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Healthcare Management Assignment On Case Study Of Kasturba Hospital


Task: Write a report critically analysing the case study of Kasturba Hospital Manipal.


1. Introduction
The concept of healthcare management explored in the healthcare management assignment relates to the practice of healthcare planning, developing effective organization structure and culture along with the creation and enforcement of policies in healthcare providing organizations (Krell, 2018). The major purpose of healthcare management is to enhance the quality of service delivery to patients in healthcare organizations. The present study discussed in the healthcare management assignment relates to the case study of Kasturba Hospital Manipal which is associated with Kasturba Medical College, a renowned private academic and research institute. The hospital is currently facing issues regarding a low awareness level of the health care professionals regarding the reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions. Moreover, the staff of the organization is characterized by a lack of knowledge regarding the reporting of adverse drug reactions that contributes to the lower level of voluntary reporting. Apart from that lack of cooperation among the clinicians is another major issue that has led to the present situation in the hospital. The present healthcare management assignment reflects on the makeup of the staff in Kasturba Hospital Manipal and identifies the distribution of power along with different levels of the organization. The two frameworks based on Boleman and Deal framework that are the human resource framework and symbolic framework are applied for taking actions for the mitigation of the issues identified in the hospital.

2. A discussion of the makeup of the staff, focusing on where power and influence sits
The different departments of the hospital are cardiology, oncology, neurology, dermatology, orthopaedics, gynaecology, paediatrics, ophthalmology, surgery, ENT and other support services like speech, hearing, dental, pharmacy, Ayurveda and physiotherapy ( 2020). All of these departments are occupied by a range of health care professionals like Doctors, clinicians, Dentists, Pharmacists, Nurses and other support service workers. The structure of the organization examined in the healthcare management assignment is hierarchical ( 2020). In the top of the hierarchy, the dean of the hospital possesses the power which is followed by the medical superintendent, administration, head of the departments and the staff. The different staffs such as the doctors, healthcare professionals, nursing staff has the authority to report to the head of the department directly. Therefore, it is stated herein healthcare management assignment that the maximum power is possessed by the head of the departments on the staff. The makeup of the doctors in the hospital is characterized by the senior doctors, junior doctors and interns. Within the makeup of the doctors, the maximum power is held by the senior doctors after the head of the department. The HODs are responsible to report directly to the administration who report to the medical superintendent and finally to the dean.

3. Boleman and Deal framework 1

  1. What are the key aspects of the framework discussed in the healthcare management assignment?

From the Boleman and Deal framework, it has been identified that there are many different directions in leadership and the four distinctive ideas that are merged in the framework are structural, political, human resource and symbolic frames (Farnsworth, Peterson, Neill, Neill & Lawson, 2015). The human resource frame is chosen as the framework 1. Within the human resource frame, it has been emphasized that organizations exist for serving the needs of humans rather than focusing on converse. The key aspect of the human resource frame outlined in the healthcare management assignment is that within this frame the organization is considered as a family and the leaders, as well as managers, are needed to consider the skills, prejudices, strengths, feelings, needs, and limitations of the employees who make up the organization. The leadership image that is critical for this frame is, therefore, the empowerment leadership. As explained by McGowan, Walsh & Stokes, (2017) in this healthcare management assignment, the major challenge that is faced as a basic leadership challenge in the human resource framework is the alignment of organizational and human needs.

  1. What actions will you take that are consistent with the framework?

In the context of the Kasturba Hospital Manipal, in the human resource frame, it is important to identify the needs of the staff such as the senior doctors, junior doctors, nurses and HODs. It is evident that the majority of the staff are occupied with a heavy load of work that makes it difficult for them to report adverse drug effects that contribute to the inability to reach the higher targets of the organization. In the opinion of McGowan, Elliott & Stokes (2019), as a leader, the first action would be to interact effectively with the staff and identify the key issues they are facing and what are their needs. As a leader to utilize this framework, the second important action is to value the feelings of the hospital staff and develop a strong relationship with them through regular communications. Facilitation and empowerment of the staff can be the third action, with which the basic human needs of the hospital staff in the Kasturba Hospital Manipal can be addressed.

From the analysis of the issue identified in the context of healthcare management assignment, it can be said that a flexible work schedule, better work-life balance and benefits can help to meet the needs of the hospital staff in the present case. Therefore, the leader can develop an effective schedule for the nurses as well as the support service workers. Moreover, the provision of rewards to the doctors can be helpful for meeting their basic human needs (McGowan, Elliott & Stokes, 2019). On the other hand, training of the staff regarding the importance of reporting adverse drug effects can be a major approach of a leader in Kasturba Hospital as it can help both in the personal growth of the staff which is one of the basic needs of the employees and contribute to the achievement of the higher targets in reporting adverse drug effects. These actions specified in the healthcare management assignment can be effectively aligned with the distribution of power among the staff in the Kasturba Hospital. For example, the HODs can be provided with the action to identify the needs of the senior doctors and the nurses while the senior doctors can be provided with the responsibility to identify the needs and requirements of the juniors and interns.

  1. What is the evidence that these actions will be effective?

According to McGowan, Walsh & Stokes, (2017), the effective management of human resources in the health care sector can be helpful in the elevation of the overall performance of the organization. The researcher has emphasized that when the leaders consider the organization as a family and try to meet the needs of the employees; employees are empowered to perform their duties well as their satisfaction with the job is enhanced. The healthcare management assignment considers the words of Uzarski and Broome, (2019) that the researchers have identified that medical residents generally rate the leaders who follow the human resource frame higher than the leaders who follow the other frames, as in this frame their needs are identified and addressed and they are better satisfied with their job. The human resource frame also provides skills and competencies that can enhance managerial effectiveness. The provision of benefits such as rewards and flexible work schedules would be effective as these can enhance the job satisfaction of the staff.

4. Boleman and Deal framework 2

  1. What are the key aspects of the framework illustrated in this segment of healthcare management assignment?

The second Boleman and Deal framework that would be utilized as a theory is the symbolic dimension or symbolic frame. In subsequent research Bolman & Deal (2015) explained that the symbolic frame emphasizes the cultural aspect of an organization. Therefore, the key aspects of the symbolic framework are characterized by ceremonies, rituals, role models, heroes, stories rather than authorities, policies and rules. It has been demonstrated in the healthcare management assignment that the symbolic frame can define the components of organizational culture and perform a role that is highly influential to shape the performance of an organization. In the view of Oh (2018), the image of leadership in the symbolic frame refers to inspiration and significance while the organization is considered as a temple or theatre. The main challenges that the leaders following this frame can encounter are the creation of faith, belief, meaning and hope.

  1. What actions will you take that are consistent with the framework

Inconsistency with the symbolic framework, the leader of Kasturba Hospital can take different actions to enhance the performance of the staff regarding the reporting of the adverse drug effects. The first action mentioned in the healthcare management assignment that the leader can take is to create a vision that can motivate people within the hospital to perform their task in an effective way (Hamilton and Yano, 2017). Development of specific symbols relating to adverse drug effects is important that can be included in the vision of the organization. In relation to the distribution of power in Kasturba Hospital, the new vision is likely to be approved by the dean. However, as the organizational structure and the distribution of power is hierarchical, it can take a longer time for the approval of the new vision. The second action which is needed to be taken by the leader is to organize conferences and events for the participation of the hospital staff. In the conferences and events, the staff can be motivated through storytelling (Taylor-Hyde & Ellen, 2017). This particular approach is also under the control of the hierarchical distribution of power in the hospital, however, as it aligns with the overall motto of the organization the action would face low resistance from the staff makeup.

The third important action outlined in this section of healthcare management assignment that the leader of Kasturba Hospital is needed to approach is the celebration of the achievements and success of the mentors and role models within the hospital as well as external to the hospital (Moses and Sharma, 2020). In this case, the approaches of the role models and mentors in addressing the issues of adverse drug effects can be discussed with the staff within the hospital so that they become aware of the reporting practice. Moreover, it can also enhance their motivation to report the adverse effects within the hospital in a timely manner. This approach can also be considered along with the organization of events to avoid issues from the resistance from the communication line.

  1. What is the evidence that these actions will be effective

In the opinion of Tuan (2016), it is clear on this healthcare management assignment that the application of leadership following the symbolic frame can be the strongest predictor of leadership effectiveness. The researcher has demonstrated that in the view of symbolic leaders, an organization is considered as a theatre which increases the development of a vision to aware the staff. Therefore, in the present context of Kasturba Hospital, the action of developing a symbolic vision that carries the meaning of the reporting system would be effective to raise awareness among the staff. In subsequent research Moses and Sharma, (2020), has explained that symbolic leaders play an effective role to utilize symbolism and create an impression or setting that helps in the interpretation. In relation to this, it can be stated that the approach of storytelling regarding the reporting system is an example of using symbolism and therefore can be effective to enhance the interpretation of the importance of the reporting system among the staff in Kasturba Hospital.

5. Discussion
The above two arguments based on the Boleman and Deal framework within the healthcare management assignment emphasizes that it is important to consider that organizations are made up of its people and it is the responsibility of the managers to assist the people in an organization. In relation to the first framework that is the human resource frame, it has been already understood that meeting the needs of the staff in managing an organization is highly effective. As per the opinion of Bouzenita and Boulanouar, (2016), the theory of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can be used to further emphasize the requirement of addressing the needs of the people in an organization. Maslow’s theory explains that by meeting the needs of the employees in an organization in an orderly manner it is possible to keep the staff motivated toward work. Therefore, this theory outlined herein healthcare management assignment of organizations can assist managers to understand the make-up of an organization and their behaviour. Cunha, Fortes, Gomes, Rego & Rodrigues (2019), in a recent research, have explained that the theory of contingency leadership states that leaders in an organization are required to analyse the impact of the effects of situations on the professional organization and take up appropriate approaches of leadership based on the situation to manage the reactions in an effective way. Therefore, with the understanding of the contingency leadership theory and the situational effects on professional organizations managers can effectively manage the performance of the employees (Boehe, 2016). Therefore, in the human resource frame, the theory of Maslow and contingency leadership can help to guide the approach in an effective way.

The present healthcare management assignment signifies that the Organizational culture theory demonstrates that culture relates to a distinct set of beliefs and values that is common among the people in an organization (Chatman and O’Reilly, 2016). The various components of the organizational culture emphasized in the theory are depth, breadth, structural stability, visible artefacts, espoused beliefs, behavioural norms, rules and values, integration, and taken-for-granted assumption (Hamilton & Yano, 2017). In the symbolic framework that is argued in the healthcare management assignment to make positive changes to Kasturba hospital, the major elements that are considered in the organizational culture theory such as value, behavioural norms, beliefs, structural stability and visible artefacts are highly addressed. The celebration of the success of the role models also aligned with the values of the people in the healthcare setting and therefore is likely to develop a positive outcome from this approach (Rego, Reis Irigaray & Chaves, 2017). Culture is the central aspect and approach of the Symbolic frame that makes the application of this approach on Kasturba Hospital more significant on the basis of the organizational culture theory. Embedding the reporting system within the organizational culture can help the leaders and managers to gain maximum output from the end of the staff as people would consider reporting the adverse effects of the drug as a core value or belief. Therefore, it can be argued that by following the two frameworks for leadership the overall performance in the reporting system can be enhanced in Kasturba Hospital.

6. Conclusion
From the above study on healthcare management assignment relating to the case of poor reporting of the health care professional regarding the adverse drug effects in Kasturba Hospital Manipal, it has been identified that the distribution of power in the staff makeup is hierarchical. The healthcare management assignment has identified two major theories or frames from the Boleman and Deal Framework of leadership that are the human resource framework and the Symbolic framework. On the basis of the human resource framework, various actions are proposed to the leader among which the identification of the needs of the staff and addressing them through rewards and benefits are two major actions. On the other hand, in relation to the symbolic frame, the leader can take actions to develop a symbolic vision to motivate the staff and celebrate the achievements and success of the mentors and role models on reporting adverse drug effects to enhance the awareness level regarding the reporting practice and inspire them to do so. These actions are further supported by literature as well as the existing power distribution within the staff makeup of Kasturba Hospital Manipal. The leader of the organization is recommended to follow the actions for achieving the higher target that is the enhancement in the reporting system.

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Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2015). Think—or sink: Leading in a VUCA world. Healthcare management assignment Leader to Leader, 2015(76), 35-40.

Bouzenita, A. I., & Boulanouar, A. W. (2016). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: An Islamic critique. Intellectual Discourse, 24(1).

Chatman, J. A., & O’Reilly, C. A. (2016). Paradigm lost: Reinvigorating the study of organizational culture. Research in Organizational Behavior, 36, 199-224.

Cunha, M. P. E., Fortes, A., Gomes, E., Rego, A., & Rodrigues, F. (2019). Ambidextrous leadership, paradox and contingency: evidence from Angola. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30(4), 702-727.

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