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data privacy assignment – enhancing a websites data protection measures


Task: How to enhance a websites data protection measures using data privacy assignment research strategies?


6. Research Methodology
Research Paradigm

This data privacy assignmentinvestigates the standard approach or model which is considered bya majority of investigators for conducting a research study is known as research paradigm which mainly consists of four types that are positivism, pragmatism, interpretivism and realism (Khaldi,2017). Since this data privacy assignmentstudy uses a case study approach regarding the privacy policy of South African websites, therefore the most suitable research paradigm is considered to be interpretivism. This research paradigm is applied because it has an essence of philosophical phenomenologywhich focuses on understanding the individual case and facilitate qualitative research analysis for the investigator (Žukauskas et al., 2018). Furthermore, this data privacy assignmentresearch paradigm is based on the assumption that reality is constructed socially, subjective and consists of interpretations of data from multiple perspectives. It alsoenables the investigator to implement their own subjective view regarding the observed phenomenon and also include their personal experience in drawing inferences. Hence the underlying justification for using the interpretivism research paradigm for this study is that it will enable the investigator to observe and analyse data from multiple perspectivesand frame inferences which will fulfil the research questions (Kamal, 2019). Moreover, this research paradigm will alsohelp in analysing the case study from a personal perspective of the investigator.

Research Design
An intensive and systematic data privacy assignmentstudy regarding an individual, a group of individuals, an organisation or a notable phenomenon that has created significant impact is considered to be a case study (Heale and Twycross, 2018). It is possible for a case study to have advantages and disadvantages which should be considered by investigators before deciding whether the study is appropriate for their research requirements. The advantages of a case study include that it allows investigators to perform a systematic investigationregarding the case which will generate similar results as an experiment performed under a controlled environment (Hayibo and Pearce, 2021). It also allows the investigator to collect extensive information which can be unusual or rare because of the nature of the case study. From suchinformation collected from case studies it is possible to develop hypotheses which can be explored for obtaining meaningful inferences and conclusions. However, the disadvantages of a case study include the absence of scientific rigour and leading to subsequent bias because it cannot demonstrate cause and effect. Moreover, a data privacy assignmentcase study cannot generalise a larger populationwhich also highlights the absence of scientific regard from case studies. Yin (2013) has divided case studies into single case designs with holistic (single unit of analysis), multiple case designs with holistic (single unit of analysis) and single case designs with embedded (multiple units of analysis).

This data privacy assignmentresearch study will be using asingle case design with embedded (multiple units of analysis), which will provide means of including qualitative and quantitative research methods within the research study. Since the research design is based on a single case design with embedded (multiple units of analysis) it will be possible by the investigatorto include qualitative and quantitative data collected from different secondary sources. Multiple units of analysis within an embedded case study also ensures that the investigator is able to include different analysesas their findings to answer the research questionsand frame the required inference from them (Bass et al., 2018). Such a data privacy assignmentcase study methodologyrelies on different sources for data collection that gives richness to the data and contributes significantly to the research validity making it stronger. Hence it can be justified that the research design will use a single case design with embedded (multiple units of analysis) for investigating contemporary events regardingprivacy policies of South African websites.

Research Strategy
The research strategy of a study consists of the strategies and methods which has been used by the investigator for acquiring data from different sources (Oliva, 2019). It includes determining which sampling method has been used to select participants and also the selection criteria that has been applied by the investigator. The sampling method which has been used for selecting websites for this study is convenience sampling because it is considered to be most suitable for selecting small sample sizes. Convenience sampling is considered to be a simple and non-probability sampling method which is applied for collecting data from accessible sources and a small sample size (Funk et al., 2021). This sampling technique has been applied because it helps the investigator to conduct the study in a cost effective manner and helps in collecting more qualitative information for the study. The number of observations, studies or participants which are selected or included in a study is known as the sample size. The sample size for this study includes 10 websiteswhich has been selected for collecting information about the research topic. The primary inclusion criterion for selecting the websites used on this data privacy assignment was that it should have a clear mention of the privacy policies which are followed by it.

Data Collection
Data collection is the method of collecting information from primary and secondary sources for gaining valuable and accurate insights for the research study (Feng et al., 2021). The different methods of collecting data including collecting raw data from primary sources which is called primary data and collecting data that has been previously collected from different primary and secondary sources which is known as secondary data. Collecting data is considered to be important for a research study because it enables the investigator to explore information related to the study and answer the research questions which has been framed for the study (Loomis and Paterson, 2018). This data privacy assignmentstudy uses secondary data collection method for collecting data about the privacy policies of different South African websites. Since the sample size of websites is 10 from which the investigator will collect the information, therefore, the information about the privacy policies of the websites will be downloaded from each website by the investigator. The website was selected considering the primary inclusion criteria which has enabled the investigatorto collect the necessary data for further analysis. Since secondary data is considered to be more reliable, therefore the investigator has collected search data from the website rather than collecting primary data from different participants.

Data Analysis
Data analysis is the process of analysing the collected data for relevant inferences and answering the research questions by the investigator for fulfilling the aim and objectives of the data privacy assignmentresearch study (Washington et al., 2020). Data can be analysed through qualitative and quantitative methods whereby the qualitative methods are applied for analysing the non-numeric data for identifying underlying relationship between variables. Quantitative data analysis is about analysing numeric data by using different statistical tools and techniques. This study uses the qualitative analysis method for analysing the collected data using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis enables the investigator to analyse the textual data for identifying a common theme which is analysed for understanding the common ideas, patterns and relationships in the data set (Rajšp and Fister, 2020). The data privacy assignment shows it is possible for the investigator using thematic analysis to frame different themes and address the issues of the data privacy assignmentresearch studyby drawing important inferences and conclusions.

Khaldi, K., 2017. Quantitative, qualitative or mixed research: which research paradigm to use. Journal of Educational and Social Research, data privacy assignment7(2), pp.15-15.
Žukauskas, P., Vveinhardt, J. and Andriukaitien, R., 2018. Philosophy and paradigm of scientific research. Management culture and corporate social responsibility, 121.
Kamal, S.S.L.B.A., 2019. Research paradigm and the philosophical foundations of a qualitative study. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 4(3), pp.1386-1394.
Yin, R.K. (2013). “Case study research design and methods”, (3 rd Ed), Sage Publications, California. Heale, R. and Twycross, A., 2018. What is a case study. Evidence-based nursing, 21(1), pp.7-8.
Hayibo, K.S. and Pearce, J.M., 2021. A review of the value of solar methodology with a case study of the US VOS. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,data privacy assignment 137, p.110599.
Bass, J.M., Beecham, S. and Noll, J., 2018, May. Experience of industry case studies: A comparison of multi-case and embedded case study methods. In Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry (pp. 13-20).

Oliva, R., 2019. Intervention as a research strategy. Journal of Operations Management, 65(7), pp.710-724.
Rong, S., Wang, L., Peng, Z., Liao, Y., Li, D., Yang, X., Nuessler, A.K., Liu, L., Bao, W. and Yang, W., 2020. The mechanisms and treatments for sarcopenia: could exosomes be a perspective research strategy in the future. Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle, 11(2), pp.348-365.
Funk, R.S., Shakhnovich, V., Cho, Y.K., Polireddy, K., Jausurawong, T., Gress, K. and Becker, M.L., 2021. Factors associated with reduced infliximab exposure in the treatment of pediatric autoimmune disorders: a cross-sectional prospective convenience sampling study. Pediatric Rheumatology, 19(1), pp.1-11.
Feng, Y., Duives, D., Daamen, W. and Hoogendoorn, S., 2021. Data collection methods for studying pedestrian behaviour: A systematic review. Building and Environment, 187, p.107329.

Loomis, D.K. and Paterson, S., 2018. A comparison of data collection methods: Mail versus online surveys. Journal of Leisure Research, data privacy assignment49(2), pp.133-149.
Washington, S., Karlaftis, M., Mannering, F. and Anastasopoulos, P., 2020. Statistical and econometric methods for transportation data analysis. Chapman and Hall/CRC.
Rajšp, A. and Fister, I., 2020. A systematic literature review of intelligent data analysis methods for smart sport training. Applied Sciences, data privacy assignment10(9), p.3013.


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