by refugees in Australia is like that looked by others. It can occur in any part of public life, including housing, employment, services, access to other commodities, and facilities. Attack, harassment, and, surprisingly, physical attack are conceivable outcomes. The most recent refugees to arrive in Australia were, for the most part, from Iraq and Afghanistan, and they were generally Muslims. They, like other Muslim and Middle Eastern Australians, have confronted discrimination because of these variables Briskman (2015). Refugees have been especially helpless against assaults (vilification, harassment, and assaults in public places, especially against ladies wearing veils), not just because of an unjust response to the bombarding, yet in addition because of senior government pioneers' long-term demonization of refugees. Criminals, queue jumpers, health concerns, and looking to beguile and deceive immigration officials have all been blamed for boat migrants. The government's position toward these asylum seekers is reflected in discriminatory regulations. The standards might be discriminatory based on nationality and religion; however, they are discriminatory based on status, explicitly status as a refugee who arrived in Australia without paperwork to look for security. The people who enter the country with genuine visas, even if only for a 24-hour transit visa, and afterwards apply for asylum are permitted to stay free until their status is settled. The people who cross the seas without first getting authorization from Australian migration specialists should be held endlessly without the chance of a court hearing or release until their status is chosen and they are either deported or accepted. Boat people distinguished as certified refugees are simply qualified for a progression of impermanent residence cards, not a long-lasting settlement since legal modifications in 1999 and 2001. (Exile Council of Australia, 2022). The social psychology assignment also observed refugees who come here through true resettlement programs, then again, arrive as long-lasting inhabitants and future residents in the wake of being painstakingly picked by immigration authorities. Accordingly, boat individuals face discrimination because of their status, which violates human rights responsibilities. They are additionally punished for how they entered Australia's ward, which violates the "Refugee Convention". They have precluded admittance to numerous settlement projects and help as temporary security visa holders, including, most importantly, family reunification Sidoti (2002).
Following are the four recommendations for combatting racism and discrimination against asylum seekers made for this social psychology assignment
i. Assuming emblematic privileges to training are to be changed over into certifiable open doors, there is a "need for general educating strategy and subsidizing plan that perceives the intricacy of the various frameworks engaged with teaching refugee children." Refugee and asylum workers' youngsters can carry a distinct viewpoint to the study hall, which ought to be perceived by schools. To help simple transitions into employment and school for adult refugees arriving in Australia, steps should be taken to guarantee appropriate preparation or confirmation of past abilities and certificates. A few ideas have been recommended to assist with mitigating current disparities, including making preparing programs for specialist co-providers accessible. Agendas for arriving at fitting degrees of intercultural capability have been presented for associations that accept sufficient preparation is now set up. Videoconferencing and other current innovations might be utilized to prepare staff in progressively far off regions. This methodology has been embraced by various state emotional wellness programs and ought to become typical. Agencies, for example, "Foundation House, the Center for Multicultural Youth Issues", and transient asset habitats as of now give preparing training outcomes Murray et al., (2008).
ii. UNHCR field workers should attempt to forestall the circumstances that lead to such attacks by giving extraordinary consideration to casualties and guaranteeing sufficient legitimate development, which might incorporate preliminaries for thought suspected parties. Working on camp format or updating essential offices like lighting and fences, as well as empowering refugees and asylum workers to lay out night patrols, are deterrent recommendations.
iii. As per policies reviewed on the social psychology assignment, countries shouldn't forcibly return migrants to an area where they are at serious risk, nor would it be advisable for them they separate between refugee groups. They should guarantee that refugees and asylum seekers approach similar monetary and social freedoms as other unfamiliar occupants in the country of asylum. States should permit companion or ward kids to join individuals who have been conceded temporary protection or refuge for helpful grounds. At last, states should have an obligation to work with UNHCR (UNHCR, 2002).
Refugees and asylum seekers are the victims of racial discrimination, racism, xenophobia and related intolerance in Australia. Discrimination is predominant in refugee, and asylum seeker resettlement encounters in Australia and abroad, particularly in employment, admittance to social services, and inside neighbourhoods.Residents' fundamental human rights and substantial security are normally ensured by governments. This social psychology assignment also observed that they UNHCR's vital obligation in chasing after worldwide security should be to guarantee that countries know about their responsibilities to safeguard asylum seekers and refugees and that they follow those commitments.
Australian Human Rights Commission. (2022). Asylum seekers and refugees.social psychology assignment Retrieved from https://humanrights.gov.au/our-work/rights-and-freedoms/publications/asylum-seekers-and-refugees.
Australian Red Cross. (2022). Refugee and asylum seeker facts. Retrieved from https://www.redcross.org.au/act/help-refugees/refugee-facts/.
Briskman, L. (2015). The creeping blight of Islamophobia in Australia. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 4(3), 112-121. https://search.informit.org/doi/abs/10.3316/INFORMIT.252569944031353 Human Rights Watch. Protecting the Human Rights of Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Internally Displaced Persons. Retrieved 26 May 2022, from https://www.hrw.org/legacy/campaigns/race/refugee.htm.
MacDonald, F. (2017). Positioning young refugees in Australia: Media discourse and social exclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, social psychology assignment21(11), 1182-1195. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2017.1350324
Morton, S., Pencheon, D., & Squires, N. (2017). Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and their implementationA national global framework for health, development and equity needs a systems approach at every level. British medical bulletin, 1-10.https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldx031
Murray, K., Davidson, G., & Schweitzer, R. (2008). Psychological wellbeing of refugees resettling in Australia: A literature review prepared for the Australian Psychological Society. https://psychology.org.au/getmedia/73cf6347-82f2-4b2d-bb27-6ccc123f8bb8/refugee-literature-review.pdf
Murray, K., Davidson, G., & Schweitzer, R. (2008). Psychological wellbeing of refugees resettling in Australia: A literature review prepared for the Australian Psychological Society. https://psychology.org.au/getmedia/73cf6347-82f2-4b2d-bb27-6ccc123f8bb8/refugee-literature-review.pdf Onsando, G., & Billett, S. (2017). Refugee immigrants’ experiences of racism and racial discrimination at Australian TAFE institutes: a transformative psychosocial approach. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 69(3), 333-350. https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820.2017.1289552
Parker, S. (2015). 'Unwanted invaders': The representation of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK and Australian print media. ESharp, 23. social psychology assignmenthttps://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/79108/ Refugee Council of Australia. (2022). Australia's asylum policies. Retrieved from https://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/asylum-policies/. Sidoti, C. (2002). Without prejudice: discrimination and refugees. Human Rights Council of Australia. Retrieved from https://www.hrca.org.au/discrim%20and%20refugees.htm#:~:text=Asylum%20seekers%20and%20refugees %20in,and%20religion%20are%20clear%20enough.
UNHCR. (2002). Protecting Refugees: questions and answers. Retrieved from https://www.unhcr.org/publications/brochures/3b779dfe2/protecting-refugees-questions-answers.html.
Ziersch, A., Due, C., & Walsh, M. (2020). Discrimination: A health hazard for people from refugee and asylum-seeking backgrounds resettled in Australia. BMC Public Health, social psychology assignment20(1), 1-14. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-8068-3