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Design of wind farm at coaster sites in Western Australia


Report Formatting

  • Top page
  • Executive summar
  • Student contributions
  • Table of contents
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Chapter 2: Literature review
  • Chapter 3: Methodology
  • Chapter 4: Results
  • Chapter 5: Discussions
  • Chapter 5: Concluding remarks
  • Chapter 6: References (Harvard style
  • Appendices


Executive Summary: This project report reflects the design of wind farm at coaster site in Australia. It is to be identified that wide turbine is going to be the best approach of power generation specially at coaster site in Australia. This project mainly undertaken to produce more than 30 to 35 percent power at coaster site in Australia. The details literature review by comparing other wind turbine project is elaborated. The blade design process is also discussed in this study.

Student Contribution: This project is designed by making sure the team member selection. I have communicated the make all the member understood about the scope of this project. I am the manager in charge for this project study and collected most of the required material to conduct this study. I speak to my supervisor and follow-up with them regular basis. By conducting meetings and discussions, I have designed this report.

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study: In Australia, the wind energy is considered as the mode of production of renewable electricity. It has been identified that the wind energy in the nation is rapidly expanding by the average annual rate of development in inbuilt capability of 35 percent over the period of five years till 2015 (Jardine at al. 2015). In the year 2016, the wind energy estimated at 5.3 percent in entire demand of electricity in Australia and 30.8 percent of entire supply of renewable energy. Apart from that, 4455 megawatts of installed capacity has been set up in 2017, and also there has been a proposal of 18,823 MW of function in the same year. By global standards, the country has excellent wind resources (Wizelius 2018).

1.2 Introduction to the Project : The population is expanding exponentially and our common assets being stressed by increments required after it is more critical than any other time in recent memory to put resources into a sustainable power source (Tjiu et al. 2015). The utilisation of petroleum products as vitality has been followed to be the primary source of fundamental issues. The side-effect of petroleum product utilisation is carbon dioxide, which has been named to be an essential constituent prompting Global Warming. The measure of carbon dioxide that somebody or something produces is known as its "carbon impression." The media has been concentrating on this issue, and numerous green developments have begun to attempt and diminish our “carbon footprint.” The wind farm project at coaster site in Australia can be produced on average capacity elements of 30 percent to 35 percent, enabling the wind energy as an extensive option. It can be further pointed out that in 2010, the total wind generation capacity of 1880 megawatts of Australia was significantly lower in comparison to the number of other developing and developed nations.

1.3 Scope of the Study : This study is conducted to design of wind farm at coaster sites in Western Australia. The main objective of this study is to identify the wind energy prospect throughout the Australia. This study will help in bringing the scope of explaining current progress of wind turbine design within Australia that outline the feasibility if designing wind farm at coaster sites in Western Australia.

1.4 Objectives of the Study: Some of the major objectives of this respective study are as follows –

  • To study of wind energy prospect in Australia
  • To study the progress and recent development trends of wind turbine design
  • To design a horizontal axis wind turbine
  • To identify at least two potential wind farm sites Western Australia and compare the advantages and disadvantages of each
  • To develop a case study on a wind farm in Western Australia
  • Feasibility study of the designated wind farm

1.5 Organisation of the Report : This research practice is designed with six different structure. The first chapter contains the introduction part where the purpose and scope of the study along with project objectives for a wind farm at coaster sites in Western Australia are described. The second chapter is the literature review where relevant information related to project objectives are described. The third chapter is the methodology where structural formula and theory for designing wind turbine is described. The fourth and fifth chapter has explained the results and discussions of the study. The last chapter concludes the entire work practice along with recommendations.

Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1 Wind Energy in Australia: Australia ranks 15th worldwide behind leaders like China with 44733 Megawatt, the USA with 40,180 Megawatt, the Germany with 27,215 Megawatt, Spain with 20,676 Megawatt and India with 13,066 Megawatt (Raj, 2018). On the other hand, it has been determined that in 2010 Australia positioned 18th in the globe in context of established capacity per head of residents with 0.086kW per individual. The wind energy significantly contributes in the production of electricity in Australia, which largely support in distributing electricity to distant areas of the nation (Cooneyet al. 2017). The country has been successful in producing 30 percent of total renewable energy in 2014 has been from wind. In addition, the wind energy supplied 4.2 percent of overall electricity of the nation during the year 2014. Across 71 wind farms, 1886 wind turbines had been spread in Australia by the end of same year. Between 2014 and 2015, Australia started installing eight wind farms with a total power generation capacity of 566.7 MW (Jamieson 2018).

It has been ascertained that the nation has one of the greater per-capita greenhouse gas emission levels in the emerged world. This is due in part to its wide domestic reserves of coal, which has maintained costs of electricity low and attracted energy-intensive sector. On the contrary, it can be pointed out that at present, above 75% of aggregate domestic electricity generation depends on coal-fired power (Kealy, Barrett and Kearney 2015). Nevertheless, in the recent years, apprehensions over climate change have impelled Australian policymakers for reviving their energy plan and creating an obligatory target for energy generation utilising renewable energy including wind. On the other hand, it can be discussed that wind energy is a verified and mature technology with low operating costs. It can be stated that low maintenance costs is required by wind turbines, which decrease the economic obstacles connected to the work force and management (Jensen 2017). Wind energy holds a high potential for wind-rich sites and can compete with other renewable sources of energy like biomass and solar.

Currently, it has been observed that wind cannot compete with the cost of electricity generated utilising the existing or traditional coal-based power plant, which has already been depreciated and reimburse by electricity customers and taxpayers. Nevertheless, the wind energy in Australia is one of the economical of all the available energy sources (Mohammadiet al. 2016). Moreover, the wind energy is considered as cheaper as well as competitive due to the new clean-coal-fired power stations in comparison to new nuclear power.

2.2 Wind Farms in Australia: There are number of wind farms in Australia, which largely contributes in the generating power. Australian wind farms have a generating capacity of above 50 MW. In the year 2016, the wind farms of Australia generated around 30.8 percent of the clean energy of the country as well as supplied nearly 5.3 percent of total electricity within the nation in that year. On the other hand, it can be opined that in 2016, five wind farms became functional within the year 2016, which added 44 turbines for generating capacity of 140 Megawatt. As a result, the Australian wind industry has been able to add total 79 wind farms possessing the collective power of 4327 Megawatt (Clean Energy Council, 2016). This in turn, placed the nation at 17th spot in the globe for wind energy.

Table 1: Wind Farms Under Construction at the end 2016

Wind Farms Under Construction
(Source: Clean Energy Council, 2016)

It has been further studied that wind farms have a positive contribution in the Australian economy. The study conducted by SKM in 2012 on the economic advantages of wind farms in Australia revealed that for each fifty megawatt in power, a wind farm offered various advantages. In that context, it can be mentioned that the wind farm provide unswerving job opportunities of up to forty-eight construction employees, and with every employee’s expenditure stands nearly $25,000 in restaurants, shops, hotels, and different services, thereby adding a sum of nearly $1.2 million. On the other hand, throughout the construction stages, the indirect employment of around 160 people has been provided with 795 nationwide jobs and 504 state jobs (Clean Energy Council, 2016). Furthermore, wind farms provided benefit of up to $250000 annually for farmers as rental income of land and $80000 on social projects annually (Hirthß and Müller 2016). This in turn, indicates that the wind farms in Australia extensively supports in the growth of the region.

The biggest wind farm is the Macarthur, which is in Victoria, Australia. It has a capacity of 420 MW. However, it has been identified that between 2016 and 2017, this wind farm witnessed worst performing of any wind farm in the state and amongst the worst in the nation (Parkinson, 2017). In that context, it can be further mentioned that in FY2017, the performance of the Macarthur wind farm has been primarily impacted by poor wind conditions and planned outages. On the other hand, there are other wind farms such as 207 MW Collgar wind farm in Merredin in Western Australia is also making contribution in the wind energy industry of the nation (Parkinson, 2017).

2.3 Comparison of Wind Farms in Western Australia
2.3.1 Albany Wind Farm: This wind farm that aims at generating wind power is located at Albany, Western Australia. The advantages of the farm are listed below.

  • The farm is identified to own 18 wind turbines and is capable of generating 35.4 MW electricity which is approximately 80 percent of electricity that is required for Albany (Albany Wind Farm, 2018).
  • Albany wind farm possess the largest turbine which exhibits latest technologies that assist it to operate automatically.
  • Albany wind farm is located 80 meters above the sea level (Southern Ocean) which enables it to exploit the local wind.
  • This wind farm is situated close to the electricity transmission system that permits it to achieve the status of an excellent wind farm site.
  • Albany wind farm is recognized to welcome tourists to the farm that can improve its economy.

However, Albany wing energy farm witnesses several challenges that are demonstrated below.

  • The weak management leads to enhanced attrition rat that can adversely impact Albany wind farm.
  • The government has stated that the latest statistics reflect that the renewable energy produced by the farm is low even though western Australia is one of the windiest location.
  • The government has also stated that the increase in the tourist footfall can negatively impact the environment and the residents of Western Australia. This can lead to the unapproval of several projects developed by the farm.

2.3.2 Collgar Wind Farm: Collgar wind farm is another farm that is situated at Merredin, Western Australia. It is a $750 million project that is associated with utilization of renewable energy (Collgar Wind Farm, 2018). This farm exhibits various advantages that are depicted below.

  • Collgar wind farm produces 206 MW energy with its 111 Vestas V90 turbines.
  • The electricity produced by Collgar wind farm can provide energy to 120000-170000 households.
  • This wind farm is renowned for its immense contribution in reducing greenhouse emissions by 480000 to 660000 tonnes that is equivalent to the emission caused by 120000 to 160000 vehicles.

Collgar wind farm is exposed to risks pertaining to the disadvantages associated with it, which are stated below.

  • The risk analysis process of Collgar wind farm is recognized to lack recognition of completion of activities.
  • The noise level generated by Collgar wind farm is above the 35-decibel level that is allowable by the law, causing noise pollution in the area.
  • The lack of global presence of Collgar wind farm can lead to exposure of stagnancy in terms of growth.
  • The management associated with its core market is poor which in turn reduces its profitability.
  • The wind farm does not have access to the electricity transmission station.

Chapter 3: Methodology of the Study
3.1 Working Principle of the Project: Framework configuration is an urgent part of building up a suitable and fittingly developed wind energy. Wind project plan parts incorporate the turbine measure, turbine compose, number of turbines, sort of controls, battery stockpiling, keen matrix innovation, auxiliary burdens, and the wind entrance. These factors should be considered when building up any wind energy. Groups need to consider to control on existing diesel motors that supply control (Walker, Baxter and Ouellette 2014). These half breed frameworks, known as wind-diesel frameworks that are the standard. Designers should consider factors, for example, the power vintage and responsiveness of the diesel motors to guarantee they work couple with the wind turbines (Magariet al. 2014).

Revolution Stage Mechanics: The main wind turbine operations standard recognizes through the revolution process. In this regard, there are certain limits. Those are the distinctive and most vital part which helps in directing to load the approaching powers by rotating in different degrees based on the power associated and the behaviour they are infuriating (Tianet al. 2015). Keeping in mind the major objectives to increase their utility, they can have dimensions of in excess of 40 meters long with the goal. It can accomplish a substantial turning breadth while being rotated (Hicks and Ison 2018). It can similarly have the capability to achieve an incredible growing speed of higher than 200km/h in their turn at any stage they are losing the way of the flowing current.

The Blade Design: The market of wind turbine was planned utilizing a programmable exceed expectations spreadsheet gave in Dr. Wetzel’s plan course in which harmony and curve is iterated to augment control yield utilizing planned and accepted parameters, for example, TSR, rotor breadth, and efficiencies (Herteleeret al. 2017). The geometrydirected to control bend that are given underneath which expecting an electromechanical effectiveness of 0.9. The edge outline development is embraced from the model edges definite in the model plan area.

The Turbine Strength: The wind turbine rule will be fragmented with no recognizing the stimulating the whole arrangement in strengthening the complete process. The turbine or structures are generally established on fixed and plain ground with a concrete platform to support(Michaudet al. 2018). Along with this, it is blocked with metal against any solid power which can make its anticlockwise instrument disintegrate.

3.2 Schematic Diagrams: Generally, there are two primary outlines of wind turbines, which are known as the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) and the horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). The horizontal axis wind turbines are further typical and broadly accessible on the grounds that such turbines have higher efficiency than vertical pivot wind turbine. Therefore, increased data is accessible on the development of even pivot twist turbines compared to the vertical hub wind turbine. The horizontal axis wind turbines model would be utilized as a part of this undertaking (Firestoneet al. 2017). Horizontal axis wind turbines are the most important part that have a few decreased fibre glass?reinforced cutting edges or some different combined material that are worked provoking the wind projects.

Vertical and horizontal turbinesFigure 1: Vertical and horizontal turbines (Source: Ribe et al. 2018, pp- 142)

3.3 Formulas and Theories
3.3.1 Wind Power Fundamentals Equation: The wind power is depending on the speed of air and amount of air as well as mass of air. Volume, velocity and density is the major fact of wind power energy. The designed fluid mechanics for design wind turbine is (density * volume flux): dm/dt = p* A*v.

3.3.2 Efficiency in Wind Power Extraction: The formula that will use for the designing of wind farm is P T = ½ * ? * A * v 3 T * Cp. The efficiency level will be 59%. It is highlighting the split Savonius wind turbine that develop strictures after considering the final objectives to enable testing to be assessed in compare with examining activities. These strictures assured that the turbine cutting edges were of similar stature, as well as aggregate the equal as the level bladed plans from the reports. While examining the different wind turbines we decided that a general split Savonius configuration will fit appropriate for our implementation. The split Savonius we outlined had a zero counterbalance; Compass Rose Threaded dart for locking cutting edge S1223 airfoil edge 29 demonstrating that where the covered cusps meet the separation in the y-hub is zero. Where the red line demonstrates the zero counterbalance. Moreover, the covering cusps had a balanced of 1.5 crawls so as to outperform the 0.5 inch bar, situated in the focal point of the sharp edges, without making impedance and take into account twist to go past the pole (Walker, Baxter and Ouellette 2014).

Designing of blade

The examination set up was in Higgins Laboratory Room 016 Wind Tunnel. During the stage when the turbine is installed in the breeze burrow it is observed that uncomplicatedly within the cross segment of the passage. Consequently, the turbines are joined to a stainless steel bar by using a set screw. At the best, the pole is weight fitted into a stage generator keeping the pole stable. At the base, it is secured into the passage and also being licked with an anemometer. The anemometer is a instrument which portrays the turn rate of the turbines in units of rpm (Jacquet 2015). The generator is a 443540 Low RPM Permanent Magnet DC Generator and is licked with the wind turbine. The quarter inch shaft is connected to the generator with a press fit and a set screw to the pole of the generator.

3.4 Implementation
3.4.1 Budget Analysis

Budget Analysis for Wind Turbine Australia

3.4.2 Gantt Chart or Project Plan

Gantt Chart for Wind Turbine Australia

Chapter 4: Results
4.1 Discussion on the Main Findings: The turbine information was taken at three unique frequencies from the wind tunnel. These were at 22, 25, 30 Hz. The absence of information indicates and the need fall back on the utilization of high speeds for testing were a consequence of our vast 12V generator. This made it unreasonable to precisely relate our energy yield comes about with sensible breeze speeds that a turbine would hope to experience (Gatzert and Kosub 2016). Be that as it may, it exhibited contrasts in each the execution for each set up, regardless of whether it was one of the different edge plans or fenced in areas.

4.2 Analysis of the Findings: The proposed 40-kW idea is a three-bladed, upwind, factor speed, folding machine that meets the market necessities for town control, essentially battery charging. The proposed rotor width is 14-meter with a 55-m tower, and diverse rotor breadths will be accessible to advance execution for various breeze administrations (Prasad, Taylor and Kay 2017). The pre-model turbine will be tried in Norman, Oklahoma, trailed by model turbine tests at the NWTC designed as a battery charger.

Chapter 5: Discussions
5.1 Discussion on the Main Reason of Findings: The proposed wind turbine is an "horizontal axis" machine that comprises of three rotor blade edges pivoting a level centre point. The centre point is coupled with the gearbox and a generator which are located within a nacelle. Consequently, the nacelle houses the mechanical and electrical segments and is mounted on the highest point of a tubular pinnacle. The development work includes setting up one breeze turbine and two gear cottages, and laying of 50m of underground dissemination links. Just restricted controlled development hardware will be utilized because of generally little size of the venture and pre-collected gear. The activity of wind turbine would not expend fuel and create waste or side items. Significant effects amid operational stage are related with turning cutting edges.

Chapter 6: Conclusion
6.1 Conclusion: In order to achieve effectiveness, noise and control, the advanced wind turbine is established. A worldwide store network has advanced besides this plan, which is presently the business pioneer and will stay on for upcoming days. The development of this plan has created numerous options for energy distribution at coaster sites in Western Australia. Western Australia government is looking for more noteworthy cost-effective wind turbine projects that have the capability to gauge the outline, with the help of the advanced models achieving 164 m in breadth. The extent of interest in developing elective outlines of near size now assures that new challengers to the present setup are impossible. It is identified that an efficient blade shape can be design through aerodynamic calculations. The calculation will be based on the selected parameters and performance of wind project.

6.2 Recommendations : In recent days majority of the country using wind project for its greater cost effectiveness. Therefore, it is becoming the larger models of power energy through construction, assembly and transportation. For better design, manufacturer should pay more attention in blade shape design that will be helpful according to the nature of the project.

Reference List
Adánez, J.M., Al?Hadithi, B.M. and Jiménez, A., 2017. Wind Turbine Multivariable Optimal Control Based on Incremental State Model. Asian Journal of Control.

Albany Wind Farm, 2018. Wind power in Albany. [online] Available at:[Accessed 8 April 2018]

Alizadeh, S.M. and Ozansoy, C., 2016. The role of communications and standardization in wind power applications–A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 54, pp.944-958

Clean Energy Council, 2016. Wind energy. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 April 2018]

Collgar Wind Farm, 2018. Collgar wind energy. [online] Available at:[Accessed 8 April 2018]

Cooney, C., Byrne, R., Lyons, W. and O'Rourke, F., 2017. Performance characterisation of a commercial-scale wind turbine operating in an urban environment, using real data. Energy for Sustainable Development, 36, pp.44-54.

Firestone, J., Hoen, B., Rand, J., Elliott, D., Hübner, G. and Pohl, J., 2017. Reconsidering barriers to wind power projects: community engagement, developer transparency and place. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, pp.1-17.

Gatzert, N. and Kosub, T., 2016. Risks and risk management of renewable energy projects: The case of onshore and offshore wind parks. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, pp.982-998.

Herteleer, B., Dobb, A., Boyd, O., Rodgers, S. and Frearson, L., 2017. Identifying risks, costs, and lessons from ARENA?funded off?grid renewable energy projects in regional Australia. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications.

Hicks, J. and Ison, N., 2018. An exploration of the boundaries of ‘community’in community renewable energy projects: Navigating between motivations and context. Energy Policy, 113, pp.523-534

Hirth, L. and Müller, S., 2016. System-friendly wind power: How advanced wind turbine design can increase the economic value of electricity generated through wind power. Energy Economics, 56, pp.51-63.

Jacquet, J.B., 2015. The rise of “private participation” in the planning of energy projects in the rural United States. Society & Natural Resources, 28(3), pp.231-245.

Jamieson, P., 2018. Innovation in wind turbine design. John Wiley & Sons.

Jardine, R.J., Thomsen, N.V., Mygindt, M., Liingaard, M.A. and Thilsted, C.L., 2015. Axial capacity design practice for North European wind-turbine projects. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Frontiers in Offshore Geotechnics III (ISFOG). Edited by V. Meyer. Taylor & Francis Group, London (pp. 581-586).

Jensen, B.B., 2017, April. Specifying Corrosion Protection for the Offshore Wind Turbine Industry. In CORROSION 2017. NACE International.

Kealy, T., Barrett, M. and Kearney, D., 2015. How profitable are wind turbine projects? an empirical analysis of a 3.5 MW wind farm in Ireland.

Magari, S.R., Smith, C.E., Schiff, M. and Rohr, A.C., 2014. Evaluation of community response to wind turbine-related noise in Western New York State. Noise and Health, 16(71), p.228

Michaud, D.S., Feder, K., Voicescu, S.A., Marro, L., Than, J., Guay, M., Lavigne, E., Denning, A., Murray, B.J., Weiss, S.K. and Villeneuve, P., 2018. Clarifications on the Design and Interpretation of Conclusions from Health Canada’s Study on Wind Turbine Noise and Health. Acoustics Australia, pp.1-12

Mohammadi, K., Mostafaeipour, A., Sedaghat, A., Shamshirband, S. and Petkovi?, D., 2016. Application and economic viability of wind turbine installation in Lutak, Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(3), p.248.

Parkinson, G., 2017. Australia’s biggest wind farm is also its least productive. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 April 2018].

Prasad, A.A., Taylor, R.A. and Kay, M., 2017. Assessment of solar and wind resource synergy in Australia. Applied Energy, 190, pp.354-367.

Ribe, R.G., Manyoky, M., Hayek, U.W., Pieren, R., Heutschi, K. and Grêt-Regamey, A., 2018. Dissecting perceptions of wind energy projects: A laboratory experiment using high-quality audio-visual simulations to analyze experiential versus acceptability ratings and information effects. Landscape and Urban Planning, 169, pp.131-147

Tian, L., Zhu, W., Shen, W., Zhao, N. and Shen, Z., 2015. Development and validation of a new two-dimensional wake model for wind turbine wakes. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 137, pp.90-99.

Tjiu, W., Marnoto, T., Mat, S., Ruslan, M.H. and Sopian, K., 2015. Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine for power generation II: Challenges in HAWT and the opportunity of multi-megawatt Darrieus VAWT development. Renewable Energy, 75, pp.560-571.

Walker, C., Baxter, J. and Ouellette, D., 2014. Beyond rhetoric to understanding determinants of wind turbine support and conflict in two Ontario, Canada communities. Environment and Planning A, 46(3), pp.730-745

Walker, C., Baxter, J. and Ouellette, D., 2014. Beyond rhetoric to understanding determinants of wind turbine support and conflict in two Ontario, Canada communities. Environment and Planning A, 46(3), pp.730-745.

Wizelius, T., 2015. Developing wind power projects: theory and practice. Routledge.

Appendix 1: Truss Design

Truss Design

Appendix 2: Turbine Site Layout

Wind Turbine Site Layout


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