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Discuss certain Ethics and codes of conduct for Mobile Companies


Information on Ethics and Codes of Conduct Assignment Report
• The Ethical and Codes of Conduct report is an individual assignment.
• Do not use university assignment template. Make your own assignment cover sheet with your name, student id, your campus and assignment title.
You need to research information related to the selected topic. The research material can be publications, news articles, research papers, books, etc. For the selected case study discuss the following:
1. Describe the selected case study clearly.
2. Allocate the relevant technical field to the selected case study and discuss in brief the ethics and code of conducts related to this field. Are these ethics and code of conducts considered in the selected case study?
3. Discuss in your views what went wrong in the case study which resulted in the accident/incident.
4. Was any investigation conducted for this accident? What are the recommendations of this investigation?
5. Give your analysis of the resulting outcome and relate them to the relevant industry sector’s ethics and professional code of conduct.
6. Conclude your report with your recommendations.


Executive Summary
The study of ethics and codes of conduct focuses to explain the negative and harmful impact caused by the inappropriate practices of mobile battery disposal. To provide relevant factors and component in association to the respective topic, assistance form an article, Mobile Phone Usage and Battery Disposal in Lagos, Nigeria, has been taken. In addition, certain codes of conduct and ethics that are required to be followed by the mobile companies are explained. The findings of the study explain consumer behavior and attitude towards disposing mobile batteries as well as its impact on social and economic environment.

Ethics and Codes of conduct adheres to clarify the mission, principles and values linking with the standard of professional conduct, enabling the employees to coordinate with the ethical criteria of the organization (Iatridis and Schroeder, 2016). A well-narrated code of conduct encourages compliances and ethics while endeavoring to help employees overcome ethical dilemmas that encountered them in their daily work. The study focused on exhibiting issues in associated with an organization that has breached mandatory code of conduct and ethical standards. To explain the topic in a broader manner, certain issues and obstacles that may arise avoiding the ethical standard and code of conduct in associated to mobile phone usage and battery disposal has been discussed. Investigation has been conducted in associated with latest published articles, journals and news, in order to analyze the situation that has been discussed in the respective article. Hence, to maintain the reliability and accountability of the research conduct, secondary methods of data collection method has been implemented that includes latest published articles, newspapers, journals, magazines and books.     

1. Overview of the case study
The selected case study name, Mobile phone usage and battery disposal in Lagos, focuses to explain diverse kinds of issues affecting the environmental facts of the country Lagos. As per the view of Bai et al., (2018), the number of mobile phone users rapidly increased in Nigeria which has been witnessed by the mobile market condition. However, as per the study increasing demand and process of technology has rapidly resulted in generating huge range of e-waste or e-scrap, which leads to cause harmful and hazardous diseases, due to the random changing practices of mobile phones. The paper exhibits the study of ethics and codes of conduct related to mobile phone usage and methods of battery disposal used by the Nigerians people (Babatunde et al., 2014). In the case, certain criteria’s of has been formulated in association to the sex, age, occupation, educational level, their responsibility towards the environment, methods of utilizing technological device like mobile phones as well as the knowledge towards proper waste disposal especially during disposing mobile phone batteries. Thus, the relationship between an individual and there, mobile has been exhibited with the intention of adopting adequate methods of disposal. As per the findings of the study, it has been observed that higher educated individuals are found to be more adequate in utilizing and disposing practices in associated with the mobile phone as compared to the lower level of educated people. Hence, by the investigation it has been evaluated that the majority of the population indiscriminately dispose their battery of mobile, which indicates inappropriate methods, without any proper regulation, batteries were disposed. Furthermore, existing relationship between the occupation and corporate workers with the intention of adequate battery disposal are associated with high percentage of respondent who wishes to recycle batteries utilized without compromising with the acts. The outcome of the study endeavors domestication of the convention, enactment of the local jurisdiction to deal with the e-waste, its effects and needs to develop consumer awareness in Nigeria and compliances in associated to the infrastructures for collecting as well as processing of generating and decomposing waste has been recommended.

2. Allocate the relevant technical field to the selected case study and discuss in brief the ethics and codes of conducts related to this field. Are these ethics and codes of conducts considered in the selected case study?
Issues arises due to increasing usage of mobile phones to environment: As depicted by Elliott et al., (2017), increasing usage of smart phones and inappropriate methods of battery disposal are strongly damaging the environment conditions as the highest amount of carbon footprint associated with the tech and mobile phone industries has been founded. Based on the research conducted the phenomenal progress in mobile phone and information technology lead to generate huge quantity of e-waste or electronic waste in the country. The reason behind the waste is the short-life cycle as well as its traits of quick obsolete within a year of use. E-waste, electronic waste or waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are described under the discarded electronic devices (Ogunbiyi et al., 2015). As per the survey of the researchers 20-50 million metric tons of the e-waste were generated by the electronic consumers, which comprise approx. 5% of the total municipal solid waste. 

Ethics and Codes of Conduct

Figure 1: Statistic showing raising environmental issues due to inappropriate methods of battery disposal
(Source: Elliott et al., 2017)

In the UK approx. 20,000-30,000 tons of the waste associated with disposable batteries are generated annually. Along with only 1000 tones are recycled in a proper manner and the rest are waste batteries are disposed in landfill sites. It has been evaluated that most of the batteries consist of heavy metals, which are served to be the main concern for the environment.  When these batteries are disposed of in an improper manner, these heavy metals leak into the soil because of casing corrodes. This in result led to pollute both water and soil component of the country as well as endanger the wildlife of the country. It has been evidenced that one misplaced mobile battery may pollute 60000 liters of water in a dangerous manner which may lead to spread deadly disease-causing symptoms among the country’s population and its wildlife (Mani, 2019).

Ethics and Codes of Conduct

Figure 2: Statistic exhibiting batteries highly responsible for environmental pollution
(Source: Mani, 2019)

Cadmium is an example of a misplaced mobile phone battery that can be determined as toxic for aquatic invertebrates as well as can lead to bio-accumulate on the fish which makes them poisonous to be consumed by humans. As per the views of Kpormon and Douglas, (2018), many of the mobile phone batteries like for instance, button cell batteries, contains mercury which has similar hazardous properties as cadmium.  However, some of the other major issues that are caused due to inappropriate method adapted for the battery disposal are global warming, climatic changes, photochemical smog pollution, air acidification and ecotoxicity.

Ethics and codes of conduct in mobile phone field: Ethics and codes of conduct in associated to the mobile phone field that are mandated to be followed by the company’s representatives and are discussed below:

  • It is essential to achieve significant commitment in different modes of supply as well as broad coverage’s in technology in a neutral manner.
  • Must ensure the methods of disposal are appropriate and authentic and hence do not influences pollutant factors carbon footprint and cadmium (Moletsane and Zuva, 2018).
  • Must ensure elimination of the exemption towards most favored national treatment (MFN) which is non-discrimination
  • The directors of the company must ensure that the product must serve usefulness to the community and society and hence would be able to meet all the requirements by avoiding any sort of harmful effects to the wealth and health of others in the country.
  • The company must compile with the safe measures in associated to human well-being, safe natural environment as well as safe social environment.
  • The values are required to be maintained in associated with tolerance, equality and respect to others as per the principles of equal justice to both human resources and environmental factors. Discrimination in aspects of sex, age, disability, cast, national religion and national origins is an explicit violation of the code.
  • The ethical consideration of the code is to respect all the concerns of the stakeholders until discharged from the mandated obligations by the laws or principles of the respective code.
  • Appropriate methods of recycling used batteries to avoid environmental pollution.
  • The companies need to explain consumers regarding the usage of proper batteries for specific handsets and the negative consequences of using duplicate phone batteries supplied from unauthorized manufacturers and that are available in the local unauthorized stores and sellers.
  • The mobile phone companies must abide by the promises that they have made to the customers through the value proposition and ensure constant power supply to the mobile phone users with efficient batteries.
  • Companies must provide information regarding the original and duplicate products for avoiding negative consequences on the environment

Based on the articles discussed in this study of ethics and codes of conduct the consumers were responsible for inappropriate practices in associated with the battery disposal. The literature review portion, based on Knowledge towards Proper Battery Disposal and Its Environmental Effects, evidenced that 91% of the majority respondent disposes their used batteries into the dustbin, whereas 2% of the participants burn those batteries and other 2% dispose them into the river and streams. The other leftover participants buried them while disposing them into the buses or else keep them at home. However, as per the code of conduct and ethics it is the responsibility of the company to inform the customers about the disposal practices that should be adapted by the customers after their use. It has been stated in the study that inappropriate practices of disposing mobile phone batteries lead to pollute water and soil, which has been evidenced in the country of Nigeria (Nrior and Kpormon, 2018). It has been evaluated from the study that company has not adapted relevant steps to stop such unethical practices that are performed by the customers. However, in association with the mobile companies, no such follow-up of the codes and ethics has been mentioned. It has been observed by Gottesfeld et al., (2018), that all the individuals are responsible to maintain sustainable environment by identifying unethical practices related to any factors that might be the reason behind the environmental pollution.

In the other section of literature review Attitude towards Proper Battery Disposal, it has been evaluated that 85% of the participants were willing to dispose of their used batteries in a designated container for recycling without any compensation towards the act. However, it can be evidence that the intention is ethical, but the practice is not as per the willingness. However, to identify the issues associated with the mobile battery disposal, surveys have been performed by the researcher in the respective article with several questionnaires relevant to the topic. The entire questions revolve in identifying consumers behaviors in associated with the usage of mobile and its disposable practice. The questionnaires also state about the responsibility of individuals in associated with the environment. The willingness of the individuals for the appropriate disposal practices was also includes. Hence, it can be evaluated that all the activities and research are conducted adhering the ethics and codes of conduct in associated with the relevant topic.

3. Discuss in your views what went wrong in the case study, which resulted in the accident/incident
As per the case, the phenomenal progress in associated to the mobile phone and information technology and hence results in increasing huge quantity of e-waste or electronic waste. The study explained negative impacts of inappropriate disposal methods of battery toward the environment and population. Most of the batteries that are disposed in landfill sites contain heavy metals, which are the major reason for polluting environment (Okorhi et al., 2019). This in additional affects the soil and water resources as well as endangers the wildlife of the country. Other issues evidenced from the study are cadmium. This chemical when released into the water due to the inappropriate disposal practices lead to disinfect the fish, making them poisonous to be consumed by humans.    

The generation of electronic waste was evidenced to be increasing in the rapid run, which implemented economic and environmental burden on the country (Nwoko et al., 2017). Hence, the attitude and behaviors of the consumers played a significant role in explaining the impacts of inappropriate practices of battery disposal. However, to understand the customers approach towards the phone recycling, Nokia in Nigeria conducted a two-way global consumer studies in associated to the topic (Okorhi et al., 2015).  From the study it was evaluated that half of the population were unaware with the fact of recycling mobile phones. Two thirds of the populations are not aware with the methods that can be implemented to recycle unwanted electronic devices, whereas 71% are not aware when to perform the disposal activity (Aquino, 2017). In contrast, only 3% of the population implement recycle process efficiency.  

As depicted by Omole et al., (2015), it has been observed that mobile phone is fabricate in aspects to lead, mercury, brominates, lithium and cadmium. All the mentioned substances lead to cause diverse environmental collision in associated with the level of toxicity. As per the case, customers in Nigeria are strongly active in replacing their handsets with the upgraded model, which ultimately increases the hazardous waste and carbon footprints. It has been observed that in the country of Nigeria proper process of recycles is absent. As per the report on Nigeria by Okorhi et al., (2017), inappropriate disposal of the mobile phone batteries can accumulate possible carcinogen in the environment that results in chronic and acute effects on plants, animals, humans and microorganisms. Lithium is another chemical present in the battery with a high degree of pollutant component that can pollute the water when exposed (Akintunde and Oboh, 2015).

In the study of ethics and codes of conduct, it has been evidenced that 91% of Nigeria population are not aware battery proper battery disposal, which may lead to prostate, and lung cancer as well as is toxic to gastrointestinal tract, hormonal system, cardiovascular, respiratory and kidney. The toxic chemical also leads to damage in peripheral and central nervous system, kidneys and blood system. In addition, the brominates flames from the batteries buried affects the soils and foods cultivated which therefore increases the cancer risk associated with lymph and digestive system. Hence, it has been evidenced from the survey that 91% of the population dispose of their used batteries into the dustbin, 2% of the total population dispose their batteries into the streams and rivers which leads to pollute the water and fish, making them poisonous for human consumption. Batteries that are disposed into the soil contaminate the water and soil, which when comes in direct or indirect contact with humans leads to skin issues and respiratory problems (Douglas and Nwachukwu, 2015). However, in Nigeria, many of the cases in associated with the pollution caused by disposal of mobile phone batteries has been recorded which has majorly affected the health of human beings as well as caused damage to the environment.    

4. Was any investigation conducted for this accident? What are the recommendations of this investigation?
The topic of mobile phone usage and inappropriate practices of battery disposal is a major issue identified in many countries, especially in Nigeria (Balogun et al., 2018). To maintain the reliability and accountability of the study survey in associated with different questions relevant to the respective topic has been performed on several participants. The total number of Nigeria’s population as recorded 174,507,539, among which sample grouped include secondary student 150, 50 private business owners, 20 unemployed graduates, 80 rural dwellers, 200 government workers and 350 university students recognizing different perspectives of people. Thus, a total of 1000 people were surveyed in associated with the relevant questions like for instance, attitudes and behaviors of consumers towards mobile disposal practices, knowledge about the durability of the mobile phone’s batteries and responsibility towards the environment. In order to maintain the reliability of the study, information and data has been collected from the latest published articles, journal, newspaper and magazines in associated with the respective topic. 

Ethics and Codes of Conduct

Figure 3: Statistic showing population utilizing phones
(Source: Iatridis and Schroeder, 2016)
With the research conducted, it has been evaluated in this study of ethics and codes of conduct that 53.3% of the total population holds the phone and 33.7% of the population possess two cell phones. 23% of the participants stated that they use more than one battery for the phones to satisfy their demands in associated with the mobile phone usage. 43% of the respondent changes their batter twice in two weeks, 16% changes their batteries twice in two years and 19% of the participants changes for at least three times to gain effective benefits (Lee et al., 2018). However, the entire population is not aware with the methods that are required to be implemented for the disposing batteries. 

Ethics and Codes of Conduct

Figure 4: Statistics showing number of times phone battery has been changed
(Source: Iatridis and Schroeder, 2016)

The population does not follow the ethics and codes as it has been evident that 91% of the Nigerian population disposes the batteries in the dustbin, whereas 2% dispose them into the stream or river. However, it has been explained that disposing batteries into the water lead to spread toxic chemical, which affects the fish while making them poisonous for human consumption. However, it was observed that 65% of the participants knew mobile phone batteries can be recycled as well as 67% knew mobile phone batteries contribute to pollute the environmental factors in a broader manner. 

It is recommended in this study of ethics and codes of conduct that accountability of the research conducted on respective topic can be increased by involving different demographic groups of participants. While conducting the survey, old aged people, public employees, housewives and other categories could have been involved. As all the persons possess different aspects on the topic, more ideas and information would have been achieved. The researcher could also investigate on the amount of damages that occurred in Nigeria due to inappropriate practices adheres to disposal of mobile phone battery (Nwagwu and Okuneye, 2016). Hence, comparing the past and present report forecasted on the cases in associated with the damages caused by toxic chemicals released with inappropriate practice of battery disposal can be done. This would help to show relevant factors affecting the living and environment. In addition, comparison from different in association to the present of carbon footprint can be done with the help of which an appropriate quantity of damages caused in Nigeria or else different country can be identified.     

5. Give your analysis of the resulting outcome and relate them to the relevant industry sector’s ethics and professional code of conduct.
Cell phones in recent times have become a necessary part of the daily lives of human beings. However, the improper usage of the cell phone devices can hamper the environment and harm the health of animals as well as human beings. By analyzing the results of the study provided it has been evidenced that most of the respondents (63.4%) used Nokia mobile phones while Blackberry was the second most used mobile phones. The survey was conducted on the frequency of changing the handsets and the time of using the current mobile phones. It has been identified that most of the respondents (39.6%) were using their phone for 1 year whereas a greater number of people (37.7%) has seemed to use their phones from last three years.

A greater portion of people changes their mobile phone batteries in two years. It has been also evidenced that a greater number of people must change their phone twice or thrice in two years. Hence, it can be said in this study of ethics and codes of conduct that the disposal of batteries is a serious issue in the country. The survey results indicate that 23% of the total respondents used at least 2 batteries for a single cell phone. They have explained that a single cell phone battery is not enough in meeting the demand of power for their mobiles. Such an incident is contradictory with the ethics of the cell phone industry. Most of the organizations in the cell phone industry promise their customers about a constant power supply to their mobile with the help of the efficient batteries that are provided to them (Sarath et al., 2015). However, the results of the study indicate that most of the customers have to change their cell phone batteries very frequently. This is also contradictory to the ethics of the industry as they are unable to fulfill their own statement promised to the customers.

The research conducted on the Nigerian people has also revealed only 36% of people use to buy phone batteries from the accredited dealers and most of the customers use to buy cell phone batteries and phone chargers from other stores like roadside sellers and mobile phone accessories shops. Thus, maximum of customers is unable to receive the original batteries provided by the company. Such incidents indicate a poor knowledge of the customers regarding the usage of batteries and the consequences of using batteries that are not specific for their mobile phones. The mobile phone companies must provide adequate information to the customers regarding the benefits of using proper phone batteries and what damage can be caused due to the usage and disposal of the batteries that are from unauthorized sources. Duplicate batteries contain harmful chemicals in greater portions as compared to the original batteries. It is clear that the organizations do not aware their customers regarding the harmful effects of the duplicate batteries. Hence, the companies within the cell phone industry must possess the ethical guidelines to educate the people about using the correct batteries in their phone and not relying on the batteries that are from different manufacturers.

The result of the study of ethics and codes of conduct also demonstrates that 91% of the respondents have earlier disposed their phone batteries in dustbins. The waste materials from dustbins are directed at the regular landfills. The batteries thus able to contaminate the soil water and May also explode if experienced high temperature (Baig, 2019). Hence, education of the people regarding the disposal of the batteries is very critical and must be influenced by the organizations within the cell phone industry. The lack of awareness among people regarding the recycling of batteries indicates poor promotional strategies of the organizations regarding the topic. Although many respondents have agreed that they are aware about adequate battery disposal they also agree that they are not provided with adequate places for the disposal. It, in turn, raises question regarding the violation of code of conduct of the cell phone industry.

The study of ethics and codes of conduct also demonstrates that educated people have the tendency to use their mobile phones in correct ways.  However, the tendency to use mobile phones in proper ways is very low in people with lower education. Hence, leaders and managers of the organization have to admit that as the educational level of overall population of the country is low, they have to implement ethical guidelines so that strategies may be taken to educate people regarding the proper usage of mobiles, disposal of the batteries and purchase of the mobile phone accessories from authentic stores and manufacturers. Companies also need to provide information to the customers for distinguishing original batteries from the duplicate ones.

6. Conclude your report with your recommendations.
From the above discussion on the study of ethics and codes of conduct, the significant impact of implementing inappropriate practices of mobile phone disposal has been conducted. From the study, it has been observed that almost 90% or more of the Nigerian population dispose their used mobile phone batteries into water, soil or by throwing them into dustbin or else burning them. Due to these unethical practices, the country is suffering from both social and economic issues. Many of the cases related to respiratory issues and skin rashes were recorded in Nigeria due to the toxic chemical disposed in the soil and water. Furthermore, in the study it has been evaluated that 85% of Nigerian population are willing to implement appropriate disposable practices in associated to the mobile phone batteries. Hence, different ethics and codes of conduct in associated with the mobile phone industries that are mandatory to be implemented to maintain environmental sustainability has been discussed. However, in the given article the mobile phone consumers rather than the industries perform the unethical practices for battery disposal. Thus, it can be recommended that the mobile companies must organize events that would enable to educate the people of Nigeria in association to battery disposal activities. Hence, the finding of the study stated that more than 90% of the total population adapts inappropriate practices while disposing their used mobile batteries. It has been observed that the educational level of the Nigerian people is relatively low as compared to other countries, thus it is essential for the mobile companies to educate the people about the negative impacts caused by unethical practices of battery disposal toward the health and environment.      

Akintunde, J.K. and Oboh, G., 2015. Depletion of cellular adenosine triphosphate and hepatocellular damage in rat after subchronic exposure to leachate from anthropogenic recycling site. Human & experimental toxicology, 34(11), pp.1083-1095.

Aquino, S., 2017. Recycling precious metals from mobile phones (Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia).

Babatunde, O.A., Eguma, C.A., Oyeledun, B.T., Igwilo, O.C., Awosanya, O.G. and Adegbenro, O., 2014. Mobile phone usage and battery disposal in Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 4(4), pp.147-154.

Bai, H., Wang, J. and Zeng, A.Z., 2018. Exploring Chinese consumers' attitude and behavior toward smartphone recycling. Journal of cleaner production, 188, pp.227-236.

Baig, A., 2019. Ethics and codes of conduct Harmful Impacts of Cell Phones on Environment and Humans. Available at SSRN 3318389.

Balogun, T., Morenikeji, O., Emikpe, B., Oyelowo, O. and Oyebanji, V., 2018. Clinicopathological features observed in rats exposed to leachates from a municipal dump site in Nigeria. Zoology and Ecology, 28(1), pp.50-55.

Douglas, S.I. and Nwachukwu, E.U., 2015. Effect of spent laptop battery waste on soil microorganisms. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Apply Science, 5(11), pp.867-876.

Elliott, J., Kor, A. and Omotosho, O.A., 2017. Energy consumption in smartphones: an investigation of battery and energy consumption of media related applications on android smartphones.

Gottesfeld, P., Were, F.H., Adogame, L., Gharbi, S., San, D., Nota, M.M. and Kuepouo, G., 2018. Soil contamination from lead battery manufacturing and recycling in seven African countries. Environmental research, 161, pp.609-614.

Iatridis, K. and Schroeder, D., 2016. Responsible research and innovation in industry. The Case for Corporate Responsibility Tools. Cham uaO.

Kpormon, L.B. and Douglas, S.I., 2018. Comparative ecotoxicological assay of E-waste (Phone Batteries) on some aquatic micro flora. Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, pp.1-10.

Lee, D., Offenhuber, D., Duarte, F., Biderman, A. and Ratti, C., 2018. Monitour: Tracking global routes of electronic waste. Waste management, 72, pp.362-370.

Mani, R., 2019. Do Mobile Phones Cause More Harm than Good?. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7(08), p.198.

Moletsane, R. and Zuva, T., 2018. Managing Electronic Waste Generated from Mobile Phones: A Review of African Countries. In Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science (Vol. 1).

Nrior, R.R. and Kpormon, L.B., 2018. Comparative ecotoxicological analyses of spent phone batteries on Pseudomonas sp. in tri aquatic environment. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, pp.1-11.

Nwagwu, W. and Okuneye, M., 2016. Awareness and attitudes of small-scale information technology business operators in Lagos, Nigeria toward E-waste hazards. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 19(4), pp.267-282.

Nwoko, C.I.A., Nkwoada, A.U., Njoku, P.C. and Obichini, A., 2017. Novel non-parametric assessment of heavy metals in coated card wastes. Ethics and codes of conduct Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, pp.1-10.

Ogunbiyi, A., Ojowuro, O.M., Openibo-Adebosin, A.O. and Ayeni, R.A., 2015. Research and Development of Equipment and Facilities for WEEE/E-Waste Management in Lagos-Nigeria. Journal of Solid Waste Technology & Management, 41(4).

Okorhi, J.O., Amadi-Echendu, J.E., Aderemi, H.O., Uhunmwangho, R. and Agbatah, O.B., 2017. Solving the waste electrical and electronic equipment problem: socio-economic assessment on sustainable e-waste management in South Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, 20(5-6), pp.300-320.

Okorhi, O.J., Amadi-Echendu, J.E., Aderemi, H.O. and Otejere, J.O.S.E.P.H., 2015. Technology Paradigm for E-Waste Management in South-Eastern Nigeria. Intrenational Association for Management of Techonology: Coral Gables, FL, USA, pp.802-823.

Okorhi, O.J., Omotor, D. and Aderemi, H., 2019. Ethics and codes of conduct Wastes from Industrialized Nations: A Socioeconomic Inquiry on e-Waste Management for the Recycling Sector in Nigeria. In Assessment and management of radioactive and electronic wastes. IntechOpen.

Omole, D.O., Tenebe, I.T., Emenike, P.C., Umoh, A.S. and Badejo, A.A., 2015. Causes, Impact and Management of Electronic Wastes: Case Study of Some Nigerian Communities. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10(18), pp.7876-7876.

Sarath, P., Bonda, S., Mohanty, S. and Nayak, S.K., 2015. Mobile phone waste management and recycling: Views and trends. Waste management, 46, pp.536-545.


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