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Economics Assignment Comparing Sustainability of Australia & UK


Task: Your task is to write a report on economics assignment that compares how Waste sustainability and Energy sustainability have been addressed in Australia in comparison to an overseas country of your choice. Your report should be done according to the following steps:

Step 1: Report the following types of actions regarding energy sustainability both in Australia and your country of choice:

  • Government regulations of the country regarding energy sustainability
  • Key scientific research and technological innovation of the country
  • The actions of non-government organizations and the private sector
  • Exemplar projects

Step 2: Report the following types of actions regarding waste sustainability both in Australia and your country of choice

  • Government regulation of the country regarding waste sustainability
  • Key scientific research and technological innovation of the country
  • The actions of non-government organizations and the private sector
  • Exemplar projects

Step 3 you need to compare the actions taken (the actions you just reported in previous steps) in these two countries for energy and waste sustainability. For example, why is it those two countries have dealt with issues differently? Is one approach more successful than the other? Are there any ways in which one country should be learning from the other? It is important to keep in mind that each of your countries is not a homogenous blend demographically and environmentally.


This economics assignment has been specifically written to compare the energy and waste sustainability of Australia with the sustainability in the UK. The government regulations regarding the implementation of energy and waste sustainability of both the countries are addressed in the report that helps in the identification of the technological innovations in both the countries along with their key scientific research. The actions of the NGOs of both the countries and the private sector have also been discussed in the report. The exemplar projects related to the waste and energy sustainability of Australia and the UK have been provided in the report.

Energy sustainability sector
Government regulations of UK and Australia regarding energy sustainability

A range of ambitious policies was introduced to accelerate the transition of the renewable energy sector of Australia. The clean energy regulator oversees the large and small-scale renewable energy to encourage the additional generation of renewable energy. Ecological sustainability and emission reduction are key areas that the Australian government is concerned. There are primarily three legislations and regulations that control the environmental impact of renewable energy (Winskel et al., 2014). The Carbon credits Act of 2011, the national greenhouse and energy reporting scheme of 2007, and the Australian national registry of emission units of 2011 are the legislations that the government considers integral to control the ecological impact.

Whereas the UK government's target is to produce 20% of energy by 2020 using renewable energy. The low carbon transition plan was set up by the government to set up a goal plan for the entire energy production in the upcoming years (Ambrose, 2020).The electricity act of 1989 and the gas act of 1986 has privatized the utilities. Since then, the UK government's area of focus on renewable energy has changed. The department of energy and climate change, along with the department of industry and energy, are the two government bodies set up in 2008 and 2016 to control renewable energy.

Key scientific research and technological innovations of Australia and the UK
CSIRO is an agency that helps in catalyzing the energy transition of Australia towards zero emissions. Recent surveys and researches are going on regarding the concentrated solar thermal system specializing in high-temperature central receiver systems. The development of photovoltaic that are low in cost and eco-friendly are being developed for the generation of renewable energy. Modern and efficient energy storing systems that utilize heat, ceramics, and batteries, and intelligent energy management systems are being developed as a part of the energy-based research.

Whereas the UK energy sector is implementing a more modern technological approach to enhance the energy sector (, 2020). Artificial intelligence is used to monitor energy variables by using advanced machine learning techniques like synchrophasor technology that can be used to detect problems in the voltage and power grids. Drones are used to perform predictive maintenance and manual inspections that are otherwise risky for manual intervention.

Actions of NGOs and the private sector in both the nations
The private sector and the NGOs in Australia have made a significant impact on renewable energy in Australia. They have been outsourced by the governing bodies and authorities in the country to produce clean manufacturing, managing water, and other provisions required for energy generation. They are also responsible for building a sustainable and eco-friendly environment around the generation plants. The huge operational structure needed for power generation needs classifications in work, and so the private sector has an important role to play in this.

The UK private sector and NGOs are helping in the growth of renewable energy as they make progressive investments in the sector that has immense potential for the future benefits of a nation (Evans, 2020). Large multinationals are collaborating with government authorities to set up power plants across the nation. One big difference between Australia and UK is that the UK has previously privatized most of the renewable energy sectors. Still, Australia has kept the governing authority within the public enterprise. NGOs in both countries are responsible for creating awareness regarding energy savings that can be renewable and stop the misuse and wastage of power.

Exemplar projects
The upcoming energy projects in Australia are the Walcha Energy project, Liverpool range Windfarm, Kennedy Energy Park, Clarke Creek Energy Hub, and SEA Solar Farm Project. The UK also has some upcoming energy projects like the Mean Moor wind farm of Cumbria, Beochlich hydroelectric power plant of Argyll, United Downs geothermal power project of Cornwall, Drum duff Wind farm of West Lothian, and March wind farm of Cambridgeshire.

Waste sustainability sector
Government regulations of waste sustainability in Australia and the UK

The national waste policy was developed in 2018 that provides a framework for the recovery and utilization of waste in Australia. It monitors the roles and responsibilities designated to different businesses, communities, individuals, and governing bodies (Haines, 2020). The first national waste policy was published in 2009, and an improvised and revised edition was published in the year 2018.

The environment protection act of 1990 is responsible for the management of waste in the UK along with the sustainability of waste in the entire nation. The controlled waste regulation of 2012 is also responsible for waste management. Along with these, the hazardous waste directive and carriage of dangerous goods regulations are also the governing authorities for waste management and sustainability.

Key scientific research and technological innovation in both the countries
CSIRO is responsible for providing solutions to waste management through innovation and technology in Australia. Battery material research is applied in the case of potential management of waste materials. Lithium-ion battery recycling is one of the technological innovations that help in recycling waste in Australia.

The UK has developed paper-made bottles of water that are a smart alternative to plastic use and a host of other innovations like biodegradable microbeads and developing food wraps made of cardboard instead of plastic and other non-biodegradable waste (Kochtcheeva, 2013). Abolishing plastic bags and introducing paper bags are innovations in their way.

Actions of NGOs and the private sector in both countries
NGOs in both countries have a direct role in waste management and sustainability because they are responsible for creating campaigns and spreading awareness regarding the use of plastic and other hazardous waste materials to create a devastating impact on the environment.

Private companies in Australia are responsible for the collection of waste and transferring them into the sorting area. The waste is then sorted by the agencies and left for recycling and reusing. The final disposal of waste materials for landfill are also mostly done by private companies that are contracted by the government authorities.

In the UK, all the waste materials that need to be sorted and recycled are mostly managed by private companies outsourced by government agencies and the authorities (Morton, 2020).The hazardous waste materials are mostly managed by third-party companies under strict monitoring and vigilance from the governing bodies.

Exemplar projects
The upcoming waste management projects in Australia are the Mildura rural facilities assessment, FOGO modeling, Cairns material recovery facility, and Cradle coast strategic plan developed by the Blue Environment. The UK also has a few upcoming waste management projects like the Cory Wheelabrator project of Norfolk (Simon Ingram, 2019). The Viridor's merchant EFW facility in Avonmouth is also considered one of the prominent upcoming projects and South London waste partnerships that will help boost sustainable waste management in the UK.

As provided in the details above, both the countries are demographically, geographically, and culturally diverse, so there are obvious comparisons between the two countries based on sustainable waste and energy management. The actions taken by the NGOs are quite similar with little difference in both the countries because of the similar plan. Apart from that, the private companies in the case of waste sustainability in Australia are managed and monitored by government authorities. In contrast, in the UK, the waste is managed by private companies with restrictions only on hazardous waste. There is a marked difference due to the priorities of the governing bodies along with other miscellaneous factors like costing and workforce (Teske et al., 2016). The population is responsible for generating workforce, and in terms of it, the UK is a bit ahead of Australia. However, both the countries that have approached waste management and energy management have been successful in their fields due to increased professionalism and love for their country and citizens. Global investors are more inclined to invest in the energy sector in the UK due to huge benefits. Australia does not offer exciting potential for investment and growth from global investors, so they mostly depend on internal resources and investments (Weaver, 2005). This act has its benefits and disadvantages. It is eminent that both the countries are unique and diverse in their respective ways, and they both provide path-breaking ideas and generate potential plans for effectively managing waste and energy and improve their sustainability in the domestic and global market.

The report above has demonstrated the comparative aspects of efficient energy and waste management. There are mostly advantages related to future techniques of effective sustainabilityin both the fields related to both the countries. There are some exciting projects related to both energy and waste sustainability in both countries that will largely benefit the future environmental aspect of both nations. However, the stringent government rules and regulations have been instrumental in creating a uniform system of future sustainability. Both the countries should seek ideas and examples they can implement in their avenues to make the most of their future goals and expectations with assistance from the governing authorities. The key scientific and technological innovations have been crucial for the ecological development of the countries.

Ambrose, J. (2020). UK government to subsidize onshore renewable energy projects. [online] the Guardian. Available at: [Accessed 19 Apr. 2021]. (2020). Environmental management and your business | [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Apr. 2021].

Evans, H. (2020). Over 8 GW of UK renewable energy capacity currently in construction: BEIS | S&P Global Platts. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Apr. 2021].

Haines, G. (2020). Five green energy projects helping transform the UK electricity market. [online] Positive News. Available at: [Accessed 19 Apr. 2021].

Kochtcheeva, L.V. (2013). Renewable Energy: Global Challenges. [online] E-International Relations. Available at: [Accessed 19 Apr. 2021].

Morton, A. (2020). Green giants: the massive projects that could make Australia a clean energy superpower. The Guardian. [online] 13 Nov. Available at [Accessed 19 Apr. 2021].

Simon Ingram (2019). Five UK innovations that could change our relationship with waste. [online] National Geographic. Available at: [Accessed 19 Apr. 2021].

Teske, S., Dominish, E., Ison, N. and Maras, K. (2016). 00% RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR AUSTRALIA Decarbonising Australia’s Energy Sector Within One Generation ABOUT THE AUTHORS COOPERATION PARTNER. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Apr. 2021].

Weaver, P. (2005). (PDF) Innovation in municipal solid waste management in England: Policy, practice, and sustainability. [online] ResearchGate. Available at: England_Policy_practice_and_sustainability [Accessed 19 Apr. 2021].

Winskel, M., Radcliffe, J., Skea, J. and Wang, X. (2014). Remaking the UK’s energy technology innovation system: From the margins to the mainstream. Energy Policy, 68(1), pp.591–602.


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