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Economics Assignment: Social Policy at Global Level

Question

Task: This economics assignment requires you write a research paper on Social Policy that meets the standard of a peer-reviewed journal article. Social policy is perhaps one of the most controversial domains of public policy, because it represents competing interpretations regarding the root causes of poverty, the tension between structural causes vs. individual causes, and the appropriate solutions. The purpose of this research paper is to discuss key debates in social policy based on Charles Murray’s book “Losing Ground” and evaluate Murray's claims about the failings of the state in the 1960s.

Your research must have the following component:
1. Research problem statement,
2. A research question;
3. Demonstrate the importance of this research question through analysis of relevant literature;
4. Methodology used;
5. Assess whether the conclusions drawn by the article’s author seem sound based on the data they present and Identify any weaknesses or oversights of the article/book, finally explain and evaluate the conclusions drawn from the study.

Answer

Introduction
According to the research on economics assignment, society is said to be the collection of several individual in a group or place in order to live a life in harmony and in a conjoint manner. Based on the above statement, social policies are developed in order to initiate the activity of helping in the nature. Focusing on all the initial aspect of the social policy, Charles Murray in 1950 published a book to concentrate on the losing grounds in the American social policy. Moreover, social policy is referred to as the policy usually developed by the Government or political setting that approaches its skills in maintaining the welfare in state as well as focus on the study of social services. In addition to this, the social policies are defined as the root causes of poverty since it leads to the tension between the structural and individual causes. This statement by Charles Murray has led to a rise in the debate for the upliftment and need for social policy in the America. Focusing on the above concept, this research is based to understand the actual scenario of social policy at a global level and critically analyse the literatures that focuses on the concept of such debates.

Research Problem Statement
Social policy is published by the government and other concerned political settings that are associated with the welfare of the state. However, there is a contrast in the topic, as social policy is defined as the major fundamental reason for the development of poverty in the society. In order to understand the concept it is important to research on the study. However, the government policies on social ratio are defined in order to focus on the overall or disruptive way to indicate the general society. Thus, the research problem statement can be derived from the book of Charles Murray, which stated that Social policies are of highly controversial origin as the interpretations of the root causes of the poverty is due to the tension between the structural and the individual causes. This debate analysis requires a thorough research on the social policy and the differentiation in the welfare of society. Thus, the problem statement illustrates the incidence of social policy and demand for the illustration of Murray’s statement in the 1960s.

Research Question
This research is based on answering the following questions:
• How social policies are changing the aspect of poverty?
• How the concepts of Great society build up the level for underclass model?
• Does the social policy during 1960s affect the welfare of current scenario?
• What policies of Murray can help to develop the society during 1960s?

Literature Review
Critical analysis of the Constraints on Helping

As cited by Nwankpa (2017), the laws of social programs had some distinct characteristics that needed a discussion in the 1960s to embed the clear reason behind the social transfer programs. Murray in reference to this focused on the plan to escape these influence and develop a free society against all the norms. However, the theory of selection completely varied in this view and thus demanded for obtaining other eligibility. The literature in view of the Chapter 16 of Charles Murray, the constraints of Healing focused on the critical scenario where the objective of irrational eligibility of free society is inspired(Keith-Jenningset al., 2019).

Moreover, the scenario of food stamps distribution suggests that the eligibility in providing the food stamps needs a change. However, several literatures explained these terms as a flawed attack to deform the social reforms and only consider the development of poor and maintaining the equilibrium in the society. In addition to this, various literatures grasped on the sight of several factors such as economic, demographic and moral in order to explain the concept of how the poor people are getting affected in this country.

This chapter deals with understanding the concept of three main laws of the social programs such as the law of imperfect selection, the law of unintended rewards, and the law of net harm. Moreover, the concept of unwanted behaviour and complete eligibility in the development of a free society are focused during 1960s critiques, which can lead to dismiss of the social responsibility as well as discipline in maintaining the factors. However, the government’s social policy are based on stating the stakes, risks, payoffs, tradeoffs and strategies that can make up a clear living of people. As cited byOcampoet al., (2018), the critique of Losing Ground is based on the attack to the government policies and not on the implement of a policy that can keep the society in an equilibrium. The suggestion of eligibility regarding the food Stamps critically expresses that the consensus of a person is based on providing the demandable unit and not focusing on the equilibrium unit(Prather,et al., 2018). Thus, the concept of poverty during 1960s is not due to the social policy but due to the behavioural changes. Thus, the concept of unintended rewards cannot be emphasised to fill the gap of social welfare.

Critical analysis of Murray’s Theory on Choosing the Future
As cited by Sung, (2017), the proposal for public welfare suggested the proposition of resources that can help the person to do enormous good in a quick run. Various programs in the Murray’s Critique illustrate to convert the large population of unemployed young generation to steady workers that can make their living from the wages(Ramseyer, 2020). However, critiques of the literature explain the need of proper training and education as well as the choice of individual in the working skill as a better part in the development of hardcore employment. Moreover, the people who are still working in the fields need to be changed in order to appoint others. The critical analyses of these literatures benefit the issue of need of employment that can control the trend line of breakup of poor families.

However, as cited by Garrett, (2019), the education is important factor with the need of skills and not focus on the trend of poverty. The era of 1950-1980 is stated as the trend of poverty as the government at that time focused on enhancing the life of poor people. However, the critique explanation of the deductive or generalised theory of the government laws by Charles Murray is a description of the demand of employment in order to enhance the improvements that can affect some millions of people(Varady, 2019). Social programs that were installed since 1965 focused on the illusion of real question of efforts that can change the proposed results.

Literature Gap
The above-discussed literature has led to the discussion on the philosophy of Charles Murray who represented as a Critique in the line of social policy that was developed by the government in 1960s. Moreover, the focus of literature emerged with a gap in the discussion that appeared due to limitation of discussion. This created a gap in the discussion in the analysis of the critique of Charles Murray. Moreover, the analysis only focused on the attacking skill of the Great Society and not on the implication of the resources. Thus, the improvement of million people and discussion of life of poor people is restricted to several strengths due to the lack of evidence in the previous literature.

Research Methodology
Research design

Research design illustrates the design based on which the following research takes place. In this research, the research will focus on describing and analysing all the factors of changing social policy and aspects of poverty in 1960s(Yaroshenko, 2019). Moreover, the research design will include the fundamentals of data collection that will focus on the assessment of theories, articles and literature, measurement of each data, and analysis to conclude overall statement. In addition to this, the design of the research is based on descriptive analysis where each journal are focused in a critical review point in order to illustrate the discussion. Thus, the research design for this research is descriptive and based on the collection of primary data through qualitative analysis.

Data collection Method
The above study is based on the discussion and critical analysis of several peer-reviewed debate in the given topic. Moreover, the research is based on the qualitative method of data analysis that can focus on the critical review of each peer-reviewed literature such as articles, journals, and books that have an access of the concept of Charles Murray. In order to analyse the Murray’s concept that focuses on the concepts of poverty, social policy and welfare of the people a qualitative study is focused(Blackman& Rogers, 2017). The qualitative analysis is based on theoretical analysis that concentrates on the real data of previous literature highlighting their literature gap with subsequent detailed study and others to explore the actual debate in the social policy during 1960s. Since the time of analysis is of past date, the data cannot be focused from the analysis of quantitative research as no such interview or survey can provide such clear data of previous generation. Moreover, the concept of qualitative analysis can help to restore various previous literatures in view of the literatures that focus upon the collection of primary data as the proper method to study the following research topic.

Conclusion
At the end of the complete research, it can be concluded that the theory of Charles Murray is relevant for the poverty constraints in 1960s. The concept of laws and reason behind the constraints of helping was focused by Murray; however, the wide embedded reason for imperfect selection led in the transfer program and management of free society.

  • According to the theory of Charles Murray, it focused upon the law of imperfect selection, which dealt with the objective of defining the eligibility for the social transfer programs.
  • The second law of unintended rewards are based on the social transfer of the net value to make the society complete free from bounds
  • The third law of net harm also illustrates a critical debate that analyses the concepts of inducing change in controlling the net harm

Thus, the above points on the discussion illustrate the scenario of change in the global social policy during 1960s where the freedom of social entity can lead to huge damage in the perspective. Moreover, the ratio of poverty needs an equal importance since the changes in the social respect can lead to huge error in the balance of the society.

Reference List
Blackman, S., & Rogers, R. (2017). Critically theorising young adult marginality: historical and contemporary perspectives. Youth Marginality in Britain: Contemporary Studies of Austerity, 3.

Garrett, P. M. (2019). “Castaway categories”: Examining the re-emergence of the “underclass” in the UK. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 30(1), 25-45.

Keith-Jennings, B., Llobrera, J., & Dean, S. (2019). Links of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program with food insecurity, poverty, and health: evidence and potential. American journal of public health, 109(12), 1636-1640. Nwankpa, N. (2017). Sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria: a way out of hunger and poverty. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 6(4), 175-175. Ocampo, J. A., Bastian, E. F., & Reis, M. (2018). The myth of the'Latin American decade'. PSL Quarterly Review, 71(285).

Prather, C., Fuller, T. R., Jeffries IV, W. L., Marshall, K. J., Howell, A. V., Belyue-Umole, A., & King, W. (2018). Racism, African American women, and their sexual and reproductive health: a review of historical and contemporary evidence and implications for health equity. Health equity, 2(1), 249-259. Ramseyer, J. M. (2020). A Monitoring Theory of the Underclass: With Examples from Outcastes, Koreans, and Okinawans in Japan.

Sung, K. K. (2017). “Accentuate the positive; eliminate the negative”: Hegemonic interest convergence, racialization of Latino poverty, and the 1968 Bilingual Education Act. Peabody Journal of Education, 92(3), 302-321. Varady, D. (2019). The divided city: poverty and prosperity in urban America. Yaroshenko, S. S. (2019). On possibilities of applying the underclass theory in Russia. Sotsiologicheskieissledovaniya, (9), 28-38.

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