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Health Care Assignment: Qualitative And Quantitative Research On Literature


TaskThis assessment task must be all your own work. You should keep a spare copy of your work. Please refer to the guidelines below, as well as the marking rubric.

Critical appraisal : One important part of using research is the ability to understand and appraise research. Appraising research incorporates understanding how research is conducted, critically appraising the study strengths and limitations, and understanding implications of the research.

In this assignment you are required to critically appraise two (2) peer-reviewed research articles, one involving quantitative and one involving qualitative research. Your papers are as follows:

Liang, Z, Howard, P & Wollersheim, D 2017, 'Assessing the Competence of EvidenceInformed Decision-Making Amongst Health Service Managers', Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 16-23.

Savic, M, Chur-Hansen, A, Mahmood, MA & Moore, V 2013, 'Separation from family and its impact on the mental health of Sudanese refugees in Australia: a qualitative study', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol 37, no. 4, p. 383.


1. Introduction
In this health care assignment, two articles have been chosen based on health care. One article is about the mental impact of the separation from a family of Sudanese refugees in Australia and another article is about evidence-based decision making of service managers of health. The first article in this health care assignment is a qualitative research and second one is quantitative research. This critical appraisal describes the strength as well as weakness of both the articles. It also focuses on the impacts of those articles on the society.

2. Selection of appropriate tool
As CASP helps in both qualitative and quantitative analysis, so it helps in reviewing systematically and delivering training to healthcare professionals. CASP has been chosen as it helps in analyzing research in health care services. The set of eight critical appraisal checklists include Systematic reviews, Clinical Prediction Rule, Qualitative Studies, Diagnostic Studies, Economic Evaluations, Case-Control Studies, Cohort Studies, and Randomised Controlled Trials (, 2017). From these checklists, Cohort studies and qualitative studies have been used to analyze these articles. In this case, article 1 can be analyzed through Cohort studies of Critical appraisal tool and article 2 through qualitative studies of Critical appraisal tool. CASP is regarded as an effective tool as it helps in getting desired results and understanding methodology that has been adopted. CASP tool has been used as it helps in the understanding the validity of results and data analysis for understanding the role of health professionals (Refer to appendices).

3. Critical appraisal
Article 1: This article is about the service managers of health EIDM (Evidence-Informed Decision Making).

Validity of the results of the study
The study has focused on the issue because twenty-five managers of mid-level from two hospitals in Victoria have participated in the issue. As stated by Flick (2015), the managers did not have that type of skill that is beneficial for EIDM as their roles to improve the level of competence. Due to lack of skills, the managers are not able to use EIDM for the daily work.

Cohort was recruited in an appropriate and acceptable way as the population of the concerned research were well defined. The selected population of the research was mid-level managers of Victorian hospitals who have special knowledge in evidence-based decision-making process. In the research, all the mid-level managers are selected who should participate in the research.

They have used objective measurement for the study as they have been proven the things through the facts and figures. The measurements have focused on the areas where improvement is required for enhancing the competency as well as skills for EIDM of managers of mid-level.

The systems that have been used for detecting the case are reliable because they have used Mcap tool. Taylor, Bogdan & DeVault (2015) mentioned that Mcap tool that is a tool of competency assessment of online management and also a tool of objective assessment for case study. The method of measurement is similar because they all have been measured equally. The researcher, as well as the managers, has exposed the outcomes.

The confounding factors that are important and mentioned in the study are the factors in the level of industry or society, at the level of organisation and at the level of individual manager.

They did not have taken those confounding factors in the design because they have used Mcap tool that is a tool of competency assessment of online management and also a tool of objective assessment for case study (Ledford & Gast, 2018). In design, they have only focused on the competence of the managers of mid-level for applying EIDM in management roles.

The follow up that has been done for the subject is not complete because all the managers that have been participated in the assignment did not complete the whole assignment. Some of the managers have left the assignment in the middle. The author has not taken the information from those managers who did not participate in the assignment. The follow up that has been done was not too long because some of the managers have left in the middle.

Results of the study
The study describes the importance of competency of EIDM (Evidence-Informed Decision Making) for the service managers of health. The managers who have been participated in the assessment programme needs some improvement as well as guidance for using EIDM (Evidence-Informed Decision Making) as the roles of managers for competency. There is always a difference in the applying EIDM (Evidence-Informed Decision Making) for the roles of managers for different organisations. The study also describes the strength as well as weakness of those managers who have participated in the assignment and their difference for different organisations. This assignment also explains the importance of competency at different level. It shows the importance of practices of enhancement of EIDM (Evidence-Informed Decision Making) can be beneficial for the progression of management career, planning of success and for the development of workforce of management for a great future.

Impact of the results on locally
The research work focuses on the question of whether evidence-based decision-making approach is competence of the health care managers or not. Cohort study is appropriate for the addressing this question a group of mid-level managers of Victorian hospitals has given their first-hand opinions to the research work. As per the views of Conklin, Morris & Nolte (2015), the benefit of cohort study is that a group of individual is studied from which a diversified information can be acquired. The local people would be directly benefited from the research outcome as the setting of local hospitals in Australia is not that different. This ability of practical implication can be one of the strengths of the concerned research. On the other hand, through this research, the researcher has identified what will be the benefits from EIDM; however, the article does not be able of quantifying that outcome which works as one of the weaknesses of the research work.

According to this research, the improvement in EIDM is essential not only among health service managers but also other organisational sectors. The researcher has found out that individual managerial level, as well as organizational structure, requires a systematic change for implementing EIDM. On the other hand, Grady (2015) stated that managers face an emergency where they need to make decisions and they need evidence for those decisions. Other researchers have found out that evidence can be collected from different levels of organisational structure. Thus, contribution and systematic changes in organisational levels are required. As this particular research has just evaluated the previous research work without coming up with new idea, this can work as its one of the weaknesses.

The implications of the observational study deliver number of evidence on whether the given recommendations need to be applied in the clinical practice. In this research work, proper recommendations are not provided. The researcher mentioned in the result section about the implications of EIDM in clinical practice. These results can be used in development of local health policy. Even, the results stated in the article can be supported by the other sources as other authors to believe that decision-making process involves all level of hierarchy (Liang, Howard & Wollersheim, 2017). This determines the systematic changes in organisation and management levels.

Article 2: In this case, Article 2 has been used for doing qualitative studies through a critical appraisal tool.

Validity of research
In article 2, it can be said that there is a clear statement of the aims of the research. The goal of this research is to understand the effect of separation on the refugees from health members regarding mental health. It has been thought to be important as it helps in understanding the effects of separation on the mental health of refugees. Moreover, the qualitative methodology that has been used is appropriate as interviews have been conducted for understanding the role of health professionals in health care services. The research helps in interpreting and illuminating the actions or experiences of the participants. This shows that qualitative methodology is robust enough to address the goal of the research. According to Lewis (2015), qualitative research helps in gathering data through probabilistic sampling method. It helps in getting accurate information for arriving at desired results. The research design cannot be said appropriate though 25 semi-structured interviews have been conducted and analyzed through the Framework approach. This framework approach has helped in framing thematic analysis for addressing the aims of the research. However, the researcher has confined to using qualitative tool which can be said as its weakness.

In this article, it cannot be said that the recruitment strategy is appropriate as the researcher has failed to explain the reason participants have been selected. 20 participants have been selected as they are familiar with mental health issues of refugees. They are mental health professionals which have helped in doing research effectively. The reason for the selection of participants has not been explained in the study. According to Choy (2014), proper sampling method helps in understanding the reason for not participating in interviews and survey which helps in gathering information effectively. However, no such discussions have been made as to understand the reason of some people not to participate in this study. Hence, it can be said that this is one of the weaknesses of the article. Data has been able to address the research issue as semi-structured interviews have been used where the participants have been able to discuss their experiences during resettlement.

In-depth interviews have been analyzed through the Framework approach using thematic analysis. Out of 20 participants twelve have worked in refugee camps so they have been chosen for this research. All the interviews have been audio recorded for understanding the current responses in meeting the health care needs of refugees. Dumay & Cai (2015) commented that it is imperative to establish a relationship between participants and researcher so as to analyze the role and potential bias in formulating research questions. In this case, this has not been adequately considered as a researcher has not been able to examine own role in formulating research questions. However, the researcher has chosen participants who have multiple responsibilities and roles along with experiences of handling refugees. Moreover, the participants have been chosen from Australia and Sudan who are mental health care providers.

Results: Ethical issues have been taken into consideration as research has been explained effectively to participants for maintaining ethical standards. The health care assignment has used a qualitative approach for gathering rich data from various perspectives and has been approved by the University of Adelaide Human Research Ethics Committee. According to Lushey & Munro (2015), it is necessary to consider the validity and reliability of the research so as to derive proper results. In this case, the consent of the participants has been taken into consideration and confidentiality of the information has been ensured for carrying the research effectively. Data analysis has been sufficiently rigorous as interviews have been analyzed through thematic analysis. The themes have been clear enough and are derived from data. Sufficient data has been taken into account for meeting the objectives and aims of the research.

Riedl, Davis & Hevner (2014) stated that contradictory information and data helps in analyzing research and deriving proper conclusions pertaining to the topic. However, contradictory data has been taken into account like the caring of refugees is not the important focus in mainstream services. Strategies which have been employed include reviewing of findings of authors to negative cases, using audit trail of flexibility and including of different views. It cannot be said that whether there is a clear statement of findings as the findings are not explicit enough to address the issues. The researcher has been able to discuss the credibility of the evidence through triangulation used in this study. However, the findings have not been able to address the research questions as more intensive research is required to be done.

Ways results can help locally
It cannot be said whether research is valuable as it fails to discuss whether findings can be transferred to other population. It is confined to the refugees of Sudan and Australia so it cannot be said that findings are applicable to other population. However, the findings have been framed on the basis of current literature of studies in order to make a contribution to existing areas. New areas of research have not been identified which has resulted in its weakness.

4. Ethical issues
In article 1of this health care assignment, the researcher has compiled by ethical obligations as approval of ethics has been granted by La Trobe University before conducting this research. This shows that the information and data which has been collected in this research is free from personal bias or prejudice opinions. The researcher has ensured that the research is conducted in an impartial and unbiased manner. According to Walliman (2017), ethical protection law ensures that the researcher abides by ethical obligations while conducting research effectively. In article 2, the researcher has abided by ethical considerations as the participant's consent have been taken into account before their participation. Confidentiality of the information has been ensured and no third party has been given access to collected data. Therefore, the study has been approved by the University of Adelaide Human Research Ethics Committee in order to ensure that ethical concerns have been taken into account for its completion. This shows that the two articles abide by ethical guidelines while conducting this research effectively. It has been ensured that the information of the participants is kept confidential and is not misused for personal gains. Information that has been collected has been used for the purpose of research only and no third party can gain access to it.

5. Summary
In Article 1 of this health care assignment, there are some weaknesses like lack of skill of managers and focussing on one tool. The managers who have participated have left the study in the middle which has led to ineffective results. However, this article has some strength as the importance of EDIM in health aspects and evidence oriented decision-making approach. This study is effective enough to benefit the residents of locality as settings of the hospital are not different from those of local ones. The benefits of EDIM have been mentioned however it has not been able to reach any outcomes which could have given important results. The systematic design is required for getting more effective information. The articles have been able to highlight the importance of EDIM in clinical studies and the ways it can help service users.

It can be summarized that article 2 has some weaknesses like confining to one tool and no proper discussions as to understand the reason for not participation of some participants in the study. Moreover, the researcher has not been able to examine role while conducting this research. The research has failed to focus on new areas of study which shows that more research is required to be done. However, this study has some strength as the findings have been framed in order to meet the research questions. The qualitative method has been used successfully so as to gather data and information accurately pertaining to the topic. Most of the participants have been chosen from Australia and Sudan who have experiences of handling mental health of refugees. In-depth interviews have helped in arriving effective conclusions and understanding the effect of mental health on refugees. Moreover, the study has followed ethical guidelines while conducting this research effectively. Health care assignment assignments are being prepared by our nursing assignment help experts from top universities which let us to provide you a reliable assignment help online service.

6. References
Flick, U. (2015). Introducing research methodology: A beginner's guide to doing a research project. Newcastle upon Tyne: Sage. Retrieved from: ks?hl=en&lr=&id=jcOICwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=research+methodology&ots=rrQAdX69bX&sig=leBa_ 7s1gffSUE16sgBnEoxsboo#v=onepage&q=research%20methodology&f=false

Ledford, J. R., & Gast, D. L. (2018). Single case research methodology: Applications in special education and behavioral sciences. Abingdon: Routledge. Retrieved from:

Taylor, S. J., Bogdan, R., & DeVault, M. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from: 9MBYwLaLZoavdyRVtLfp--3kAFQ#v=onepage&q=research%20methodology&f=false

Walliman, N. (2017). Research methods: The basics. Abingdon: Routledge. Retrieved from:

Choy, L. T. (2014). The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(4), 99-104. Retrieved from: BrjcxaVko%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DThe_Strengths_and_Weaknesses_of_Research.pdf

Conklin, A., Morris, Z., & Nolte, E. (2015). What is the evidence base for public involvement in health?care policy?: results of a systematic scoping review. Health Expectations, 18(2), 153-165. Retrieved from:

Dumay, J., & Cai, L. (2015). Using content analysis as a research methodology for investigating intellectual capital disclosure: a critique. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 16(1), 121-155. Retrieved from: FvHPqqn2trzdaZbzH3IgIZs2oI%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DUsing_content_analysis_as_a_research_met.pdf

Dumay, J., & Cai, L. (2015). Using content analysis as a research methodology for investigating intellectual capital disclosure: a critique. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 16(1), 121-155. Retrieved from: 2FvHPqqn2trzdaZbzH3IgIZs2oI%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DUsing_content_analysis_as_a_research_met.pdf

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), 473-475. Retrieved from:

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), 473-475. Retrieved from:

Lushey, C. J., & Munro, E. R. (2015). Participatory peer research methodology: An effective method for obtaining young people’s perspectives on transitions from care to adulthood?. Qualitative Social Work, 14(4), 522-537. Retrieved from:

Riedl, R., Davis, F. D., & Hevner, A. R. (2014). Towards a NeuroIS research methodology: intensifying the discussion on methods, tools, and measurement. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 15(10), 11-20. Retrieved from:

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