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Distributed System Assignment: Business Strategy Of Abc Technologies


Task: You are employed as a consultant engineer in ABC Technologies. Your company recognises the serious challenges it currently faces in the industry, and has developed a corporate strategy to prepare its workforce for the next decade. Your department head recognises your scholarship, and has directed you to research and present a report on emergent technologies as part of the corporate strategy. Your audience would be the department’s senior staff who may not be up-to-date with these emergent technologies and their impact on future product development.

Your task is to write a technical report defining some of the theoretical aspects you have learnt and researched, and to discuss the reliability, security and scalability of two of the emergent technologies, specifically, Blockchain and IoT (Internet of Things). Use the following guidelines to structure your report. Your report should be a complete reference for the topics you discuss in your report. Therefore, include the following topics in your report.
a) Define Distributed Systems including a diagram of system architecture. Distinguish between the client/server and peer-to-peer model.
b) Define the terms reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, fault tolerance measures, and security in relation to distributed systems.
c) Describe the following on the two emergent technologies, Blockchain and IoT:

  1. Describe the architecture of blockchain and explain the components
  2. COIT20257 Distributed Systems: Principles and Development Term 3 2019 ii What is the purpose of consensus algorithms? Explain the principle behind Proof of Stake (PoS) algorithm? Compare this with the bully algorithm used in process coordination.
  3. What is the difference between distributed transactions and blockchain technology?
  4. How does Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) compare with election algorithm?
  5. What are the scalability issues in blockchain technology?
  6. How security is ensured in blockchain technology?
  7. How privacy can be leaked?
    viii What are the fault tolerance techniques used in block chain technology?
  8. Define IoT
  9. How IoT and blockchain technology can contribute to applications that can improve social inclusion and ubiquitous computing? You use an example application to explain your answer Use the above questions to collect data while you read the articles. Then using the collected data, format your report stating the facts in a clear, concise, and coherent style, linking the ideas, but not as disparate answers. The length of your report should be about 2,500 words. Follow the given template on the website to format your article. It should have the author details and the body consisting of introduction, other topical sections, and a conclusion. You follow an article format rather than a report format with executive summary and table of contents. You should have minimum five (5) good quality journal/conference articles or books as your reference. Use only articles published later than year 2014 (2014 – 2020). You should include in-text referencing for the references in your listing.


This distributed system assignment covers all the aspects regarding the emergent technologies that might help ABC Technologies to improve their business strategy. There are various technologies that might help any industry to flourish if it understands and follows these strategies. These technologies will surely enhance the development of the product in the near future. Further, in this distributed system assignment, the importance of distributed systems and various types of distributed systems is briefly discussed. A brief comparison chart is also accounted for in this report for pointing out the difference between the client/server and peer-to-peer model. Discussion about the terms like reliability, fault tolerance, scalability, fault tolerance measures, as well as security measures that are related to distributed systems is also discussed in this distributed system assignment. Then two of the most emergent technologies, Blockchain and IoT have been briefly discussed as about their architecture, components, purpose, the difference among distributed transactions and blockchain technology, issues related to scalability, security, methods used for fault tolerance, and many more.

A) Distributed System
Distributed systems, which are also referred to as, distributed computing, are a structure with various elements situated on different devices, which correspond as well as organize the actions to come out as a particular consistent machine to the end-user(Sharples and Domingue, 2016). The devices, which are linked with the distributed system, might be physical servers, computers, containers, virtual machines, or any other means that might join the network and cover local memory as well as communicate by sharing messages.

There are 2 basic methods as mentioned in the distributed system assignment in which the distributed system operates:

  1. Every system performs in the direction of a general aim as well as the end-user opinions outcomes as a single solid unit.
  2. Every system comprises of its own end-user as well as the distributed system makes giving out possible resources or else services regarding communication (Leoutsarakos and Chronopoulos, 2015).

Four types of distributed systems outlined in the below section of distributed system assignment:

  1. Client-server: the data is collected by the clients through the server, and then it is formatted and displayed to the end-user. They might create an alteration form the side of the client and consign it to the server in order to make it permanent.
  2. Three-tier: data regarding the customer is stock up in the center level relatively than on the customer to make things easier for the development of the application(Wu, 2017). This structural paradigm is most general for web applications
  3. N-tier: commonly utilized when a server or application requires pushing requests to added activities on the network.
  4. Peer-to-peer: No extra devices are utilized to give services or else organize resources. The devices in the system perform responsibilities that are evenly distributed, which is called peers that might serve either as a server or as a client.

distributed system assignment

Figure 1:System architecture
The difference between the client/server and peer-to-peer model is given in the next section of distributed system assignment:





Particular servers, as well as particular customers, are linked with the server.

Customers, as well as a server, are not notable; every node operates as server and client.


The customer urge for service as well as the server's reaction is to the service.

Every node could urge for services as well as might also give the desired services (Altan and Sunay, 2016).


Sharing the data



The information is stocked up at a middle-level server.

Every peer has its personal information.


When some customers demand the services altogether, a server might be blocked.

In this, services are given by some servers separated in the peer-to-peer mechanism, a server is not blocked.


The client/server are very costly to apply.

Comparatively, this is less costly to apply.


This is more scalable as well as stable

This suffers if the amount of peers in the system increases.

B) Reliability, Scalability, fault-tolerance measures, and security in relation to the distributed system.
Reliability: It refers to the capability of a distributed system to carry its services still at the time of failure of one or more of its hardware or software elements. It absolutely comprises of one of the major benefits of a distributed means, based on the belief that a contributing system influenced by a breakdown might always be reinstated by another system, and not only avoid the achievement of a demanded job(Brown, 2017). As an example, a general need for huge electronic websites must never be withdrawn by a user due to the breakdown of that particular system, which is operating on the same transaction. An instant, as well as the clear cost, is that the reliability depends on the redundancy of software elements as well as the data.

Scalability: it is a concept defined in this context of distributed system assignment, which refers to the capability of a mechanism to consistently develop to maintain an increasing amount of jobs. In this scheme, a mechanism might have to measure due to an enhancement of information bulk, or due to an enhancement of work, for example, the number of transactions. It can be accomplished by measuring without the loss of performance. Horizontal scalability is accomplished by accumulating new servers, whereas vertical scalability can also be used to get more resources to a particular server.

Fault tolerance: it is basically referred to as the capability of a system to carry on the functions in the incident of a temporary breakdown. Although the system carries on the operation, it is assigned, but performance, when seen as overall, is affected. Distributed systems comprise of a huge number of elements, creating a system that is 100% capable of tolerating fault is almost very difficult. Two major reasons discussed in the distributed system assignment behind the happening of a fault are

  1. Node failure: software or hardware breakdown.
  2. Malicious error: originated from any unauthorized admittance.

Fault tolerance techniques: There are two fault tolerance techniques. These are as follows

  • Replication- developing various clones or imitation of information items as well as stocking them up at various sites. The major concept is to enhance the availability in which if a junction breaks down at a particular site, the information could be obtained from another site(Beschastnikhet al., 2016). It has its boundaries too like information consistency as well as the degree of cloning.
  • Check Pointing- keeping the condition of a mechanism when it is in a continuous condition and stocking it on storage that is stable. Every such case when a mechanism is in constant condition, it is known as a checkpoint. When there is a breakdown, the system is revived to its earlier constant state. It also helps in saving important computations.

Security: According to the research on distributed system assignment, this works in three means

  • Cryptography: the privacy of data conveyed from one junction to another is doubtful, thus there is a requirement of using a better means of conveying it into incomprehensible formats via cryptography.
  • Authentication protocol: gives a sequence of communication protocols amongst the users of the distributed system and server for the reason of protecting the communication procedure.
  • Access control mechanism: by the use of ACL or access control lists this can be accomplished, which comprises of a list linked to an item which states all the matters that might be permitted to access the item, and even the rights to the item.

B) What is the role of Blockchain and IoT in the context of distributed system assignment?
I) Basic Components and architecture of Blockchain
This is a series of blocks that mainly contain important information (database), these are categorized in the form of network (peer-to-peer) in a much secured and authenticated way. Basically, blockchain means joining or merging of computer systems which are connected to each other, not with the help of any central server. This information provided in the distributed system assignment further tells us that they are not connected to any particular server (Xu et al., 2019). A few of the basic components of blockchain are Node which defines all the users and the computer system which is used in the blockchain. Transaction these are the compact and raising blocks of the entire blockchain system. Block refers to a data structure which is mainly used to supervise some transactions, those which are further divided into all nodes of the network. The chain is an arrangement of blocks in the correct order. Miners are particular nodes that are mainly used to execute the process of verification in blocks. Consensus, these are a few of the important rules and regulations for the proper functioning of blockchain.

II) Consensus Algorithm
The consensus algorithm illustrated in this segment of distributed system assignment is known as the process through which the network of the blockchain reaches the consensus. In general, blockchains are constructed as divided systems, ever since they are not dependent on any central power, those divided nodes give the authority for the transaction. This is the place where the consensus algorithm plays a key role. Thus they guarantee that the following process of transaction takes place in a trustless way, just because the coins can only be used ones. Proof of stake was invented as a substitute to (proof of work) to implement fundamental issues in the future. When a transaction is originated the particular date is placed into a block with a capacity of 1 megabyte, and then replicated among different computers or nodes in the network. These nodes belong to the executive authority of the blockchain and confirm the authority of the transaction in every block (Yang et al., 2019). To complete the validation process, it is stated herein distributed system assignment that the nodes or miners need to undergo an arithmetic puzzle which is also known as proof of work problem. If the transaction is processed under authentication, thus it could be added to the blockchain. Bully algorithm is basically a synchronous system, this process mainly fails, also during the execution of the algorithm, this algorithm mostly saves its own address and also its own process id, and also of any other program taking place, this also includes a failure detector which always tries to detect problems in the whole process. Proof of stake does not match with the above-mentioned steps of the bully algorithm thus it is different in process coordination.

III) Difference between distributed transaction and blockchain technology
The distributed transaction might basically transform the financial sector, by more productive means, strong and efficient. This could mainly focus on problems based on financial sectors and change the working of such financial sector and shareholders. The distributed transaction has the ability to modify different workplaces as well as manufacturing companies and government financial management systems (Beck et al., 2017). Blockchain is also a type of distributed ledger (transaction), which mainly uses its own personal computers (known as nodes) to keep a record of the organized transaction in the traditional ledger. Blockchain sets its data into blocks, which are attached in append mode. Blockchain is growing blocks of "internet of value" and allows recording and interconnection and exports "value" peer-to-peer without any central coordination institution.

IV) Delegated Proof of stake (DPOS) and election algorithm
Proof of stake and Delegated proof of stake examined in the distributed system assignment belongs to the consensus algorithm and is considered as one of the most well organized and popular versions of the PoS mechanism. Both of these are mainly used for proof of work consensus algorithm. As DPoS basically counts with the system of voting where the shareholders distribute the work to third-party. In simple words, they also have the authority to vote for a few authorized personals to secure the network. The election algorithm forms a group of processors to act as an organizer. If this process breakdowns due to some issues, then a new supervisor is elected on a different processor. The election algorithm mainly controls the process where new staff should be recruited. These algorithms are mainly used to select a supervisor to perform different tasks.

V) Scalability issues in blockchain technology
It is evident in the context of distributed system assignment that in today's generation, cryptocurrency plays a vital role in financial fields, bill payments and buying new products and other new services. Now it is very easy to pay bills and make payments just because it saves bank fees and other handling charges. Scalability issues in blockchain are: Rude and careless behavior of the government, serious threats and the possibility to get exposed or harmed by any means may destroy the whole process, also the blockchain scalability problems may also disturb the whole chain, and lastly is usability which is also a major issue in the blockchain system.

VI) Privacy leaked
People nowadays use many different types of smart devices, and these devices become a major way to share our private data through the web, some people unknowingly share the information and face a huge lot of problems. Our privacy or the data secured can be leaked in seven different ways those are Smartphone apps, using public computers in market place to log in to some private data, using password-free Wi-Fi, not encrypting, some retailers provide free service, always being connected to social networks, too close for comfort are some of the precautions which we should be aware so that our data could be safe and protected from being leaked.

VII) Fault tolerance techniques used in blockchain
Fault-tolerant technology is the potentiality of a computer system, electronic system and also a network to which gives an unstoppable service, even though few components fail. Fault tolerance solves developing services any disturbance related to software and also any errors.

There are two major techniques of fault tolerance which are mentioned in the following section of distributed system assignment:

Replication- Creating different clones or impersonation of data things just as stocking them up at different destinations. Significant idea is to improve accessibility where if an intersection separates at a specific site, the data could be gotten from another site. It has its limits too like data consistency just as the level of cloning.

Check Pointing- Keeping the state of a component when it is in a constant condition and stocking it on a capacity that is steady. Each such situation when a system is in a steady condition, it is known as a checkpoint. When there is a breakdown, the framework is resuscitated to its previous steady state. It additionally helps in sparing significant calculations.

IX) IoT:
IoT that stands for Internet of things explored in this section of distributed system assignment deals with a specific kind of physical object’s network that is ever-growing, along with that, which feature a particular internet protocol address in order to the web connection, as well as the communication, which happen among those objects along with the different systems and devices, which are enabled with internet. Moreover, it uses communication hardware, sensor as well as the processors for the purpose of gathering, sending as well as auctioning on information they gain from their surroundings.

X) IoT and blockchain technology’s contribution to applications that can improve social inclusion and ubiquitous computing:
Privacy and security measures are the basic concepts of blockchain and IoT in an information system. We usually mark safety as a mixture of availability, integrity and confidentially. Basically is easy to access the security with the help of identification, authorization and authentication (upGrad blog, 2020).

Thus the concepts are discussed below within the distributed system assignment:

Availability: This allows users to use the given system whenever needed, this service always under process when it is needed by authorized user, and this also includes the infrastructure of communication and database.

Integrity: This mainly defines us that data cannot be changed, except the users who are incharge of and have the right to make changes (Özyilmaz and Yurdakul, 2020). According to blockchain context, integrity assures the each transaction could not be changed, basically the mechanism of cryptography are in use to check integrity.

Confidentially: Confidentially assures that no user can get the information without authority. This means that those who have the right and authority can grant access to such information, when it is under process. 

Thus, this distributed system assignment contains a brief discussion about the definition of distributed systems and the mechanism onto how it works and various types of distributed systems are also discussed. There is a brief comparison between the two types of a distributed system that is client/server and peer-to-peer. Also, terms like reliability, fault tolerance, scalability, fault tolerance methods as well as security in distributed systems are discussed above in this distributed system assignment. The architecture of blockchain and its various elements, the purpose of the consensus algorithms, the PoS algorithm, and their comparison, also a comparison between the distributed transactions and blockchain technology, the comparison of DPOS and the election algorithm, the issues regarding the blockchain technology, the surety of protection and how information is leaked, various fault tolerance methods in blockchain, definition of IoT and its importance, alongside the contribution that these technologies provide to enhance the social inclusion is also discussed above in this distributed system assignment.

Altan, B. and Sunay, M.O., 2016. Client-Server versus Peer-to-Peer. Bo?aziçi Journal, 30(2), p.37.

Beck, R., Avital, M., Rossi, M. and Thatcher, J.B., 2017. Blockchain technology in business and information systems research.

Beschastnikh, I., Wang, P., Brun, Y. and Ernst, M.D., 2016. Debugging distributed systems. Distributed system assignment Queue, 14(2), pp.91-110.

Brown, R.E., 2017. Electric power distribution reliability. CRC press.

Leoutsarakos, N. and Chronopoulos, P., Topaz Systems Inc, 2015. Distributed system for multi-function secure verifiable signer authentication. U.S. Patent 8,959,353.

Özy?lmaz, K.R. and Yurdakul, A., 2020. iotBlockchain integration: A Security Perspective. Security Analytics for the Internet of Everything, p.29.

Sharples, M. and Domingue, J., 2016, September. The blockchain and kudos: A distributed system for educational record, reputation and reward. In European conference on technology enhanced learning (pp. 490-496). Springer, Cham.

upGrad blog. (2020). Blockchain in IoT: Examples, Challenges & Real World Applications. Available at:

Wu, J., 2017. Distributed system design. CRC press.

Xu, X., Weber, I. and Staples, M., 2019. Architecture for blockchain applications (pp. 1-307). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Yang, F., Zhou, W., Wu, Q., Long, R., Xiong, N.N. and Zhou, M., 2019. Delegated Proof of Stake With Downgrade: A Secure and Efficient Blockchain Consensus Algorithm With Downgrade Mechanism. Distributed system assignment IEEE Access, 7, pp.118541-118555.


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