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Evidence-Based Research On Exclusive Breastfeeding At Hospital Discharge


In 1200 words, discuss your evidence-based research critique of the article by Ballesta-Castillejos et al. (2021), particularly the methodology (or design), ethics and data analysis method. Did they appear appropriate for the study? Why?


Critique of specific articles based on evidence-based research helps in analysing and evaluating every aspect of a study, including the methodology and research ethics. In this case, the present essay will focus on developing a critical overview regarding the methodology and implementation of ethics while presenting the results and discussing the findings in minute details. Selected article in this case is of Ballesta-Castillejos et al. (2021) presenting a model of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge. Most importantly, this retrospective cohort study has demonstrated the background of this article, including the benefits of breastfeeding to both the newborn and the mother. However, it has also been identified in this article that the rate of breastfeeding after discharge is quite low compared to recommendations of doctors. However, this essay has developed a critique by finding both the strengths and shortcomings of this article.

Critique of methodology/design of the article

Retrospective cohort study is the basic methodology and research design of this article that has presented data of women who gave birth to newborns during 2014-2019 in Spain. Primarily, this study has used primary data sources through questionnaires. Most importantly, it has provided questionnaires to 3387 women on the basis of the predictive model through Spanish breastfeeding associations. This methodology worked effectively in collecting results on the basis of validating cohort of 1694 women (Ballesta et al. 2021). However, it is also crucial to mention that logistic regression has helped in developing multivariate analysis. Along with that, the ROC curve has helped in determining the predictive ability of the results.

Primary reason for using this methodology and research design in this article is to complete an effective health related study that can help in reaching congestion related to both exposed and non-exposed subjects. In this case, the conditions of a phenomenon have been analysed in minute details by developing a cohort study on the basis of the experience of women who have just given birth to a child (Snyder, 2019). At the same time, the expansion of time is quite reasonable and has helped in collecting data for five years. Furthermore, this methodology was less expensive to perform due to its nature of retrospective aspects towards subjects. However, it also comes with some limitations such as potential confounders, covariates, and poor control over the exposure factor that could harm the results (Mohajan, 2018). However, this study has reached its objective of validating and developing a predictive model in the selected area.

Ethics of the article
The study has maintained the ethics of research by considering factors such as identification of patients were limited by case numbers and questionnaires and records were kept confidentially. Most importantly, confidentiality of the data has not been breached by getting proper consent before asking any question and collecting data from the breastfeeding association of Spain. At the same time, reasons and objectives of the research were minutely described to the concerned people to avoid any dispute in future. At the same time, there was no conflict of interests between the authors and everyone was supportive (Ballesta et al. 2021). Thus, from this aspect, the study has shown a clear example of ethics and positivity towards completing any task. At the same time, it has also identified the importance of protecting personal data in this country.

Spanish Data Protection Act of 2018 as per the general rules were maintained in this study by not harming any sentiments or emotions of the participants by exposing confidential data. However, this retrospective cohort study was only surrounded by collecting proper information and reaching conclusions regarding managing the appropriate procedure to validating the model of breastfeeding after developing that. Most importantly, this study has not violated any rules and regulations of Spain when it comes to protecting the general data of the people of this country. However, the reason for this aspect is to reach the objective of the study without making any dispute with the participants.

Analysis of the article
Analysis of the collected information and results of the cohort study has represented a multivariate aspect. Primarily, multivariate analysis is all about a traditional procedure of statistical analysis through multiple experiments and measurements. In this case, the study has used this analysis to reach a multivariable conclusion to develop a model of breastfeeding in an exclusive way. This aspect has also helped in managing the proper procedure of discussing the possibilities to reach the expectations of the researchers as a whole. Most importantly, new observation of the population reflects various measurements including univariate procedures parallel with the traditional approaches (Ballesta-Castillejos et al. 2021). Primarily, this procedure has helped in reaching the objectives on the basis of thirteen variables that were derived from the results after analysing the condition of breastfeeding mothers after hospital discharges.

Background of the study has a link in this place as the study has established an exclusive model of breastfeeding on the basis of prioritising care from professional aspects when it comes to discharging women. Risks related to the ability of women to breastfeed the children has helped in identifying the necessities of professional help. This study has presented the importance of discharge planning and communication as per the requirement and condition of breastfeeding. It is crucial to note that it is not possible for the hospital to keep track of the breastfeeding condition after discharge (Mercier et al. 2018). Hence, weaknesses and strengths of every patient are relevant to the fact of breastfeeding and the procedure of discharge.

Results of the Critique
Analysis of the study has presented that it is crucial for any study to select the most effective methodology and research design to reach the objectives. However, the article has also presented an effective background to the study that has presented importance of the study and future scope of researchers in working in this specific area (Mantri et al. 2021). At the same time, it has also presented the setting, design, and objective of this study minutely that has helped in identifying the importance of communication and discharge planning to avoid any unexpected consequences (Miyoshi et a. 2020). At the same time, it has also been identified in this article that multivariate analysis and primary data sources have played a vital role in reaching the objectives and managing the ethics of the study.

This aspect was also evident in Lima-Serrano et al. (2018) through the variables of interests. This study has also presented the importance of using variables of interest and reaching the objectives on the basis of statistical data analysis (Muhumuza et al. 2017).

Rating of the Article
Rate of this article is high as it has gone deep in the research area when it comes to analyse the collected data along with using variables from multi-facet aspect. Most importantly, cohort study from a retrospective approach has helped in managing the ethics and approaches of work without affecting the overall procedure of work (Matthias et al. 2021). Hence, this study has been developed as per the requirements of the objectives.

Thus, retrospective cohort study plays a crucial role in reaching objectives regarding multivariate analysis. At the same time, communication is an essential part of discharge planning that helps patients. In the case of the breastfeeding model from an exclusive aspect, this study has played a vital role in managing every aspect of ethics of research by getting consent from the participants along with protecting personal data. Most importantly, this essay has analysed and critiqued methodology, ethics, and analysis part of the study in brief. However, it has not left any part of the article that has left a future scope for researchers willing to work in this specific area.

Reference list
Ballesta-Castillejos, A., Gómez-Salgado, J., Rodríguez-Almagro, J., & Hernández-Martínez, A. (2021). Development and validation of a predictive model of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge: Retrospective cohort study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 117, 103898.

Lima-Serrano, M., González-Méndez, M. I., Martín-Castaño, C., Alonso-Araujo, I., & Lima-Rodríguez, J. S. (2018). Predictive validity and reliability of the Braden scale for risk assessment of pressure ulcers in an intensive care unit. MedicinaIntensiva (English Edition), 42(2), 82-91.

Mantri, N., Patel, H., Kanthi, R. B., Sun, H., Shaikh, D., Gongati, S., &Nayudu, S. K. (2021). 0RW1S34RfeSDcfkexd09rT2Clostridioides difficile1RW1S34RfeSDcfkexd09rT2 Infection and Liver Cirrhosis – A Retrospective, Cohort Study. Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, 14, 229-235.

Matthias, H., Zillig, D., Florian-Reynoso, M., Donath, M. Y., & Gottfried, R. (2021). Switch-to-Semaglutide Study (STS-Study): a Retrospective Cohort Study. Diabetes Therapy, 12(3), 943-954.

Mercier, R. J., Burcher, T. A., Horowitz, R., & Wolf, A. (2018). Differences in breastfeeding among Medicaid and commercially insured patients: a retrospective cohort study. Breastfeeding Medicine, 13(4), 286-291.

Miyoshi, Y., Suenaga, H., Aoki, M., & Tanaka, S. (2020). Determinants of excessive weight loss in breastfed full-term newborns at a baby-friendly hospital: a retrospective cohort study. International Breastfeeding Journal, 15, 1-8.

Mohajan, H. K. (2018). Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1), 23-48.

Muhumuza, S., Akello, E., Kyomugisha-Nuwagaba, C., Baryamutuma, R., Sebuliba, I., Lutalo, I. M., Kansiime, E., Kisaakye, L. N., Kiragga, A. N., King, R., Bazeyo, W., &Lindan, C. (2017). Retention in care among HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women on lifelong antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: A retrospective cohort study. PLoS One, 12(12)

Snyder, H. (2019). Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines. Journal of business research, 104, 333-339.


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