Essay on Primary Health Care in New Zealand
a. How do the socio-political and cultural determinants impact on the health of individual, whanau/family, organisations and communities?
b. Identify and explain the socio-political and cultural health determinants that impact the health of three different cultural or ethnic groups in Aotearoa/New Zealand
c. Analyse the implications of the health determinants to the overall health outcomes in Aotearoa/New Zealand
Part 2: Analyse five principles of primary healthcare that relate to Aotearoa/New Zealand
a. Develop a Health Promotion Project addressing one of the identified health challenges in New Zealand/Aotearoa. Project must clearly include vision, mission, background, challenges and future plan.
b. Analyse the application of the Ottawa Charter as the global framework for the Health Promotion Project that you developed in part a.
c. Analyse underpinning theories of the developed Health Promotion Project.
A. impact of socio-political and cultural determinants on the primary health care of individual family organisation and community Social political factors is a combination of both the social and the political factors that influence and impact the health of an individual, family, organisation and the community at large. These factors include determinants such as poverty, illiteracy, inequality in terms of access to health care system along with Healthcare public policies. On the other hand cultural factorswhich has an impact on the health of an individual, community or an organisation is primarily backed by the cultural factors which include religion ethics and values language and many more (Came, O’Sullivan &McCreanor, 2020). In a nutshell both the social political and the cultural determinants have a considerable impact towards the health of an individual or the community at large as individuals are primarily driven by these factors within the Healthcare system. In respect to the health of an individual family organisation for a community the level of education poverty and literacy has a considerable impact towards ensuring appropriate availability of Healthcare services as our community or an organisation with high literacy and education and no poverty is aware of its Health Care rights and ensure that it is available to each and every section of the society.
On the other hand the political ideology of the government also has a considerable impact towards the health of an individual or the community. For example and a situation where the ideology of the government is for the Welfare of its citizens, then it will make available cheap health care services to the individuals families and communities in order to ensure sustainable growth and development (Beks et al., 2020). Lastly culture also has a significant impact towards the health of an individual as under situation where the community practices liberal culture ensuring appropriate availability of Healthcare services to each and every section of the society, there will be appropriate promotion of health care system and adequate availability of the same leading to a positive impact towards the overall health of a society.
B. socio-political and cultural health determinants that impact the health of three different cultural groups of New Zealand New Zealand is a country which is home to a large number of cultural groups coming from different parts of the world and therefore the social political and the cultural health determinants have a significant impact towards the health care system of these groups within New Zealand. Some of the most prominent ethnic groups of New Zealand who are directly impacted from the social political and cultural health determinants are Indian, New Zealand Europeans and Chinese.Therefore a detailed discussion in respect to some of these determinants is discussed below in detail.
Income and poverty: income time be classified as one of the most important social determined that has a direct impact towards the delivery of Health Care Services to the specific communities and cultural groups. It is also identified within the report of National Health committee of New Zealand that there is a direct and positive relationship between low income and Poor health services within specific cultural groups of New Zealand. As a result of low income generation within the above identified communities there is a significant impact who were the availability of Healthcare services for the same as medical facilities in New Zealand are very expensive for individuals coming from different culture (Jeffreys et al., 2020).
Due to low income generation amongst the above identify group there is also non availability of other essential services such as adequate nutrition housing and educational opportunity which tends to severely impact the availability of Healthcare services.
Unemployment: unemployment a major political determinant that leads to non availability of adequate health care services for the specific communities identified above in New Zealand. Unemployment as a political determinant impacting the availability of Healthcare services is also related to the social factor as it leads to reducing disposable income and social status of the individuals along with reducing the self-esteem, social contact which makes individual for the community less interactive and participated in community life. As per the report of the National Health committee of New Zealand it is evident that unemployed citizens of New Zealand have poor health status as compared to individuals who are employed. Therefore as a political factor the political parties and the Government of the country must ensure appropriate availability of jobs for specific backward communities within the State ensures appropriate availability of Healthcare services maintaining sustainable growth and development.
Inequality within ethnic groups: report of National Health committee of New Zealand effectively communicates that there is widespread any quality in terms of delivery of Health Care Services within the ethnic and cultural groups of New Zealand which tends to directorate the quality of Healthcare services and also leads to large disparities in terms of availability of the same (Gauld et al., 2020). The ethnic and cultural groups within New Zealand who have a dominant position within the state tends to dominate the availability of Healthcare services for their specific community leading to unequal distribution of health care services having a considerable impact towards collective and sustainable growth and development.
C. Analyse the implications of the health determinants to the overall health outcomes
The evaluation to the various determinants of health effectively provides that the determinants affecting the availability of Healthcare services for an individual family for the community at large must be monitored in a well defined manner so that there is appropriate availability of the Healthcare services to each and every section of the society without any conditions. From the analysis it is evident that the availability of Healthcare services primarily exists due to differences between individuals and communities respectively. Therefore the Government and authorities must effectively insured to bridge the gap between communities primary in respect to Income education religion and other cultural attributes so that there is appropriate availability of Healthcare services for each and every citizen as it is a basic necessity. The Government of New Zealand has effectively implemented various plans and policies as a part of the socio-political factor affecting health care system in order to ensure appropriate availability of services to individuals, families, organisations and the community without any disparity or discrimination.
Analysis of the 5 principles of primary healthcare
Primary Health Care is a basic system that ensures appropriate and effective delivery of competent health care services to each and every individual within a country or a state irrespective of the caste Creed religion and other socio economic condition. The basic purpose of Primary Health care service is to make available appropriate Health Care facility to an individual in order to ensure and collective growth within the economy. Within the Primary Health Care Services five types of care are included which are primitive, curative, preventive, rehabilitative and supportive. Therefore our discussion in respect to the five principles of Primary Health Care is effectively discussed below in detail.
Co-ordination: the principle of coordination effectively provides that there must be appropriate coordination with the entire health care system of the economy in order to ensure maximum delivery of utility. With the help of coordination, the specific needs of the entire community in respect to primary health care can be effectively met. With the involvement of the specific stakeholders including both the public and the private sector, the important health facilities can effectively be achieved within New Zealand.
Community participation: under the principle of community participation in respect to health and wellbeing for all new Zealanders the government authority of New Zealand ensures that the common public in New Zealand effectively participate in health awareness campaigns along with taking advantage of the knowledge gained from such campaigns. In order to effectively enhance community participation in all areas of New Zealand the government has initiated and undertaken the Primary Health Care strategy for ensuring maximum participation and appropriate availability Healthcare services to all sections of the society without any discrimination in respect to cultural background and other socioeconomic conditions.
Social equity: under the principle of social equity in respect to appropriate delivery of healthcare services the authorities ensures that the general public positively participate and make decisions and respect to their own health after identifying the health care problems within the community (Askerud et al., 2020). Undertaking social equity ensures appropriate evaluation of current Healthcare services available for the public along with identifying changes that are required to make the system more efficient and effective. Primarily in respect to New Zealand the health authorities have effectively implemented the policies and procedure of social equity to ensure maximum participation of the common public within campaigns designed to promote health awareness.
Wide coverage: under the principle ofnationwide coverage of health promotion and awareness relevant authorities within the economy undertake various exercises such as health awareness campaigns in order to provide appropriate knowledge and understanding to the community in respect to health education sanitization nutrition immunization and many more. With the help of undertaking a wide coverage of Healthcare promotion the community there is significant reduction in the demand for curative and rehabilitative health care needs as a society becomes aware and knowledgeable regarding their positive and negative impact of various determinants of health.
Use of updated technology: under the principle of making use of updated Technology it is communicated that in respect to efficient and effective delivery of Healthcare services the Healthcare system must use the most effective and updated Technology. Making use of the updated Technology towards delivery of health care services ensures appropriate development within the economy in respect to the health care system that consecutive leads to significant enhancement in the overall efficiency of the Healthcare system facilitating growth and development. This principle effectively advocates and recognises the primary importance of developing new and innovative techniques of delivering Services within the Healthcare system leading to higher efficiency and high-tech services as an alternative to high-cost services.
Evaluation of the primary health principles in respect to New Zealand
The evaluation into the above identified principles effectively provides that these primary principles are parallel to the primary health care system of New Zealand. The health authorities of New Zealand are primarily focused towards enhancing the overall quality of health care services along with enhancing the community participation and ensuring appropriate accessibility of the same throughout the nation. Therefore the principles of primary health care are directly proportional to the health care theme of New Zealand.
A. Health promotion project for cardiovascular disease in New Zealand
Health Promotion project is a program undertaken by specific stakeholders within an economy in order to provide adequate knowledge to the community regarding the benefits of healthy behaviour and ensure that the community is empower and engage themselves towards reducing health problems through effective participation in the project (Meaklim et al., 2020). The World Health Organisation effectively provides that a Health Promotion project is a program that enables individuals and Society to enhance their control of their own personal health. Therefore in respect to the increasing cardiovascular diseases in New Zealand specific Health Promotion project is provided below in detail. Vision: the vision of undertaking the health Promotion project is to provide adequate knurling and knowledge to the citizens of New Zealand regarding the benefits of undertaking healthy lifestyle.
Mission: the mission of the Health
Promotion project is to significantly reduce the growing number of cardiovascular disease cases in New Zealand through enhancement in public awareness regarding the possible causes of cardiovascular diseases.
Cardiovascular diseases are identified to be the most prominent cause of disability and death in New Zealand during recent times. In New Zealand the statistics provide that one in every 20 adult it is diagnosed with cardiovascular disease which results into 165000 cases of cardiovascular diseases amongst the adult age group of New Zealand. The evaluation of the statistics also provides that every 90 minutes one person in New Zealand dies because of cardiovascular diseases which are significant. The major causes of cardiovascular diseases amongst the youth and adult of New Zealand is smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol level and lack of regular exercise. The increasing cases of cardiovascular diseases started to report in New Zealand during the early twenties and have continued to increase in number since then.
One of the major challenges faced by the Healthcare system of New Zealand in terms of controlling the increasing number of cardiovascular diseases within the country is racial inequality and disparity in respect to adequate distribution of Healthcare facilities within lower sections of the society. The availability of appropriate Healthcare system in order to effectively address emergency situation such as cardiac arrest is not available in rural for deprived areas. Non availability of appropriate health services in rural areas leads to increase in the number of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases that consequently leads to increasing the national average of number of deaths due to cardiac arrest. Therefore making available appropriate Healthcare services to all the areas and communities of the country is a major challenge for the Health Promotion project as it will require appropriate availability of resources in respect to both financial and physical resource along with support of various Government and Nongovernmental organisations. Lack of education amongst specific groups of the society is also a major challenge that needs to affect appropriate development and Communication of health promotion project within promotion project within New Zealand.
As a part of the future plan primarily in respect to the Health Promotion project it is very important for relevant stakeholders in the economy to gain appropriate support from governmental and non-governmental organisation at various levels in order to ensure maximum reach of the promotion project. In order to ensure maximum efficiency from the Health Promotion project it is very important for stakeholders to function in a collaborative manner in order to ensure maximum reach of the Health Promotion project. Campaigns in respect to Healthy lifestyle and behaviour must be organised at various public and private locations in order to generate a public awareness regarding the same. Establishment of rehabilitation centres exercise centres are very important as it leads to controlling obesity blood sugar cholesterol and blood pressure.
B. Analysis on the applicability of the Ottawa charter
The evaluation into the principles and framework of Ottawa charter effectively provide that a Health Promotion project must be undertaken with the primary objective of enabling individuals to increase their control who were their health and improve the same for healthy living. Therefore the health Promotion project identified above is at par with the principles and framework of the Ottawa charter as it provides appropriate basis to the individuals to develop control over their health and improve the same by effectively undertaking regular exercises an undertaking a Healthy lifestyle (Cullen et al., 2021). Therefore the principles of Ottawa charter which primarily include building up healthy public policy that supports living, environment and the working conditions along with strengthening the sustainability within the community along with providing a scope for personal development are effectively met within the Health Promotion project identified above.
C. Theories of the developed health promotion project
Health belief model: the health belief model is primarily a theoretical base which is used for providing appropriate guidance to individuals and communities regarding specific programs in relation to prevention of diseases and Health Promotion. With the help of this model individuals within the society can easily predict and explain the changes in individual health behaviour and undertake decisions for Health Promotion accordingly.
Social cognitive theory: the social cognitive theory effectively provides the influence of environmental factors individual experience and individuals who undertake specific actions in respect to the health behaviour of the community or a specific individual. This story effectively justify is the importance of social support and self control that can be used to effectively change a behaviour of a respective group of individuals within the society in order to ensure Healthy lifestyle and appropriate prevention to specific diseases. ?
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