Economics Assignment: Providing Shelter ForNon-Violent Criminals
The topic selected for this economics assignment is “helping provide housing to end homelessness for non-violent offenders”.
For your researched proposal, follow the organizational framework:
The extentof the information you must provide about the problem, consider theletter recipient’s understanding of the problem.
Introduction to the context of economics assignment: The criminal justice system has collapsed. Crowds are going to notice the overflowing prisons. Adversity is on the rise. The system should capture dangerous criminals and rehabilitate those who may be productive members of society in order to keep communities safe. Training has been given to prosecutors to seek condemnation and prison time. This is understandable for violent criminals who pose a threat to public safety. The system is creating serious problems by treating non-violent criminals in the same way as violent criminals. The main purpose of this letter is to focus on providing shelter to non-violent criminals.
Problem Address: As Batterhum stated various researches have proved that there is a complex reason behind the crime of non-violent criminals. If someone steals for hunger, it is necessary to satisfy their hunger, if someone steals clothes for the sake of shame, then it is necessary to give them clothes. If they encounter education or employment-related problems and are involved in theft, they should be introduced to the local trade union to solve their problem. Those eligible for government benefits are sometimes assisted to navigate the difficult ins and outs of online or personal enrollment. A mother testified that she stole a small mattress for her child, which saved her child from death.
A homeless mother of three has been attached, accused of petty theft, in need of stable housing for her and her family. They sometimes take refuge on the sidewalk or sometimes on the platform. It is very important to provide shelter to them, especially those who have small children. One organization tried to solve the problem of non-violent offenders in 13 months, with only 6 out of 77 participants re-involved; based on their successful step, they are trying to expand this approach to other types of nonviolent crimes, such as solicitation, drug-related crimes, and criminal intrusion.
Cause of homelessness:As Yoo, and Wheeler describes Unemployment, poverty, and unaffordable housing is considered to be the main causes of homelessness. Personal weakness can expand these risk factors which are substance abuse disorders, trauma, involvement in the judiciary, domestic violence, divorce, sudden serious illness, disability, partner's death etc.
Criminalization: Law and policing are responsible as significant risk factors for ex-prisoners becoming homeless and part of the cycle that criminalizes homelessness as well as homeless behaviour. According to van Tongeren,there are conflicting studies regarding the homeless populations that are the cause of crime. Some studies have proved that significant reasons behind the re-arrest of homeless people are usually minor crimes that are involved in property crimes and then non-violent drug crimes. As stated by (Carrillo Beck et al.) property crimes are notable as "survival behaviours." Examples include breaking into private property or an abandoned building. A survey found that 54 per cent of those who received homeless services were prisoners in the past. The study revealed that in a comparative group of previously incarcerated, homeless individuals, there were an average of nineteen earlier arrests comparatively to an average of four previous arrests. A survey conducted by the US Bureau of Justice Statistics established that twelve per cent of detainees were homeless at the time of their arrest. Similarly, according to a national survey of prison inmates in the previous year more than 15 per cent of the prison population was homeless, 8 to 11 times the average nationally. In addition, some crimes are considered criminal because of the state of being homeless. These crimes are recognised as "nuisance offences," violating city ordinances that prohibit sleeping on benches, public urination and doorways.
Housing needs:As (Watson et al.) stated Homelessness can be alleviated by offering housing programs, including:
Short-dated exigence shelter.
Medium dated Transitional Housing Program.
Long-dated sustainable housing.
In the fiscal year 2018,the Illinois Department of Human Services has funded a total of 75 Transitional Housing Programs as well as emergency shelters. Steps to reduce homelessness can focus on providing three types of housing: transitional housing, permanent supportive housing and emergency shelter. Criminal justice policy: Police departments can use policing depending on the problem when facing homelessness. Problem-oriented policing is recognised as an effective model that police use in influencing the way of approaching a problem. With the help of the scanning, analysis, response, and evaluation (SARA) process, police may be able to interact with the homeless and develop a relatively less harmful response. Through police diversion and deflection programs, it may be possible to prevent the detrimental consequences of arrests and trials for crimes usually committed by homeless people.
Funding: The system should focus on fundraising for housing programs. The use of government treasury is needed in this case. Public assistance can also be sought, a trust can be formed, assistance from various NGOs can be sought and sponsorship can be introduced.
Recommendations: Some recommendations may be made for providing shelter to non-violent criminals:
1. According to (Farrall et al.) permanent housing can be given priority in the budget to provide long-term housing to non-violent criminals. Through this successful approach, it can be recognized that permanent homes are often important before people can make up illness, unemployment, substance abuse disorder and others.
2. Cities and states need to ensure that public housing authorities and landlords do not exclude individuals with criminal records in applications or housing advertisements or evaluate housing applicants as individuals.
3. The employment of non-violent criminals can be identified as a good method. Not providing employment opportunities according to the criminal record will not be a solution but it will increase the number of homeless people as they will not be able to afford it.
Conclusion: After all, everyone knows how difficult it is to survive without shelter. A non-violent criminal is never involved in criminal activity intentionally. So, it is important to focus on helping them, to alleviate their needs or the number of criminals will increase. Throughout the letter possible causes, remedies and proposals are mentioned that are reasonable and proven. So, considering all aspects, legal action and government intervention are essential to eradicate homelessness. Ignoring all this, it cannot be denied that everyone has the right to a free and fair life as a human being, which is not illegal even in the case of a non-violent crime.
Batterham, Deb. "Defining “At-Risk Of Homelessness”: Re-Connecting Causes, Mechanisms And Risk". Housing, Theory And Society, vol 36, no. 1, 2017, pp. 1-24. Informa UK Limited, https://doi.org/10.1080/14036096.2017.1408678. Accessed 22 Jan 2022
Yoo, Youngmin, and Andrew P. Wheeler. "Using Risk Terrain Modeling To Predict Homeless Related Crime In Los Angeles, California". Applied Geography, vol 109, 2019, p. 102039. Elsevier BV, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2019.102039. Accessed 22 Jan 2022.
van Tongeren, J. H. S. "Priority Housing As Ex-Offenders’ Key To A Home: Assessing The Potential Of Dutch Certificates Of Housing Urgency Using Lipsky’S Theory On Street-Level Bureaucrats". Journal Of Offender Rehabilitation, vol 60, no. 6, 2021, pp. 395-421. Informa UK Limited, https://doi.org/10.1080/10509674.2021.1948944. Accessed 22 Jan 2022.
Carrillo Beck, Rozelen et al. "Violence And Victimisation In The Lives Of Persons Experiencing Homelessness Who Use Methamphetamine: A Scoping Review". Economics assignmentHealth & Social Care In The Community, 2022. Wiley, https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13716. Accessed 22 Jan 2022.
Watson, Tara Marie et al. "Addressing The Complex Substance Use And Mental Health Needs Of People Leaving Prison: Insights From Developing A National Inventory Of Services In Canada". International Journal Of Drug Policy, vol 100, 2022, p. 103523. Elsevier BV, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103523. Accessed 22 Jan 2022. Farrall, Stephen et al. "Council House Sales, Homelessness And Contact With The Criminal Justice System: Evidence From The NCDS And BCS70 Birth Cohorts". Geoforum, vol 107, 2019, pp. 188-198. Elsevier BV, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.07.013. Accessed 22 Jan 2022.