Healthcare Assignment: Effects of Antibiotics on Society
Task: Write a well-structured healthcare assignment critically discussing about the effects of antibiotics on Society using relevant research articles.
As per the research on healthcare assignment, it is stated that antibiotics are effective medicine with capability to fight off specified infections and save lives by preventing further reproduction of the bacteria and destroying it. Sir Alexander Fleming in the year 1928 conceived the 1st ever antibiotic the world has known, Penicillin for treating viral infections(Kentner, Khan, MacRae, Dowd, & Yan, 2018).The antibiotics are required to be used appropriately for eradicating the infections as prescribed by the medical practitioners to cure the disease. Antibiotics are known to counter the bacteria causing ear and throat, urinary and sinus infections. The antibiotics have certain attributes to fight off specified diseases, and need to be consumed as prescribed by the doctors; if notpatients may suffer serious health related consequences. The overdose of antibiotics make the body resistant to antibiotics which makes the patient fallible to lower dose of antibiotics and higher dose may be fatal to their deteriorating health conditions.
Causes of antibiotics:
Antibiotics havebeen conceived to treat bacterial infections like strep throat and urinary infections which were in most of the cases life threatening. So there is a need to have a specialised treatment and the antibiotics filled the gap. The doctors prescribe the antibiotic medicines to stop infections caused by fungus and parasites(Medlineplus.gov, 2020).Antibiotics are quite useful in treatment of diseases like acne, skin infections like impetigo, sexually transmitted disease like chlamydia, kidney issues, cellulitis and pneumonia among others. So antibiotics could be variably used for treatment of not-so serious diseases to transmitted diseases to those which might be fatal. Antibiotics have multiple usage like used as a precautionary medicine rather to treat the infection (nhs.uk, 2019). The phenomenon is known as antibiotic prophylaxis, and is used for the purpose of preventive medicine if the patient had an operation, a contagious wound or a higher risk of infection like treating those undergoingchemotherapy (nhs.uk, 2019).
There was a need of a healing treatment which could be used for patients across different age segments. Antibiotic medicines are useful to treat patients aged more than 75 years or newborn babies having bacterial infection or susceptible to develop one. It is also prescribed for those having heart ailments, diabetic patients and those having a weak immune system or HIV patients (nhs.uk, 2019). Antibiotics are known to slow the progress of the bacteria and eventually kill it pausing the harm to human health. There are certain antibiotics which are fast-acting and yield the expected outcome within a couple of hours. Antibiotics are popular as it could be easily consumed as most of the antibiotics are oral medicines. Again, the doctors on their discretion could inject the antibiotics to the patients as felt necessary by the medical practitioners to get the medicine quickly into the body of the patients to save his or her life (De Soete, Jiménez-González, Dahlin, & Dewulf, 2017). But overdose of antibiotics could lead to antibiotic resistance in the human immune system which could turn out to be fatal at a later stage. Effect of antibiotics: The effect of antibiotics is far reaching as frequent dosage of antibiotics tends to build a resistance against antibiotics in the human body. The phenomenon makes the usual dosage off antibiotics as prescribed by the doctors less effective (Who.int, 2018). In such a scenario higher dosage of antibiotics is to be prescribed which might be life threatening to the patients. Kentner, Khan, MacRae, Dowd, & Yan(2018), had noticed a strange phenomenon of the rising level of antibiotic resistance in certain parts of the globe. So it is becoming difficult to treat a number of infections like tuberculosis, pneumonia, gonorrhoea, blood poisoning and various food borne diseases. There is indeed an alarming level of rise in side effects of antibiotics among the patients like stomach ache, diarrhoea, nausea and a sick feeling. Antibiotics could also lead to cephalosporin tending for allergic reaction to various dosage levels and there is also a serious condition called anaphylaxis requiring emergency medical attention (nhs.uk, 2019). The most common side effects of antibiotics leads to digestion troubles to those consuming antibiotics.In this phase, there are common digestion troubles like bloating, appetite loss, abdominal pains and the patients undergoing the antibiotic course are required to complete it or else subjected to severe health consequences. On a positive note, only about 1 in 10-15 people are subjected to side effects of antibiotics like allergic reactions owing to coughing, itchy skin rashes, wheezing or breathing troubles (keckmedicine.org, 2020). Again to certain patients, usage of antibiotics leads to tetracycline which is sensitisation of skin to sunlight and artificial lights. Then there is the rare scenario of fluroquinolone antibiotics which might cause pain in joints, muscles and tendons located in the elbow, shoulder and knees. Though antibiotics are of variable usage one in ten to fifteen patients are subjected to severe side effects of antibiotics like digestion and breathing troubles and pains in body joints (Medlineplus.gov, 2020). So an unprecedented usage of antibiotics without the guidance of a medical practitioner would make the patient antibiotic resistant.
Antibiotics are undoubtedly life-saving drugs and since its invention by Dr Fleming it has been used globally to treat a number of diseases caused by bacteria, fungus and parasites. Antibiotics have been brought into being for treatment of life threatening infection and disease such as acne, skin infections, and various sexually transmitted diseases. Antibiotic medicines are also used to prevent infections from spreading while operating and could be useful for patients of diverse age range. But ignorance of the patients like undertaking antibiotic dosage without any kind of medical guidance could develop issues like making the patients resistant to antibiotics. There are also side effects like bloating, appetite loss, and abdominal pains due to over usage of antibiotics or taking the course without consultation of doctors. The passage of time is leading the medical fraternity to have more viable alternatives to antibiotics having fewerside effects.
De Soete, W., Jiménez-González, C., Dahlin, P., & Dewulf, J. (2017). Challenges and recommendations for environmental sustainability assessments of pharmaceutical products in the healthcare sector. Green Chemistry, 19(15), 3493-3509.
keckmedicine.org. (2020, March 26). The Pros and Cons of Antibiotics. Retrieved from www.keckmedicine.org: https://www.keckmedicine.org/the-pros-and-cons-of-antibiotics/
Kentner, A., Khan, U., MacRae, M., Dowd, S., & Yan, S. (2018). The effect of antibiotics on social aversion following early life inflammation. Healthcare assignmentPhysiology & behavior, 194(1), 311-318.
Medlineplus.gov. (2020, March 12). Antibiotics: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from Medlineplus.gov: https://medlineplus.gov/antibiotics.html nhs.uk. (2019, May 23). Antibiotics - Uses. Retrieved from nhs.uk: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/antibiotics/uses/
Who.int. (2018, February 05). Antibiotic resistance. Retrieved from Who.int: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antibiotic-resistance