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Health Promotion Assignment: Campaign for Diabetic Indigenous Australians

Question

Write a detailed report on health promotion assignment discussing a health promotion campaign for diabetic poor indigenous Australian people.

Answer

Introduction
Promotion of health plays a crucial role in enhancing and encouraging individual who are concerned about their health. Promoting health allows sharing the knowledge and managing techniques to combat the occurrence of the disease. Several numbers of diseases occurs due to the way individuals led their life. The practices and the way of living make individuals more vulnerable to various diseases. Such a disease that is more commonly impacting today's Australian’s, as well as other people of the world, is diabetes. Diabetes is one such kind of disease that more commonly occurs due to the lifestyle persuaded by an individual rather than that of the genetic factor. Hence, health promotion includes the steps that would be helping individuals who are not aware of the facts that are letting their life expectancy and future generation to be at health risks. These health issues are also being one of the most important concerning matters for the government of Australia (Fletcher et al., 2018). Several policies have been implemented to combat and aware people for minimization disease like diabetes among them. Based on the emerging health issues of diabetes in indigenous Australians, 14 weeks of the campaign initiative has been considered to promote health in Australia. The discussion below will be exploring the factors related to the campaign in detail. It would be explaining the information about the problems, target population, aim, and objectives of the campaign. Apart from that it would also be discussing the setting for the campaign, theories underpinning the campaign, and the resource that are involved in completing the campaign. The budget, time-frame, and administrating technique with the evaluation of the campaign will also be discussed below.

Information about the problem
Diabetes is one of the world's largest influencing diseases, which is not only occurring due to genetic factors but is mainly occurring due to the lifestyle an individual is persuading. The lifestyle an individual is persuading impacts the entire system of life, which is leading to several other diseases like obesity, cardiovascular disease apart from diabetes. Prevalence rate of the diabetes among the indigenous people of Australia is high. Statistical data presented by the Australian Bureau of Statics (ABS) shows that around 1.2 million people were being affected by diabetes in 2017 to 2018 year (Keel et al., 2019). The survey also highlighted the fact that among the affected population, the indigenous people of Australia are having diabetes 4 times more than the non-indigenous people of Australia. This has led to high alert for the Australian government, as this is impacting the present as well as the future health of the Australian people (Lavie et al., 2018). The poor economic condition, poor surviving facilities with very less literacy rate is leading them to adapt poorer standard of living. It is directly impacting the present as well as the future generation of the indigenous Australians. The sudden switches of the locality in the search for better-surviving goals are bounding them to compromise with their food, living, and health condition. The level of stress, a lower standard of food, and poor hygiene are compiling them to be comprised and make them vulnerable to the disease (Gabarron et al., 2018).

Target population
The targeted populations for the campaign are the poor indigenous people of Australia. For the campaign, only indigenous Australians have been considered. The campaign is undertaking especially those people of Australia who are either living in the rural area of Australia or are living in the urban backward area. The targeted populations for the campaign are those individuals or groups of individuals who are being earmarked or chosen as per the need to support their health. It has been specified that the target population would be 18 years up. No such sex barrier has been considered, both genders were invited equally to participate in the campaign. The motive to organize the campaign is that it would be helping the indigenous people to be aware of the health risks at the individual's level. All the aspects related to achieving the goals of the campaigning will be in related to the targeted group. This would be helping to evaluate only those factors that would be associated with their health and its risk factors. This would also provide the information to the individual based on their condition of living or surviving pattern they are following (Kurnia, Amatayakul, &Karuncharernpan, 2017). Health promotion varies according to the targeted group, as every individual needs a different level of concern and support. Hence the campaign is being organized based on the indigenous population of Australia. As the population is facing a higher rate of diabetes in them, hence the campaign would be sharing information based on the indigenous needs and circumstances they are going through. This would ensure that the targeted group for the campaign can get the detail information related to health promotion without missing any of their condition. The indigenous Australian person varies in their living condition from the non-indigenous Australian people in many ways. Hence, the group required more details to increase the knowledge for survive in healthy condition by combat diabetes among them. The aim and objectives of the campaign will be acknowledging their aspects of life (Gabarron et al., 2018).

Aims and objective of the campaign
A campaign is being conducted with the initiatives to achieve several aspects that would be helping and improving their health condition from all directions. It ensures that the campaign would be able to reach out to the population with some sort of solution or actions that would be improvising their health conditions. The aim and objectives of the campaign with the motive to promote health are always being several. They are organized to raise the public awareness about need to understand health issues by educating a specific group of people.The approach towards the aims and objectives has been achieved by considering the S.M.A.R.T approach. The S.M.A.R. T approach is a technique that helps to manage a project to reach the goals of the projects. These approaches are helping to have a support in approaching the goals for the campaign. The acronym that stands for the S.M.A.R.T approach is specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound. Hence, keeping the motive of the health-promoting campaigning in mind, the campaign aims and objectives are

  • Specific: To make people aware of the alarming rate of diabetes among the indigenous Australian people by educating, training, and informing is the main purpose of campaign. It would include the information about the occurrence of diabetes among them as well as around the world. They would be informed about diabetes and the consequences of the disease so that they can bring behavior changes to them to reduce the health risks.
  • Measurable: The campaign would be motivating the individual to bring the changes to the practices that are letting them face the health risks. The change in practice will be encouraged with the various strategies considering the economic condition of every individual.
  • Achievable: The participant would be personally encouraged to attain the campaign to achieve the information that will be helping them to bring change in the practice.
  • Relevant: At the present condition of the world letting people understand and achieve the information about how to self-manage the diseases is the goal of the campaign.
  • Time-bound: To achieve the aims and objective a 14 weeks time have been considered for the health promotion.

Setting and method for the campaign health promotion
The setting for conducting the campaign has been appropriately considered and well-planned. It has been ensured that the setting of the campaign allows the people to properly attain the campaign and every staff haves a clear responsibility sense. The core principle is considered for proper implementation of setting. Core principle of health promotion is four; these principles are participation, collaboration, empowerment, and equity. These four core principle works as a setting for conducting the campaign.The promoters needed to ensure that they can admire all the core principles of health promotion. Health promotion needs to be ensured that the targeted population can participate in the campaign (Boutayeb, Lamlili&Boutayeb. 2017). Hence, to achieve the purpose of the healthcare promoters, the local authorities were asked to participate in sharing the information related to the campaign to every family. For a campaign to be held in a better way, promotes collaboration with the local authorities and people, who helped promoters to approach to targeted population and vice-versa. They were given the role to inform people about the campaign and also help the promoters to build an understanding with the participant. The participants were given the scope to share their point of view with the health promoters of the campaign. This provided the people to discuss their part of the complication that is letting them avoid the level of a preventive measure for the betterment of health. To maintain equity, all the participants were attending at a personal level. It was ensured that the people who are not a part of the targeted population are also being attended to share the information with them. The healthcare professionals were given the role to ensure that they can share as much information with the participant (Macridis et al., 2016). The planning model for conducting the campaign has been well structured and organized in 10 steps; these will be helping to approach the logical, realistic, and detailed design of the campaign. The planning model consists of information about the problem, target population, aims and objective of the campaign, setting and method for the health promotion campaign, theories underpinning the campaign, resource for the campaign, budget for conducting the campaign, the time frame for the campaign, the administration involved in the campaign and evaluation of the campaign.

Theories underpinning the campaign
Some several theories and models help to support the practices of health promotion to minimize the risk of the disease to the population. These theories underpin the facts that would be helping the promoters to achieve the goals of the campaign. Health promotion is thought to be successful if a huge amount of the target population as well as other people are attending the campaign and acquiring the shared information, based on which they are changing their behaviors. Hence, behavioral change plays an important role in helping people. There is a need to understand the behavior of the people to build the relation that would be helping to provide the proper information to the people. In the real world, sudden or slow changes in the behavior lead to ill-health, and change of the behavior also lead to prevent the health risk (Lari, Noroozi, &Tahmasebi, 2016). Hence, people persuading a direct change in the behavior need support and knowledge that would be helping them to ensure the best application of a change in the behavior. The theories that were being considered to ensure the goals were the Social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model (stages of change) (Adnani et al., 2018). The social cognitive theory explains the impact of person’s experience, others actions, and factors related to the environment on individual health behavior. These key components that are being used to support the behavioral changes such as self-efficacy, behavioral capability, expectations, self-control, expectancies, observational learning, and reinforcements of the participants.The same as the transtheoretical model (stages of change) is another model of behavior that has been considered for the campaign. The model determines the fact that human behavioral changes occurs in six stages which will be asked to be adopted by them to reduce the health risks (Beauchamp, Crawford & Jackson, 2019). These stages are pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination. These six stages are considered as the ideal stage of behavior at health risks. Hence, changing based on these factors will be helping the participant to achieve higher goals.

Resource for the campaign
Resource for a campaign means how the information has been gathered, whether there is any financial support by the others. The resource also includes the use of the tool and kits that are needed to assess the people. The purpose of the campaign was to promote health, and reduce the chance of health risks; hence for the financial resource, several healthcare centers were approached. The healthcare center whether governmental or non-governmental are approached to help to conduct the campaign for health promotion with the necessary precaution and measures. In the present pandemic condition, it should be ensured that the safety measured to prevent the spread of the virus is undertaken (Jarvis et al., 2018). The lack of preventive measures might lead to face trouble for the population as well as to the promoters. Hence, well-equipped preventive measures like wearing of personal protective equipment, sanitizers, and hand wash should be needed to arrange, to ensure the safety for both the promoters and participants. Apart from that, there is a need to enhance the pond of knowledge; for that, thepromoters needed to approach the healthcare professionals to gather information. The information collected from the experienced professional of healthcare would be helping to promote a higher level of information. Apart from that, there is a need for some of the tools and kits that would be helping to assess the participants. These are tools that would be assessing the people by the promoters to acquire the anthropometry measurements of the people. The tools were being taken from the healthcare centers like weight machine, standard height measuring instrument, random blood sugar testing kits, and many other measuring instruments (Russell-Smith &Sangha, 2018).

Budget for conducting the campaign
There is a requirement to ensure that the campaign is established in a way that would be including a lower costing but can have a higher productivity rate. The rate of conducting the campaign is an important factor for health promoters. To execute all these factors for conducting the health promotion it has been decided to have a minimum cost for the campaigning. $150 has been decided as the budget for the campaign. This budget includes costing for the campaign staffs things like refreshments, personal protective equipment, sanitizers, and costing for the traveling. Hence, the important factors that have been included in the budgeting of the campaign will be helping to achieve the goals for the campaign. It is important to consider the planning, then fixing the budget (Taghipour et al., 2018). Campaign expenses are largely driven by the key strategies in the plan. The resources needed to conduct the work that would be providing a sufficient amount of productivity lower budget. The staff travels to the different families of the rural areas, hence they need travel costing along with the protection kit to ensure that none of the people are getting infected by the negligence of the protection (Spencer, Brueckner, Wise &Marika, 2016). The continued supply of the protective measure and toolkit is important for the campaign. Hence, a huge amount of the budget includes the costing for the continued supply of the foods and equipment.

Resource

Budget

Protective pieces of equipment

$40

Equipment for assessing people 

$20

Traveling cost

$25

Refreshment cost 

$15

Communication sources like mobiles 

$50

Total

$150

The time frame for the campaign

Task

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Allocation of the task

                             

Collaborating with local authorities

                             

Invitation to the professionals

                             

Invitation to the targeted population

                             

Arranging all the required things to arrange the campaign.

                             

Day 1 promotion

                             

Day 2 promotion

                             

Day 3 promotion

                             

Visiting the families who were unable to participate in the campaign.

                             

Gantt chart 

The best way to design a time-frame for organizing a campaign is through the Gantt chart. The procedure and the timelines that have been considered in the campaign are being depicted with the help of the Gantt chart below(Sharon &Dori, 2017).

The administration involved in the campaign
For administrating the campaign, three senior who is experienced in conducting campaign has been considered. The campaign is being administrated mainly by these three senior people. They have well-planned the way of execution of the campaign and design the time frame through the Gantt chart. The staff has arranged all the required equipment as the instruction of the senior. They have also ensured that communication channels between the staff should be well maintained. Hence, all the staff is provided with the cell phone to correspond to each other (Nguyen, Chitturi& Maple?Brown, 2016). The administrator has divided the task into multiple groups to achieve the goals in easier ways. They have also ensured the staff as well as the participants can maintain hygiene and preventive measure to ensure safety. The campaign administrators also have taken the responsibilities to let the promoter to visit the local area and share their information with the people (Taylor, 2019). Apart from that, the administrators will be maintaining the confidentiality of the information that is being achieved by the participant. None of the information and discussion done with the professionals will be disclosed to any of the third individuals.

Evaluation of the campaign
From the planning discussed above, the perspective that would be evaluating the plan will be through the number of participants attending the campaign. As in the campaigns, there will be sharing of information that is for those who are having diabetes or might have diabetes in the future. This would be benefiting the participants like the indigenous people of Australia. These will share strategy with the poor indigenous Australian people, as per their economic condition that letting them suffer from several diseases (Western & Tomaszewski, 2016). The success of the campaign would be a judged based on how people are adapting the strategies and going for the regular checkup in the governmental healthcare center near to them. The short outcome will be measured for 6 months and it would be measured by the governmental healthcare centers as well as the health promoters. The long term outcome is expected to be that, the prevalence rate of diabetes among the indigenous Australians will be lower than the present situation. The change in the behavior will directly or indirectly help the people to create a new environment to grow and fight against the health risks with all their present conditions.

Conclusion
From the above discussion, it can be concluded that the motive of the campaign is one of the most crucial factors in the present society. Promoting health to those people who are at a higher risk will help the people to bring changes to their life. The campaign would also be helping to build a future that might have a lower prevalence rate of diabetes. Hence, conducting a campaign is very much important and beneficial for all the people around the world. This gives the scope to be aware of the health risks and introduce the strategy that would be helping to manage it. Hence conducting a campaign will be very helpful for society.

Reference
Adnani, H., Subiyanto, A. A., Hanim, D., &Sulaeman, E. S. (2018). Health promotion in clean and healthy behavior programs in traditional markets. International research journal of management, IT and social sciences, 5(4), 46-52.

Arnold, L. W., Hoy, W. E., Sharma, S. K., & Wang, Z. (2016). The Association between HbA1c and cardiovascular disease markers in a remote indigenous Australian community with and without diagnosed diabetes. Journal of diabetes research, 2016.

Beauchamp, M. R., Crawford, K. L., & Jackson, B. (2019). Social cognitive theory and physical activity: Mechanisms of behavior change, critique, and legacy. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 42, 110-117.

Boutayeb, A., Lamlili, M., &Boutayeb, W. (2016). Health promotion and diabetes care in developing countries. Diabetes & Metabolism, 42(4), 302.

Fletcher, G. F., Landolfo, C., Niebauer, J., Ozemek, C., Arena, R., &Lavie, C. J. (2018).Promoting physical activity and exercise: JACC health promotion series. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 72(14), 1622-1639.

Gabarron, E., Bradway, M., Fernandez-Luque, L., Chomutare, T., Hansen, A. H., Wynn, R., &Årsand, E. (2018). Social media for health promotion in diabetes: study protocol for a participatory public health intervention design. BMC health services research, 18(1), 1-5.

Gabarron, E., Dorronzoro, E., Bradway, M., Rivera-Romero, O., Wynn, R., &Årsand, E. (2018).Preferences and interests of diabetes social media users regarding a health-promotion intervention. Patient preference and adherence, 12, 2499.

Jarvis, D., Stoeckl, N., Addison, J., Larson, S., Hill, R., Pert, P., &Lui, F. W. (2018). Are Indigenous land and sea management programs a pathway to Indigenous economic independence?. The Rangeland Journal, 40(4), 415-429.

Keel, S., Foreman, J., Xie, J., Van Wijngaarden, P., Taylor, H. R., & Dirani, M. (2019). The prevalence of self-reported diabetes in the Australian national eye health survey. PLoS One, 12(1), e0169211.

Kurnia, A. D., Amatayakul, A., &Karuncharernpanit, S. (2017). Predictors of diabetes self-management among type 2 diabetics in Indonesia: Application theory of the health promotion model. International journal of nursing sciences, 4(3), 260-265.

Lari, H., Noroozi, A., &Tahmasebi, R. (2018). Impact of short message service (SMS) education based on a health promotion model on the physical activity of patients with type II diabetes. The Malaysian journal of medical sciences: MJMS, 25(3), 67.

Lavie, C. J., Laddu, D., Arena, R., Ortega, F. B., Alpert, M. A., & Kushner, R. F. (2018). Healthy weight and obesity prevention: JACC health promotion series. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 72(13), 1506-1531.

Macridis, S., Bengoechea, E. G., McComber, A. M., Jacobs, J., & Macaulay, A. C. (2016). Active transportation to support diabetes prevention: Expanding school health promotion programming in an Indigenous community. Evaluation and program planning, 56, 99-108.

Nguyen, H. D., Chitturi, S., & Maple?Brown, L. J. (2016). Management of diabetes in Indigenous communities: lessons from the Australian Aboriginal population. Internal medicine journal, 46(11), 1252-1259.

Russell-Smith, J., &Sangha, K. K. (2018). Emerging opportunities for developing a diversified land sector economy in Australia’s northern savannas. The Rangeland Journal, 40(4), 315-330.

Sharon, A., &Dori, D. (2017). Model?Based Project?Product Lifecycle Management and Gantt Chart Models: A Comparative Study. Systems engineering, 20(5), 447-466.

Spencer, R., Brueckner, M., Wise, G., &Marika, B. (2016). Australian indigenous social enterprise: measuring performance. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global EconomyPg. 25

Taghipour, A., Shahroudi, M. V., Tabesh, H., Safari-Moradabadi, A., &Anbarani, M. A. (2019). The effect of educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior and stages of change construct on women's physical activity. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 8.

Taylor, J. (2018). The relative economic status of indigenous Australians, 1986-91. Canberra, ACT: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR), The Australian National University.

Western, M., &Tomaszewski, W. (2016).Subjective well-being, objective wellbeing, and inequality in Australia.PloS one, 11(10), e0163345.

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