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Economics Assignment: Documentation On Gender, Sexuality & HIV Counselling


Description and instruction for economics assignment:

You are employed at an NGO working with gender, rights, and social justice. The director at the NGO tasked you to write a document to the Minister of Education. In this document (written in essay form) you must explain that sex education in schools should be inclusive of sexual diversity, sexual orientation and non-conforming gender identities. You should attempt to locate this sentiment in the life skills program, and specifically indicate whether this should be rolled out to either or both primary and secondary schools. Your answer should be motivated against the current trends in the psycho-social and cultural realities of the gender movement in South Africa, and must be in line with the South African Constitution’s inclusion of: “non-discrimination, based on gender sexual orientation, and a non-sexist society”. Draw on relevant supportive literature and evidence-based research in support of your argument.

Note for educators and students: With the current daily advancement of medical science and bio-psycho-social influences within the HIV/TB/STI settings, it is important to stay abreast of current information, especially with ARV medications, home based-screenings for wellness, adolescent ARV compliance to ARV’s and other medications, emerging studies around vaccines, and a recently announced new strain of HIV.



It is the right of every child to get acknowledgment regarding sexual education as their fundamental learning and it must be irrespective of their sexual orientation, gender identification or sexual appearance. Referring to the Ministry of Education, this economics assignment has discussed many aspects regarding the protection, well-being, and acknowledgment of sexual understanding in the community. It has been observed that it is very much relevant in the contemporary period that many academic sections are discussing to involve the matter of SOGIESC violence that is Sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, and sex characteristics (Rohleder, 2009). Through this assessment, it is the key motive to present a focal discussion as well as possible recommendations over the contemporary trends and their issues that are causing a mass disturbance and a negative impact on the society and its youth. 


According to Adeniy et al., (2018), Diversity has represented various things though each definition must reflect the ability to accept and celebrate each other. Diversity has referred that the difference about each other regarding religions, culture, race, physical ability, family makeup, mental ability, socio-economic status, and sexual and gender diversity. It is required to have some ideas about these terms (sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression) for understanding diversity. Sexual orientation refers to when a person is emotionally and sexually attracted to others. It has a possibility that might change and not be the same person’s sexual behaviours. Gender identity has referred person an internal sense of identity by male, female, or both about their sexual identity. Gender expression is defined as how that person expresses their gender regarding their looks, likes, dislikes, and social behaviours. 

As per the view of Khidir et al., (2018) Gender and sexual diversity are defined by various diversity of sex characteristics, gender identity, and sexual orientation. The concept of defining sexual orientation and gender identity is an evolving field. Nowadays, the terms “lesbian” and “gay” refer to those people who are attracted to same-sex members. On the other side, “bisexual” refers to those who are attracted to both sex members. In the modern time, sexual diversity needs to be maintained around all living areas. In the educational institutes, experts must be appointed to observe the evaluation of sexual diversity. In the modern times, sexual diversity has become one of the major concerns for developing a positive environment. Equality must be maintained in terms of sexual diversity where similar opportunities to both male and female should be provided. 

According to Moshoeu et al., (2019), Women are one of the vital and decisive roles in social, political, and economic developments. Gender equality is the first matter of social justice that allows equal rights as well as resource opportunities. Along with that, it makes society richer and secure or gender equality is referred to as developing the condition as well as a matter of security. Due to the increasing violence of extremist groups, women have experienced various challenges. On the other side, extremism, exclusion, and intolerance have impacted the areas as well as threats for previous achievements. Women and girls’ refugees are disproportionately affected due to the massive influx of Syrian refugees and displacement. 

As per the view of Moshoeu et al., (2019), after the advent of democracy in South Africa, black women are finally acknowledged full citizenships through the inequality still looms. African women have faced high-level suffering for many years. Women did not get the value; therefore, they have lacked the ability for a successful life and often ignore all the social activities. Most of the residents refuse to send their girl children to schools and claims boy is cleverer than girls. However, once a Kenyan woman was working for protecting Kenyan environments which have referred African women are capable to contributes to African development. 

According to Khumalo, (2018), Sex education is important for schools which help the student to acknowledge various aspect of reproductive health. Along with that, they know about reproductive organs, adolescence, and puberty-related changes. Sex education has included various sexually transmitted diseases and sexual practices. In the past year, discussion about sexuality was considered tobacco, and sex education was given to children before their marriages. Sex education helps teenagers to understand women’s and men’s body along with that improves their attitude towards sexual and reproductive health.

In the last few decades, it has been observed that a huge number of academic sectors are supporting and coming with an acknowledgment that is focusing on the SOGIESC related violence that involves preventive efforts and its recommendable measures. However, this has been observed to be very unsystematic and irregular as still many people vary in their perceptions regarding sexual preference (Toska et al., 2015). It must be acknowledged that UNESCO has already summarized the principles based on international beliefs that education sectors must respond to these through active learning and delivering social activities to improvise the sensibility of the majority towards treating each other as equal and united. It has been observed that many, especially in the developed nations, have already accepted the culture that treats and respects the equal right for all irrespective of their sexual preference, caste, or gender and is progressing in academic as well as career path altogether. But on the other hand, it can be observed easily in underdeveloped and highly traditional nations that it is still a matter of concern among the adults as well as the youth that most of the social violence appears in the section of gender, sexual preference as well as most commonly regarding the SOGIESC issues (McHugh et al., 2018). Well, with days of immense efforts and struggles it is now taken as an asset to commence the learning and acknowledging through comprehensive responses. Such responses include national as well as academic policies that can prevent SOGIESC-based issues and violence, learning and curricular activities that must represent diversity-supporting, training for academic faculties, support to students especially to the victims, collaborative initiatives with civil society, and lastly, evaluation, as well as monitoring of the responsive outcomes, it must be constituted for this social cause (Rohleder, 2009).

 It has been observed that the current trend carries a range of barriers both in ideological as well as institutional aspects that are immensely entrenched in values, culture as well as norms that are mostly biased by the male dominating view. Arguably, it can be said that it has been observed that the most active case is the sports and games that present a nation at an international level. In that scenario, the South African report shows that most of the sports sector is dominated by men and it is a fact that women are given less preference in it. Moreover, the women at higher stands such as leadership positions or any coaching level are found to be the only rare positions that are being enjoyed by women but that too at a minor count. Apart from sports, there are socio-economic positions where women are found to be more deprived of their rights in the South African nations (McHugh et al., 2018). Women and LGBTQs are found to be unable to enjoy their rights that are supposed to be their very own but the culture of the nation is highly dominated by the male power. Moreover, young girls or married women are made to be controlled by their guardian figures such as husbands or fathers. They are very much under the control of these figures that are not allowing them to grow in society. Being deprived of their rights is causing these specific genders to stand far behind the male dominating gender in every aspect. Arguing over the academic aspect regarding the women or any third gender, it has been observed that the South African report shows a similar stand in this part also. Women have been reported to be 65% illiterate in the rural side whereas most of them are involved in brutal treatment such as domestic violence, sexual abuse, societal abuse, etc (Madiba & Mokgatle, 2016). 

Therefore, for this aspect, the country has experienced the emergence of a very severe range of communicable diseases such as AIDS, TB, HIV, etc. Although it has been included in the South African constitutional remedies to offer corporate to such victims especially to the women and the LGBTQs to get acknowledged about their rights still there is a huge effort and collaboration required by the academic and constitutional bodies to support the empowerment process of these victims and also to eradicate the mindful disease of the society regarding the SOGIESC matter. The government should start initiatives at both the academic as well as the professional level to motivate and enhance the quality of these lowly placed genders so that the outcome can help the nation altogether to emerge as a non-discriminative body that must carry the participation of every gender with rights and roles being satisfactorily enjoyed and achieved by them. It must be acknowledged that gender discrimination, identification issues, misconduct to characters, and abusing rights and people can lead to the demoralization of the performance of the country on an international level causing many aspects that might place the South African citizens at the edge of the socially imbalanced resource.

As per the view of Kruger et al., (2018), Introducing sex education among Childers will prevent social vices, for example, the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), unwanted pregnancies, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS increase due to less awareness. Sexual education has a positive effect among teenagers as well as improves children’s attitudes relates to reproductive health and sexuality. Many people have wrong information that sex education increases sexual activities as well as sexual risks. In human life, sex is one of the most important parts emotionally and physically which has reduced the risk of heart disease and improved self-esteem. By introducing sex education in schools, students will be are aware of STDs and their causes. STDs can be prevented by using condoms which has prevention of unwanted pregnancy. 

Base on research it has analysis that the issues of HIV are increasing every year. People with HIV/AIDS are discriminated against and stigmatized for any reason. HIV is a slow and incurable disease that has eventually led to suffering and deaths. This research is focused on women’s stress experience as well as opposed to adjustment. Additionally, this is referred to as biopsychosocial coping and adjustment of medical professionals’ women in South Africa. It has referred to exploratory and descriptive research design. The medical industry has made major advances management of HIV/ AIDS. Due to advance medical treatments HIV/ AIDS are now evolved into chronic and manageable illnesses. Currently, people with HIV live a long and normal lifespan for detection and treatment upon on-set infections. PLWHA has become older adults and defined as over the age of 50, due to physical changes associated with comorbid HIV and aging it become medically complex. These physical changes often accompany increase pain relates to conditions and symptoms. PLWHA has higher rates of psychiatric and substance use of disorder which are frequently prescribed higher narcotics does for pain management. Therefore, increasing the risk of aberrant substance use is one of the important aspects of healthy aging.

As per the view of Beattie et al., (2018), A person with HIV/AIDS pain is one of the most prevalent disabilities with an estimated lifespan across the HIV epidemic. Patients with chronic pain and substance disorders require comprehensive and specialized care. Frequently, patients with pain visit for health care and had a higher risk for developing substance abuse disorders. The reciprocal impact of psychiatric, psychosocial, cultural, medical, behavioural, and medical factors is addressed within the structural framework for recognizing aging along with the cultural variables. Tuberculosis has been a persistent public health concern for various years. Medical science is eliminating this disease beyond the reach. The national institutes of health have experience commitment for advancing biomedical research related to TB. in order to increase the understanding of the causative pathogens and other diseases. This basic knowledge is critical for developing and implementing new therapeutics, diagnostics, and vaccines. Due to the less educational knowledge, the South African women are less knowledgeable about the safety and reduced health risks. The medical science and biopsychosocial influence help South African women to gather information as well as improve their knowledge about health safety. Despite the medical advancement in health care sectors, it is impossible to eliminate TB as a public health concern. 

As per the view of Mannell & Dadswell, (2017), Drugs used for symptomatic treatment of rhinovirus (RV) infection regarding non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticholinergic nasal solutions, and antihistamines. The combined effects of NSAIDs and antihistamines are often relieved nasal obstructions which are why decongestion therapy is required. For symptomatic relief oral decongestants and topical decongestants are commonly used. The first generation of antihistamines is reduced 25-35% rhinorrhoea along with topical Anticholinergics and ipratropium bromide. The second generation appears to not affect common cold symptoms. The corticosteroid is capable of increasing replication as well as having zero impact on cold symptoms. Antiretroviral therapy has prevented multiplying viruses which can reduce the amount of HIV in the human body. Therefore, it improves the immune system in the human body to produce more CD4 cells. 

As per the view of Beattie et al., (2018), Meanwhile, the human body can maintain home base screening wellness by checking testicular, being aware of breast issues, tracking down the heart rates and blood pressure, meningitis test, and blood sugar levels. Currently, the rates of heart disease are kept increasing and cardiovascular disease is becoming a serious issue that has taken millions of lives each year. Therefore, this screening will help maintain the risk factors, and without this screening, it will be difficult to track down the risk factors. For heart health issues, blood pressure screening is one of the most important factors for a healthy heart. This has analysis that high blood pressure does not reflect any symptoms. It cannot be detected without measuring the rates and high blood pressure increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. The importance of independent predictors of non-adherence for smoking, alcohol use, non-disclosure of HIV. during the pregnancy smoking and drinking alcohol is unhealthy which has led to poor pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, it is required for the ministry of educations to add sex education for educating teenagers along with that the awareness of sexual life. 


The above study identifies the importance of sex education among teenagers for sexual diversity and orientations. Due to the less knowledge education about sexuality, the South African people have suffered various health relates issues. Therefore, it is required to be acknowledged every teenager relates to sexuality as one of the fundamental learning processes. This study is referring to the ministry of education by discussing various aspects regarding well-being, predictions, and sexual understanding in the community. This study has highlighted all the aspect relates to sexual diversity as well as gender equality. it has been analysed due to less knowledge of the rates of HIV along with other diseases which have led to human death. Therefore, it has mentioned the importance of sex education. 


Adeniyi, O. V., Ajayi, A. I., Ter Goon, D., Owolabi, E. O., Eboh, A., & Lambert, J. (2018). Factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral therapy among pregnant women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. BMC Infectious Diseases, 18(175), 1-11.

Beattie, M., Lenihan, P., Dundas, R., & Sanderson, C. (2018). Counselling skills for working with gender diversity and identity (Ch. 16). Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Beattie, M., Lenihan, P., Dundas, R., & Sanderson, C. (2018). Counselling skills for working with gender diversity and identity (Ch. 7). Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Goldner, L., Lev-Wiesel, R. & Simon, G. (2019). Revenge fantasies after experiencing traumatic events: Sex differences. Front. Psychol, 10(886), 1-9

Khidir, H., Psaros, C., Greener, L., O’Neil, K., Mathenjwa, M., Mosery, F. N., ... & Safren, S. A. (2018). Developing a safer conception intervention for men living with HIV in South Africa. AIDS and Behavior, 22(6), 1XXXXXXXXXXX.

Khumalo, S. (2018). You have to be gay to know God (Ch. 5). Kwela Books

Kruger, G., Greeff, M., & Letšosa, R. S. (2018). Spiritual leaders’ experiences of a comprehensive HIV stigma reduction intervention. HTS Theological Studies, 74(4), 1-10

Madiba, S., & Mokgatle, M. (2016). Perceptions and experiences about self-disclosure of HIV status among adolescents with perinatal acquired HIV in poor-resourced communities in South Africa. AIDS research and treatment. Economics assignment


Mannell, J., & Dadswell, A. (2017). Preventing intimate partner violence: Towards a framework for supporting effective community mobilisation. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 27(3), 196–211.

McHugh, G., Simms, V., Chikwari, C. D., Mujuru, H., & Nathoo, K. et al. (2018). Familial silence surrounding HIV and non-disclosure of HIV status to older children and adolescents. AIDS Care, 30(7), 830-835.

Moshoeu, M. P., Kuupiel, D., Gwala, N. et al. (2019). The use of home-based HIV testing and counseling in low-and-middle income countries: a scoping review. BMC Public Health, 19(132), 1-12.

Rohleder, P. (2009). HIV/AIDS in South Africa 25 Years on : Psychosocial perspectives (Ch. 5). Springer.

Rohleder, P. (2009). HIV/AIDS in South Africa 25 Years on : Psychosocial perspectives (Ch. 6). Springer.

Toska, E., Cluver, L. D., Hodes, R., & Kidia, K. K. (2015). Sex and secrecy: How HIV-status disclosure affects safe sex among HIV-positive adolescents. AIDS Care, 27, 47– 58.


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