Economics Essay on Chinese Development
China's rise to global economic superpower has been linked to its successful integration to economic globalization. Drawing on current business publications, evaluate what is China’s comparative advantage in international trade. What are the prospects and challenges faced by the country to maintain this comparative advantage in the future? Answer the question as a continuous economics essay, presented in Harvard referencing style.
International trade is one of the redemptive elements for nations regarding worldwide competitiveness. At the point when recently industrialised nations in Asia are considered for analysis, international trade acquires consideration by connecting it with their financial exhibition. China, which is one of the Asian New Industrial Economies (NIEs) and the worry of this article, has been considered as the most quickly developing economy with a normal yearly development pace of 10% from 1978 to 2005 after the opening to the world economy (Dongwei 2017). During 1990 to 2000, exports increased by 16.9% for China, which is almost three times of world average of 6.4%. Asia was having higher average of trade growth, which was 10.3%, however, China has evolved as one of the largest game changers for the international trading since its opening up. Through this essay drawing on current business publications, evaluation regarding China's comparative advantage in international trade has been done. Moreover, an analysis has also been done to demonstrate what are the prospects and challenges faced by the country to maintain this comparative advantage in the future.
In order to analyse how China has achieved its comparative advantage underpinning the latest publications, it is crucial to understand what comparative advantage means. Comparative advantage is a broadly utilised marker for estimating a nation's global performance in case of the international trade. The Comparative advantage defines fact that a country can produce certain goods or services at a relatively lower cost compared to other nations within given time and input. This idea was developed by David Ricardo and he explained the international trade with the utilisation of the opportunity cost. As per the comparative advantage theory, a nation enjoys comparative advantage, if it has lower opportunity cost in production of specific goods or services compared to other nation.
As per the analysis of the previous literary evidences, it can be seen that Chinese economy has majorly achieved its comparative advantage depending upon the technology capacity building. Administration of China since 1960s has focused to develop their technological capacity. Though the Chinese economy has been suffering from severe food issue as well lower standard of living and financial condition, however, since then the economy has indulged itself to make high performance mechanical parts that have enabled it to become where it is now. With the increased mechanical and technological capacity to produce goods and services, China has achieved what its neighbouring countries could do by day dreaming. For instance, there is India who is another large economy in the Asian market has failed miserably to keep up pace with the Chinese growth. Public cutting-edge innovative work program was dispatched in 1986, specifically the 863 Program.
Additionally, another public fundamental exploration program called 973 Program was dispatched in 1988. In 1994, the service of instruction officially dispatched the 211 Project to enable the Chinese colleges to work together with high-positioning colleges in the US also, Europe and to make practically identical colleges at home. As per the finding of Zhao et al. (2019), an innovation methodology can have four unique structures: innovation administration, specialty, innovation devotee, and innovation rationalise. Also, between industry and between firm cooperation in innovation is basic. This pattern is getting more expected with the progression of time as the result of innovation methodology just as the association's longing to keep away from day by day operational rivalry. Take the case of Shanghai Automobiles and Volkswagen, who together brought the organisation among the main 500 on the planet. An innovation system is instrumental for reasonable upper hand (bbc.com 2019). The Chinese-German mechanical coordinated effort has produced positive outcomes, particularly in creating Maglev Railway in Shanghai. With sound approaches and sharp consideration regarding the nation's economy, the Chinese government is giving a sound base to the homegrown market, actualising institutional changes regarding monetary transparency. The continued financial development created by this progression is a solid sign for future intensity. Notwithstanding, there is as yet a solid requirement for redistributing capital and work, and luckily the legislature is as of now tending to this issue. A sure further factor is the administration's obvious promise to decentralisation which will, in the end, maintain great administration. Surely, the current Chinese economy is by all accounts driven by a reformist political economy and an agreement on development as a need.
There is various literature related to the potential variables of China's accomplishment in case of international trade during the last few decades. Wang (2016), brings up; 'China's association in the global division of creation cycles' and 'mix in Asian creation organisations' as the significant components of China's noteworthy International trade extension. The last mentioned, alluding to creation sharing among East Asian nations is another exploration theme like Zhu et al. (2019), that looks at International trade examples of Asian economies inside the structure of the "flying geese" example of improvement. Akamatsu presented the flying geese hypothesis during the 1930s portraying how a less evolved nation becomes an exporter of the item which was right off the bat presented in that non-industrial nation by means of imports. This hypothesis might be viewed as one stage behind Vernon's item cycle hypothesis (weforum.org 2020). The flying geese hypothesis' initial step relates to the item cycle hypothesis' subsequent advance.
There exist various examinations breaking down the quick monetary advancement going with the basic changes in Asian economies and generally show global International trade and FDI as a means for it (Maryam et al. 2018). These sorts of getting up to speed procedure investigations might be generally partitioned into two kinds regarding their decisions which offer ascent to forecasts about the fate of this quick improvement of Asia. The primary gathering predicts that these auxiliary changes may improve and include more refined advancements like a plan and related administrations (Erokhin and Gao 2018). The subsequent gathering thinks that it's ridiculous to expect to jump (for example agricultural nations take a piece of the overall industry because of moving to propel advancements); since fundamental speculation for changing modern structure requires significant investment like instruction, capital amassing, mechanical overhaul, and so forth Moreover, the supportability of development is under inquiry. Ren and Ma (2018) might be considered to act as an illustration of this gathering with saying; China's joining the positions of cutting-edge countries by avoiding the long mechanical advancement measure is ridiculous because of the juvenile fare competitiveness with 'low-esteem included items. As per Lin and Wang (2017), China is turning into a significant accomplice underway organisation and a fare platform for worldwide firms. They examined CEPII8 research work (Yu 2018) utilising the China's Custom Statistics so as to separate China's unfamiliar International trade streams into Chinese firms, firms with unfamiliar capital and entirely unfamiliar possessed firms. The outcomes indicated that redistributing techniques of unfamiliar claimed firms represent the biggest and the most powerful aspect of China's unfamiliar International trade, particularly for the International trade surplus with the US and Europe (Dongging and Houjun 2017).
Presently, going to the near favourable position of China, 'Made in China' is turning into a typical expression on stickers connected to merchandise of basic brands and this circumstance calls attention to China as a worldwide assembling base for those global firms. Matte et al. (2020) expressed that China's unfamiliar International trade to an enormous degree is the consequence of the speculations of re-appropriating unfamiliar firms. They included that about portion of China's unfamiliar International trade is encouraged by gathering and preparing of imported contributions for re-send out since the mid-1990s. This is filled in as the purpose behind China's fast expansion from material to gadgets. To survey this broadening of the way, uncovered near advantage3 of China is watched for periods; 1974-1999 and 2000-2008. Qualities bigger than one demonstrate that the nation has a near favourable position for that particular item gathering.
Development of the office equipment and telecommunication product development by the Chinese firms has provided the country remarkable advantage over its rivals. Besides this, there has been textile and clothing industry too that has produced comparative advantage for Chinese economy. Thirdly, development of the electronics equipment and ability to have higher market confidence and ease of doing business has generate much amount of comparative advantage for the Chinese economy compared to other nations. Over the recent decade, China has been demonstrating advantage in production of solar panels, PCBs and other electronic products that has generated much amount of comparative advantage for the Chinese economy (Baraniuk 2018). With the development of the trading route between China and Pakistan to middle east has given the country ability to quickly transport its products from origin to destination allowing higher comparative advantage in logistics as well.
Considering this data, in what capacity can China's improvement in medium or cutting-edge industry, similar to media transmission gear industry, be clarified when China is considered as a work bountiful nation? The item cycle hypothesis recommends that International trade with an industrialised nation makes the gracefully of capital and innovative expertise. It portrays phases of an item starting from its entrance to the market unexpectedly. This baby stage is trailed by a developing stage; where less created nations approach the item by means of imports. The normalised item stage, which comes after, relates to the time of obtaining creation method for that item in the less evolved nation to have the option to trade. This hypothesis proposes the route for a less evolved nation to move its International trade design through bringing underway strategies. China, in this structure, imports Swedish items that Sweden not, at this point has relative preferred position in and Sweden, shifts creation to China that currently builds up a similar bit of comparative advantage with having the old degree of innovation. China is the tenth greatest exchanging accomplice of Sweden with 3.1% portion of its absolute fares of merchandise. China's Zhejiang Geely Holding Group has quite recently marked to possess Sweden's Volvo6 vehicles for $1.8 billion out of 2010 (Zhu et al. 2019). As this growth of creation network brought about a negative connection between connected gatherings' comparative advantage, China gets fit to gain a significant ground in innovatively escalated creation.
The elements of comparative advantage move on from work escalated creation to more capital and innovation serious exercises with the adjustments in the example of worldwide International trade some other rising economies like China (Andersson 2018). Likewise, as per Wang (2016), unfamiliar firm offshoots represent 80% China's absolute International trade, which additionally mirrors China's particular International trade strategy advancing preparing International trade. At the end of the day, these organisations have redistributing procedure pulled in by China's modest work in the wake of directing to an approach of change and entryway opening in the last part of the 1970s. This suggests that the part of China in global spatial fracture of creation measure offers occasion to help their innovative International trade more than its genuine homegrown abilities (Ibrahim and Iorember 2018). This circumstance gives a ricochet to China in worldwide seriousness in labour-concentrated items as well as in some mechanically progressed items. From the flying geese hypothesis perspective, which begins by clarifying the developing item stage and from that point the normalised item phase of the item cycle hypothesis, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is one hotspot for the created nations to 'reuse' their similar preferred position to less created nations (Ramamurti and Hillemann 2018).
With the increasing trade competitiveness in the international market, there is rising risks for the Chinese economy to hold its dominance in the international market. Under the recent pandemic like situation, international trading partners of the China has been focusing to shift their business out of China. Moreover, China holds the supply chain of the world to a great extent, now if the international firms move out of China, it will result in loss of China's dominance in world supply chain. With the rising financial development in the recent years, there has been rise in the confidence among the Chinese people and government on its domestic market. With the fall in the global supply chain, shifting of international firms out of China, shifting of consumer preference from Chinese product to alternative product and the falling domestic economic indicators is major risks in front of the Chinese economy for coming days.
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