Main Menu

My Account
Online Free Samples
   Free sample   Employment relations in global context with reference to covid 19 pandemic

Employment Relations in global context with reference to COVID 19 pandemic


Task: The International Labour Organisation (2021) has reported that the COVID 19 pandemic had “a devastating impact on migrant workers all over the world, in particular those employed in precarious low-wage sectors”. Do you agree with this statement and what measures can be taken to better protect these workers.



The Covid-19 pandemic was an unprecedented situation which the world had never anticipated. The pandemic started spreading rapidly across nations and eventually all over the world like forest fire. The corona virus is such a virus whose spread can be restricted by restricting the social interactions between people. This called for declaring the Global Lockdown or Shutdown which banned any sort of travelling or social gathering. The social distancing led to ceasing of economic activities (Ozili & Arun, 2023). The office jobs were shifted to the work from home setup. However, the sectors which were most adversely affected by the pandemic include the manufacturing sector, construction business and contact intensive services which comprise transport, trade and hospitality. These sectors and activities were badly hit by the pandemic as these sectors failed to operate without human interaction. The physical presence of employees or workers were required in these sectors. The people who were employed in office jobs mostly managed to hold their jobs with a pay cut, working from home. The self-employed like doctors practised virtually. However, the daily wage labours or the migrant workers who are at the grass root level of the workforce in any sector were devastated by the pandemic (Maital & Barzani, 2020). They neither had jobs nor money. In fact, the migrant labours did not have shelter to stay. In this research essay, the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the migrant workers will be closely analysed.

Impact of Covid-19 on migrant workers

The Covid-19 pandemic resulted in one of the most severe job crises the world had ever seen since the Great Depression. According to Azeez EP et al (2021), this employment crisis led to trickle down effects like hunger, poverty, inequalities, suicides, etc. The pandemic almost ended in the year 2022, however, the world is yet to recover from its harmful impacts. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) in their report published in the year 2021 stated that the Covid-19 pandemic had the worst effect on the migrant labours all across the globe. This statement can be considered as true as there are several reports from various countries, especially the third world nations, which act as evidence to prove the point. The migrant workers do not mean the ones who are in high paying skilled jobs. This mainly comprises those who are employed in precarious low wage sectors. As per Choudhari (2020), there were several migrant workers who had their jobs temporarily suspended due to the pandemic. In the initial days, it was unknown to the employers how long the pandemic and lockdown would continue. Thus, they released the daily wage or migrant labours temporarily and were asked to stay at home until further notice. As the impact of the corona virus started increasing, the lockdown was gradually extended. These migrant workers eventually lost their jobs. They were left without any source of income which pushed them into hunger, starvation, poverty, health issues and death. These migrant workers also had temporary place for stay from where their landlords asked them to leave due to the fear of getting infected by the virus. There were reports from many underdeveloped or developing nations like Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, where the migrant labours started their journey homewards on foot, getting no other mode of transport during the lockdown. Many died out of hunger and Covid-19. Many others died in train and truck run overs (Karim, Islam & Talukder, 2020). There were also reports of suicides of migrant workers who chose to die as they found no way out to live, earnand feed their family. The migrant workers who managed to still hold their jobs were exploited at work. There were made to work without pay in many cases, or made to work over time without any extra pay. The usual pay rates were reduced and many who had monthly pays were treated as daily wage labours (Kumar et al, 2020).

It has also been reported that several migrant employees have been suspended summarily due to the sudden spread of the virus. This in turn left them with no in-hand income. There have also been several incidents where employees got stood down without receiving a single pay while many labours got a reduced pay along with a forceful leave. Most migrants found themselves stranded owing to lockdowns as well as border closures. Most other migrants witnessed a sudden repatriate that came along without a proper operational system as well as protocols. In several circumstances the expulsion was justified through the public health law. Returnees were then often defamed and conditional on long periods of obligatory quarantine since they were carriers of COVID-19. The countries that employed high levels of migrant employees mostly witnessed the issue. This in turn additional debt burden for several migrants as they became unemployed but were not in a circumstance to leave their job. There became high prospects where those failed migrants turned moneylenders as well as witnessed abuse. The existing debts also raised owing to deferred deployment of migrants that added to their burden. The recruitment sectors that mostly recruited migrants got severely hampered due to the pandemic (Karim, Islam & Talukder, 2020). On the other hand, COVID-19 also imposed logistics challenge for both labourers as well as migrant workers during the quarantine phase.

Condition of workers in low-wage sectors

In many nations, low-wage workers play a critical role in the workforce, especially in industries like retail, hospitality, and healthcare. These workers often have poor pay and frequently work in unfavourable conditions, which can make it difficult for them to make ends meet.The difficulty of making enough money to cover their essential living expenditures is one of the biggest problems low-wage workers encounter. Many low-wage workers receive pay that is at or just above the minimum wage, which could not be enough to pay for their accommodation, food, transportation, and medical expenses (Yi et al, 2021). This might cause financial stress and make it challenging for employees to save money or establish long-term plans.Due to their working conditions, low-wage workers may have significant hardships. Many of these people are required to work long shifts, oftentimes on weekends and holidays, and frequently without any downtime. Additionally, certain low-paying jobs, such as those in the hospitality sector, can be physically demanding and require workers to stand for long periods of time or lift heavy objects. Physical stress and injury may result from this, which may make financial and employment insecurity worse.The difficulties of living off of their salaries is one of the biggest problems low-wage workers face. These workers are frequently paid the minimum wage or little above, which would not be sufficient to cover their essential living costs. Financial stress and difficulties saving money or making future plans may result from this.Job uncertainty is a major issue for low-wage workers. Many of these workers have no benefits or job security because they are employed part-time or temporarily (Ingram et al, 2021). It may be challenging to establish future plans or feel safe in one's job as a result.Low-wage workers may also struggle with their working conditions. Many of these individuals must work lengthy shifts, frequently with no downtime, and occasionally on weekends and holidays. Additionally, certain low-paying occupations, like those in the hospitality industry, can be physically taxing and necessitate that the employees stand for extended periods of time or lift heavy goods.Low-wage workers can benefit from solutions that can help. Raising the minimum wage is one way to make sure that employees are paid fairly for their job. This may lessen financial strain and make it simpler for employees to get by.Another strategy is to give low-wage workers benefits and employment stability. This can aid in fostering a sense of security and stability in the workplace and aid employees in making future plans (Hecker, 2020). Some businesses can also think about providing low-wage workers with training and development opportunities that can help them learn new skills and improve in their careers.

Measures for protecting the workers

Workplace safety is essential for protecting employees from sickness and accidents at work. Employers have a moral and legal obligation to ensure the safety of their workers. This comprises determining and resolving potential hazards as well as putting safety policies and procedures in place in order to prevent accidents and injuries. Employers should provide workers with the necessary training and PPE, and they should regularly inspect and assess the safety conditions at the workplace. Employees also have a responsibility to follow safety protocols and alert their employers to any risks or issues. In addition to protecting workers from harm, a safe workplace benefits business by reducing absenteeism, increasing productivity, and enhancing the company's reputation.Fair remuneration and benefits are necessary to safeguard workers' financial stability. When we discuss fair pay, we're referring to a compensation plan that accounts for the worker's market value as well as their skills, knowledge, and responsibilities (Loustaunau et al, 2021). Workers should be paid a wage that will meet both their basic needs, such as food, shelter, and healthcare, as well as their long-term financial stability. Fair pay can foster justice and equity in society in addition to minimizing financial inequality.Employers must have anti-discrimination policies in place to safeguard employees from being treated unfairly because of their race, gender, age, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or other unique personal traits. Discrimination in hiring, promotion, training, compensation, and other employment practices is prohibited under these policies. Additionally, they set up processes for receiving and handling discrimination complaints.Employers should have comprehensive anti-discrimination rules that are easy to comprehend and conveyed to all staff members (Gallagher et al, 2021). They should also offer frequent training to ensure that staff members are aware of and compliant with these policies. Additionally, employers must promptly look into any claims of discrimination and take the necessary corrective steps to stop similar incidents in the future.

Employee knowledge and skill development, job performance, and career promotion depend heavily on opportunities for training and professional development. Employers should routinely provide training and development opportunities for their staff in order to help them stay up to date with industry trends and technology developments as well as gain new skills that can open the door to promotions and career success (Dalton et al, 2021). This could lead to a more engaged and motivated workforce. Employers who support their staff members' professional growth not only demonstrate that they care about their aspirations for professional and personal growth, but also boost their competitiveness and success in the long run.Employers should aid employees so they may strike a healthy work-life balance (Zerden et al, 2022). Flexible work schedules, telecommuting possibilities, and family leave policies can all be examples of this.To safeguard their rights and bargain for improved pay, benefits, and working conditions, employees should be allowed to create or join unions. Employers must respect employees' ability to band together and engage in collective bargaining.Retaliation against employees who file reports of unsafe working conditions, discrimination, or other illegal behaviours need to be prohibited. Employers should have procedures in place to safeguard informants and look into any allegations of retaliation.


It could be concluded that migrant employees are employed in unwarranted low wage sectors. They witnessed huge crisis during the pandemic thus resulting in job loss as well as suicides. It could be inferred that there are many difficulties for workers in low-wage industries in terms of job security, pay, benefits, and workplace safety. Employers should put in place safeguards including fair pay and benefits, safety procedures at the workplace, anti-discrimination policies, and chances for training and career development to protect these people. Employers may foster a more engaged and effective workforce while also making a positive contribution to a more just and equitable society by making investments in their workers' well-being and fostering a safe and inclusive work environment.


Azeez EP, A., Negi, D. P., Rani, A., & AP, S. K. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on migrant women workers in India. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 62(1), 93-112.

Choudhari, R. (2020). COVID 19 pandemic: Mental health challenges of internal migrant workers of India. Asian journal of psychiatry, 54, 102254.

Dalton, M., Groen, J. A., Loewenstein, M. A., Piccone Jr, D. S., & Polivka, A. E. (2021). The k-shaped recovery: Examining the diverging fortunes of workers in the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic using business and household survey microdata. The Journal of Economic Inequality, 19(3), 527-550.

Gallagher, S., Roy, A., Domeracki, S. J., Mohrmann, T., Missar, V., Jule, J., ... & DeWitt, R. (2021). The low-wage essential worker: Occupational concerns and needs in the COVID-19 pandemic—A round table. Workplace Health & Safety, 69(4), 154-160.

Hecker, S. (2020). Hazard pay for COVID-19? Yes, but it’s not a substitute for a living wage and enforceable worker protections. New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy, 30(2), 95-101.

Ingram, M., Wolf, A. M. A., López-Gálvez, N. I., Griffin, S. C., & Beamer, P. I. (2021). Proposing a social ecological approach to address disparities in occupational exposures and health for low-wage and minority workers employed in small businesses. Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology, 31(3), 404-411.

Karim, M. R., Islam, M. T., & Talukder, B. (2020). COVID-19? s impacts on migrant workers from Bangladesh: In search of policy intervention. World Development, 136, 105123.

Kumar, K., Mehra, A., Sahoo, S., Nehra, R., & Grover, S. (2020). The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on the migrant workers: A cross-sectional survey. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 102252.

Loustaunau, L., Stepick, L., Scott, E., Petrucci, L., & Henifin, M. (2021). No choice but to be essential: expanding dimensions of precarity during COVID-19. Sociological Perspectives, 64(5), 857-875.

Maital, S., & Barzani, E. (2020). The global economic impact of COVID-19: A summary of research. Samuel Neaman Institute for National Policy Research, 2020, 1-12.

Ozili, P. K., & Arun, T. (2023). Spillover of COVID-19: impact on the Global Economy. In Managing Inflation and Supply Chain Disruptions in the Global Economy (pp. 41-61). IGI Global.

Yi, H., Ng, S. T., Farwin, A., Pei Ting Low, A., Chang, C. M., & Lim, J. (2021). Health equity considerations in COVID-19: geospatial network analysis of the COVID-19 outbreak in the migrant population in Singapore. Journal of Travel Medicine, 28(2), taaa159.

Zerden, L. D. S., Richman, E. L., Lombardi, B., & Forte, A. B. (2022). Frontline, essential, and invisible: The needs of low-wage workers in hospital settings during COVID-19. Workplace Health & Safety, 70(11), 509-514.


Related Samples

Question Bank

Looking for Your Assignment?

Search Assignment
Plagiarism free Assignment









9/1 Pacific Highway, North Sydney, NSW, 2060
1 Vista Montana, San Jose, CA, 95134