Developing knowledge of the function and importance of healthy body systems
Task: Question:1. An important aspect of homeostasis is maintaining a normal body temperature. Answer the following questions: a) What is the normal body temperature range (using correct units of measurement), and explain why normal body temperature range is important for the maintenance of biochemical processes in the body? b) Describe the steps in the homeostatic feedback system activated to ensure normal body temperature is maintained when exposed to a hot external temperature (e.g., 42 degrees Celsius). 2. Usingan image, describe the components and conduction pathway of the cardiac conduction system of the heart. Relate the conduction system to the corresponding sequence of heart chamber contractions and production of a blood pressure reading. 3. Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient that is important for normal development and health. Please answer the following: 200 words, 15 marks. a) Name two (2) food sources high in vitamin B12. b) Identify any two (2) functions of vitamin B12 in the body. c) identify where in the digestive tract vitamin B12 is absorbed, and what substance is necessary for its absorption? d) A lack of vitamin B12 can have certain health consequences. Explain the possible consequences to red blood cells if there is deficiency in vitamin B12. e) Name two (2) groups of people that are more likely to be at risk of becoming deficient in vitamin B12 and for each group, state why this would happen. 4. Identify three (3) structural features of red blood cells and relate to their function in oxygen transportation.
Q1. An important aspect of homeostasis is maintaining a normal body temperature. Answer the following questions:
a) What is the normal body temperature range (using correct units of measurement), and explain why normal body temperature range is important for the maintenance of biochemical processes in the body?
b) Describe the steps in the homeostatic feedback system activated to ensure normal body temperature is maintained when exposed to a hot external temperature (e.g., 42 degrees Celsius).
a) 97.7°F (36.5°C) to 99.5°F (37.5°C) is commonly thought of as the normal range for human body temperature when it is measured orally. It's crucial to remember, though, that each person's body temperature can vary and that a variety of other variables, including age, gender, the time of day, and physical activity, can also have an impact on body temperature. For a variety of biochemical processes to take place in the body as efficiently as possible, one must keep their body temperature at a normal level. The body's numerous vital metabolic activities are carried out by enzymes, and these enzyme reactions are extremely sensitive to temperature variations. In fact, even a slight variation from the ideal body temperature can impair the activity of certain enzymes, which can result in several medical issues.For instance, a fevera rise in body temperature that is greater than normal—can cause the body's innate defense against pathogens to fail.
Increased production of white blood cells, which can aid in the fight against viruses, is one way that it helps to boost the immune system(Scanlon & Sanders, 2019).But a temperature that is too high might denature enzymes and make them less active, which can result in additional problems. On the other hand, a low body temperature can also be detrimental because it can hinder certain physiological processes and result in hypothermia, which can be fatal if ignored. In conclusion, a normal body temperature that falls within the proper range is crucial for the best performance of the body's biochemical functions.
To control body temperature and preserve a stable internal environment, the human body has a sophisticated mechanism in place. The term "homeostatic feedback system" is used to describe this system. It is necessary to take the following actions to maintain a normal body temperature while exposed to a hot environment, such as one of 42 degrees Celsius:
1. Detection: Recognising a temperature change is the first step. The skin and the brain's hypothalamus both have unique nerve cells known as thermoreceptors that carry out this function. Signals are sent to the brain once they notice the temperature rising.
2.Control Centre: The hypothalamus, the body's control centre, receives the signals from the thermoreceptors.
3.Response: To lower the body's temperature in response to the heat, the hypothalamus starts several physiological processes. These remarks consist of: Vasodilation, Sweating, Increasing respiration (Scanlon & Sanders, 2019).
4. Feedback: As the reactions are triggered, they help to bring the body's temperature down.
2. Using the below image, describe the components and conduction pathway of the cardiac conduction system of the heart. Relate the conduction system to the corresponding sequence of heart chamber contractions and production of a blood pressure reading.
Pumping blood throughout the body is done by the heart, a sophisticated organ. The electrical impulses that control the heart muscle's rhythmic contraction must be coordinated and regulated, and this is where the cardiac conduction system comes in. The right blood flow and blood pressure are maintained by this mechanism, which makes sure that the heart's chambers contract in a coordinated and effective manner.
1. Sinoatrial (SA) Node: In the right atrium, the SA node oversees starting the electrical impulses that cause the heart to contract. It controls the heart's natural pacemaker (Herlihy, 2018).
2. Atrioventricular (AV) Node: Situated where the atria and ventricles meet, the AV node controls heartbeat. The atria contract before the ventricles because it gets the electrical impulses from the SA node and somewhat delays them.
3.Bundle of His: After passing through the AV node, electrical impulses go through the Bundle of His, a group of specialised cells that joins the AV node to the Purkinje fibre.
4.Purkinje Fibres: The Purkinje fibres are specialised cells that are found in the ventricular walls. They take the electrical impulses that come from the Bundle of His and disperse them all across the ventricles, causing them to contract in unison.
The cardiac conduction system's conduction pathway is as follows:
Both atria contract in response to an electrical impulse from the SA node, which forces blood into the ventricles.
Ventricular Contraction: The electrical impulse then travels down the AV node, Bundle of His, and Purkinje fibres to the ventricles, where it is received and causes the ventricles to contract to pump blood from the heart into the arteries.
Blood Pressure Reading: When the ventricles contract, a pressure wave is created that moves through the arteries and results in blood pressure. When getting a blood pressure reading, the pressure wave known as the pulse is what is counted (Patton, Thibodeau & Hutton, 2019).
Following the contraction of the ventricles, the atria contract first. The blood is pumped out of the heart and into the circulatory system by the ventricles, which contract to create the blood pressure value.
The following is the conduction pathway of the cardiac conduction system:
1. The electrical impulses are generated by the SA node of the right atrium.
2. The impulses travel to the AV node, where they experience a short delay.
3. Before proceeding to the Bundle of His, the impulses first halt at the AV node.
4. As the impulses travelled through the Purkinje fibres, the ventricles then convulsed in tandem.
The atria contract first, then the ventricles. The ventricles of the heart contract to produce the blood pressure measurement, pumping blood out of the organ and into the bloodstream.
Q3. Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient that is important for normal development and health.
a) Name two (2) food sources high in vitamin B12.
b) Identify any two (2) functions of vitamin B12 in the body.
c) identify where in the digestive tract vitamin B12 is absorbed, and what substance is necessary for its absorption?
d) A lack of vitamin B12 can have certain health consequences. Explain the possible consequences to red blood cells if there is deficiency in vitamin B12.
e) Name two (2) groups of people that are more likely to be at risk of becoming deficient in vitamin B12 and for each group, state why this would happen.
a) Animal and shellfish are two food sources high in vitamin B12.
b) Red blood cell production function of the nervous system. vitamin B12 physiological effects.
c) The small intestine, more specifically the ileum, is where vitamin B12 is absorbed. It must first bind to an intrinsic factor protein, which is made by cells in the stomach, before it can be absorbed. In the small intestine, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream, the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex next moves(Peate& Nair 2016).
d)Megaloblastic anaemia, which has signs such as weakness and exhaustion, can be brought on by a vitamin B12 shortage. It can result in heart disease and neurological problemsif left untreated.
e) There are two populations more at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency:
1. Vegans and vegetarians: Since vitamin B12 is largely found in foods derived from animals, those who adhere to a strict vegan or vegetarian diet may not acquire enough vitamin B12 from their diet alone.
2. Senior citizens: As people age, their bodies may become less effective at absorbing vitamin B12 from diet (Marieb&Hoehn, 2019). Even if they consume adequate vitamin B12 in their diet, this can result in a shortfall. A few elderly persons may also struggle to absorb vitamin B12 due to illnesses that damage the small intestine or stomach.
Q4. Identify three (3) structural features of red blood cells and relate to their function in oxygen transportation.
Red blood cells' three structural characteristics and their roles in oxygen transport are as follows:
1. Red blood cells are thin and biconcave, which boosts their surface area to volume ratio and gives them more flexibility. They may readily travel via tiny capillaries because of their structure, supplying oxygen to all bodily tissues.
2. Haemoglobin: Found in red blood cells, haemoglobin is a protein that binds to oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to tissues that require it. Haemoglobin, which is found in around 270 million red blood cells per person, is particularly effective in carrying oxygen (Amerman, 2019).
Lack of a nucleus and other organelles: Red blood cells are devoid of a nucleus and other organelles, which frees up more room for haemoglobin (Schub, Marcel &Pravikoff, 2018). Red blood cells live longer and are better able to transfer oxygen because of this.
Overall, red blood cells' distinctive structural qualities allow them to efficiently transport oxygen throughout the body, ensuring that all tissues get the oxygen they require to operate normally.
Amerman, E. C. (2019). Human anatomy & physiology (2nd ed. Global ed.).
Davis Company. Schub,T., Marcel, C. &Pravikoff, D. (2018, September 28). Vitamin B12 [Evidence-Based Care Sheet]. Nursing Reference Center Plus. Solomon, E. P. (2016). Introduction to human anatomy and physiology (4th ed.). Elsevier.
Elsevier. Marieb, E. N., & Hoehn, K. (2019). Human anatomy & physiology (11th global ed.). Pearson. McVicar, A., & Clancy, J. (2017). Physiology and anatomy for nurses and healthcare practitioners: A homeostatic approach (3rd ed.) CRC Press.
Elsevier. Peate, I., & Nair M. (2016). Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology: For nursing and healthcare students (2nd ed.).
Patton, K. T., Thibodeau, G. A., & Hutton, A. (2019). Anatomy & physiology (adapted International ed.).
Pearson. Herlihy, B. (2018). The human body in health and illness (6th ed.).
Wiley. Scanlon, V., & Sanders, T. (2019). Essentials of anatomy and physiology (8th ed.). F.A.