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Data Modelling Assignment: System Development For Royal Rundle Hospital


The scenario for this data modelling assignment is a multi-specialty hospital system, the Royal Rundle Hospital (RRH), that provides a broad range of services to the community which include surgical, maternity, obstetric care, dialysis, emergency, mental health, aged and palliative care, allied health services and a 24-hour emergency department. The RRH has been serving in the region for over 50 years and has been using paper-based forms and documents to store and manage all the data with some use of spreadsheets that started not so long ago. Now that the management of RRH wants to take the advantages of Information Technology to maintain and manage the records of the various aspects of the hospital system more efficiently, they have put out a Request for Proposals (RFP) for appropriately qualified consultants to undertake a body of work that would help to scope the data requirements for such a system. With your success in your Torrens University Australia degree so far, and other similar projects that have garnered you some sustained success in the eyes of the profession and community, you have been shortlisted among no less than 10 other consultancies. There are expectations from them, then, as to the standard of report you will produce.

The management of the RRH has provided you with an overview and description of the hospital system as below-

The Royal Rundle Hospital (RRH) is a multi-specialty hospital that includes a number of departments, rooms, doctors, nurses, compounders, and other staff working in the hospital. Patients having different kinds of ailments come to the hospital and get checkup done from the relevant doctors. If required they are admitted in the hospital and discharged after treatment. The hospital maintains the records of various departments, rooms, and doctors in the hospital besides the most important records of the regular patients, patients admitted in the hospital, the checkup of patients done by the doctors, the patients that have been operated, and patients discharged from the hospital.

In RRH, there are many departments like Orthopedic, Pathology, Emergency, Dental, Gynecology, Anesthetics, I.C.U., Blood Bank, Operation Theater, Laboratory, M.R.I., Neurology, Cardiology, Cancer Department, Corpse, etc. There is an OPD where patients come and get a card (that is, entry card of the patient) for check up from the relevant doctor. After making entry in the card, they go to the relevant doctor’s room and the doctor checks up their ailments. According to the ailments, the doctor either prescribes medicine or admits the patient in the relevant department. The patient may choose either private or general room according to his/her need. But before getting admission in the hospital, the patient has to fulfill certain formalities of the hospital like room charges, etc. After the treatment is completed, the doctor discharges the patient. Before discharging from the hospital, the patient again has to complete certain formalities of the hospital like balance charges, test charges, operation charges (if any), blood charges, doctors’ charges, etc.

Next, the management talks about the doctors of the hospital. There are two types of the doctors in the hospital, namely, regular doctors and call-on doctors. Regular doctors are those doctors who come to the hospital daily. Call-on doctors are those doctors who are called by the hospital if the relevant regular doctor is not available.

The management believes and understands that the benefits of an IT solution to manage and maintain their records are enormous and hopes to gain a thorough insight that should come from a lot of forethought and design elements fed into it before it could be seriously considered by them. The RRH management seeks consultation on what the data requirements of such a system might be.

There are two objectives of this assessment:

  1. For the purposes of the client, the Royal Rundle Hospital (RRH) management, you are to produce a design brief and,
  2. For the purposes of the assessment, you are to produce a reflection.

So, this written submission should expertly mix a consultative style—that is, providing a solution to the problem as outlined by the client—with a deep reflection on what you have learned in the subject and the potential for such an automated system. You will need to use your judgment on this, it is likely to take several drafts to get it right. The deliverable for this assessment is plainly:

You are required to create a consultative report that addresses the data requirements of the proposed Royal Rundle Hospital (RRH) System as well as commenting on the feasibility of such a solution, given what you learned in the subject. Following instructions will assist you in completion of the task.


Executive Summary
This report on data modelling assignment is highly focused on the scenario of multi-specialty hospital system development for the Royal Rundle Hospital. In the current age, it is highly essential for the different healthcare organizations to adopt automation in the business processes to enhance the data storing and managing efficiency and accuracy. Moreover, automation also provides benefits like less time and cost consumption in operations. However, this report will evaluate different aspects regarding the adaption of automation in RRH. In addition, different things have been evaluated regarding the system, such as its benefits, utilization, challenges, database structure, and adaptation issues, etc.

1. Introduction
This report is based on the case study of RRH hospital's system development. Recently, the hospital has found a high need for the development of a specialized system for enhancing the working capability regarding management as well as storing different data transacted during the different business processes involved with this hospitality organization in between the staff of the hospital and the customers as well. This report will evaluate different things regarding the proposed multi-specialty system of the RRH hospital. In the initial part, it will discuss the multi-specialty and automated hospital system that tends to be developed by the RRH. Furthermore, it will also evaluate the current situation of the organization, along with the utilization of the multi-specialty system in the case scenario. In the further part, it will develop an ERD for the proposed system. Furthermore, it will also discuss the different operations involved in the hospital and the flow of data in the proposed system. Apart from these, this discussion will also evaluate the benefits and challenges for the implementation of this system along with that provide an accurate explanation of the adaptation issues in this context for the RRH hospital's staff and customers. In the end, it will include a reflection, where it will discuss the assumption that has been made concerning this multi-speciality hospital system, along with that conclude the findings and list some recommendations as well.

1.1 Automation and automated system in the hospital industry
For the purpose of facing as well as handling various difficulties in the business process, nowadays, different healthcare organizations are looking forward to the help of the IT sector in order to have a great consultation regarding the most suitable pieces of equipment as well as tools can be used for fulfilling their business objectives. The demand for useful diagnostic as well as health care processes is increasing day-by-day so that now it is really essential for the healthcare organizations or hospital to enhance the infrastructure of the organization as well as supply the best service (Mills, 2018). Moreover, big data requires effective therapeutic techniques, along with those improving difficulties of administration in hospital sectors have been considered as the leading threats for the hospitals, which they are tended to address. Moreover, a lot of patients come to the hospital every day for looking up their ailment. The authoritative staffs need to send the opportune individual to the fitting specialist for the patient's ailment, for which they have to have an away from of all specialists working with the medical clinic alongside their strength (International Medical Informatics Association Nursing Informatics Conference, 2017). However, automation can be incorporated in this case. Still, it needs to be adapted across a more comprehensive section of the hospital, where they usually face struggles, such as patient's data management, efficient financial record management, and so forth.

However, in this case, it will be beneficial for the hospitals to incorporate a specific and significant automated hospital management system in order to sort out the different challenges they have faced during the daily business operations. There are several essential data, which needs to be kept secure and adequately, for the fluent progression of the business works (Le et al., 2017). Furthermore, the patients are getting delayed to fulfil the requirements before getting a clinical check-up, since the slow data recording and management system as well as an increasing number of patients. Through the incorporation of a specific and significant multi-speciality hospital system, the hospital would be capable of mitigating the aforementioned issues along with that additionally would be capable of decreasing the rate of error and data loss as well, since the paper works may be lost or demolished (Bhattacharya, 2016).

Furthermore, the automated framework can be locked in among various purposes in the medical clinic in regards to the fix of the patients, for example, putting away and keeping up test results, empowering clear request passage, empowering direct section of the data in regards to the various patients who have been named to various specialists in the emergency clinic, alongside that supporting in getting to the diverse data from anyplace from the entire globe too (Ionu?, 2016). Moreover, automation also holds different benefits, such as it is cost-effective, having the capability of decreasing the workload, speeds-up the medical billing system, enables the hospital for getting appropriate data, along with that it also provides effective competitiveness as well. Thus, it can be considered the incorporation of automation or automated system will be highly beneficial for the hospital industry.

1.2 Present situation of the RRH
The increasing number of patients and workload is regularly creating different vital threats for the RRH. The organization provides 24*7 healthcare facility, so that, there are several data, which needs to store and maintained properly as well as timely. However, nowadays, the organization is facing different significant issues cause of the present physical procedure of working in order to store and maintain a lot of data transacted during the business processes of the hospital, in between the customers and hospital staff. On account of these reasons, the Royal Rundle Hospital is tended to develop a specific and significant multi-speciality hospital system in order to have an efficient and effective administration as well as the recording of the significant data of the business process. The issues, which the Royal Rundle Hospital usually faces during performing their current business processes, are briefly explained in the below part of the discussion:

  • Appropriate and quick report generation: This is recognized as a difficult work for the Hospital since BI has a difficult process. However, this challenge has raised cause of the lower level of data collation within the present working system of the Royal Rundle Hospital. Moreover, in several cases, it has been found that the staff is getting errors in the reports for preparing it quickly, which may create rework situations, which is not good for the hospital's reputation as well.
  • Not-sufficient immediate data storage: Within the present working procedure of the Royal Rundle Hospital, the information storing process is much longer, and the storage is also not safe at all, for which the hospital may face different issues like a lower level of customer satisfaction or the situation of data loss (Jayaraman et al., 2019).
  • Not-sufficient immediate recovery of information: in the current manual arrangement of the Royal Rundle Hospital, it is a lot of hard to recoup as well the specification of any particular information, for example, the historical backdrop of a specific patient treated from the Royal Rundle Hospital. Here, in this case, the authoritative personals require experiencing various registers, which makes issues for them alongside that expends a lot of important time as well.
  • Error-prone measurements: The staff engaged in different activities of measurement in the business process of the hospital may be at fault in measurement, which can be the reason behind a great loss for the organization (Hewko & Cummings, 2016). Furthermore, the measurement activities also consume a lot of time to end, for which the hospital faces issues like delay, lower patient satisfaction, and so forth.

1.3 Use of Multi-specialty hospital system as a case study
The proposed system by RRH has different utilization for the purpose of sorting -out the issues identified in the aforementioned section, depending on the context of the organizational working procedure. The proposed system has several uses for the purpose of managing as well as storing the separate significant information securely, timely, and properly. Furthermore, this will help the organizational business process to perform different business functions successfully, properly, and without consumption of much time (Attia et al., 2016). Moreover, it will help the hospital to store the data regarding the different patients arrived daily to the hospital due to their check-up. Furthermore, it will also turn the process of bill generation for the patients into less time consuming and easy as well.

Furthermore, this system will also allow the hospital to store information about the different patients according to the treatment provided to them. It also provides detailed data and records of the child or patient's vaccination as well, which will help the hospital to measure the need for vaccination of that particular patient. In addition, it will also book keep the records of the availability of medicines, rooms, beds in the hospital, which is really helpful for the organization to complete the work process without consuming a lot of time. Furthermore, the multi-specialty hospital system will enable the hospital to identify specific and significant information quickly and with full accuracy. However, through the incorporation of automation in most of the working process of the hospital, it also reduces the rate of error, which make the business process of the organization much reliable as well (Agapito et al., 2018). Apart from these, this will also efficiently record the data for different working individuals in the hospital, such as regular and call-on doctors, receptionists, cleaning staff, and nurses. Simply it can be stated that the implementation of this system will be much helpful and useful for the Royal Rundle Hospital.

1.4 Entity-relationship diagram
ERD or Entity-relationship diagram has been considered as a graphical representation of the basic concept of the database. It includes different entities and attributes for giving a proper understanding of the database of the system. Several hospitals, during the current business world, have confronted the issue with the administration of information productively and safely. Information is just equipped for being a particular and noteworthy asset of the association when the information is legitimate as well as open during the prerequisite. In addition, accessibility, as well as precision, has been accomplished, when the organization unequivocally associates and administrates its data. In any case, these days, the database can be considered as a standard strategy to structure as well as oversee data among the association over the whole world, since it is exceptionally gainful in case of differing motivations behind the business procedure (Coronel & Morris, 2018). However, for the purpose of secure and effective management as well as storing of data in this case of RRH database also needs to be implemented, for which development of an ERD is highly significant. Moreover, the ERD for this context will include different entities, which are noted briefly in the following section:

  • Staff: This specific entity has been incorporated for the purpose of storing different details of the different working individuals of the hospital, along with their given role in the organizational business process, such as the nurses, receptionists, and so forth.
  • Doctors: There are two different types of doctor’s present, such as regular and on-call doctors, who are connected with various segments of medical treatment. In total, there are several doctors working for different medical treatments so that their details as per their roles need to be stored effectively. For this reason, this particular entity has been incorporated.
  • Patient: It is one of the major entities of the database, which includes a lot of information, regarding the patients arrived at the hospital for a medical check-up.
  • Appointment: This specific entity has been engaged in this ERD cause of proper storing of data regarding the different appointments taken by the patients.
  • Room: This entity has been engaged here for storing the details regarding different category rooms and beds as per their availability.
  • Payment: Apart from all entities mentioned in the above section, this specific entity has been engaged here in order to efficiently record and manage the data of different payment transactions between the patients and the hospital.
  • Admission: This entity has been incorporated for keeping the details regarding the admission of different patients in the hospital.

ERD in data modelling 1

Figure: ERD
(Source: created by the learner)

Different anomalies can appear in case of this database, which is noted in the following section:

  • Modification anomaly: If the stored data is wrong, then it should be modified, but due to modification data, redundancy can appear there.
  • Insertion anomaly: The database system is unable to store details regarding patients until he or she arrived at the OPD of the hospital and get an entry card.
  • Deletion anomaly: Furthermore, deletion of any particular data of an individual from the database can be the reason behind the deletion of the other needed information of that individual.

2. Hospital's operation and data flow of the system
The RRH incorporates separate groups of working individuals in order to fulfil specific and vital activities of the business process of the hospital, such as Orthopedic, Laboratory, ICU, Cardiology, Cancer Department, emergency department, etc. In order to get access to the service of the hospital, the patients initially require to go to the OPD section of the hospital, where they will get their entry card as well as the appointment of the doctor as per their medical condition. A patient is enabled by getting the check-up from the doctor at that moment when they get an entry card. After the proper check-up the doctors decide the discharge or further treatment of the patient. However, for the purpose of getting further treatment, the patients need to be admitted to the hospital by booking a bed in general or private room. Moreover, for the purpose of getting bed and room in the hospital in concern of the further treatment, the patient needs to fulfil some mandatory formalities as well as pay the amount charged by the hospital in order to book a bed within the rooms in the hospital as per the patient's choice.

In addition, when a patient has been cured properly through the doctor, they have been discharged from the hospital with a prescription from the doctor. However, before getting discharged, the patients need to pay their bills, for the performed treatments, such as operation, test, specialist charges, etc. However, the system requires maintaining this flow of data in the business process of the Royal Rundle Hospital for recording each and every vital data regarding the activities. In addition, aside from the insights about the patients and their relieving, the arrangement of the RRH needs to keep and record the various specialists, as the specialists are working in an alternate way, for example, a portion of the specialists are working consistently with the emergency clinic, regardless of whether some different specialists are approached just when any exceptional case has shown up.

3. The benefit of the system
The RRH can get different profits through the implementation of this specific system, which is noted in the following section:

  • The accuracy of the business process would be enhanced after the implementation of this system
  • The results of different measurement and significant business activity would be much reliable
  • Moreover, data redundancy has been considered as a serious concern in the field of data management. However, this system will support the organization to mitigate the data redundancy effectively (Samra et al., 2020).
  • Furthermore, this system is very much focused on providing immediate data retrieval, which is much beneficial for the organization, in case of less time consumption and higher accuracy as well.
  • In addition, this system will also enable the hospital to store the data quickly (Scott et al., 2018).
  • Nevertheless, this system's nature will be user friendly also, which will be beneficial for getting a higher level of user satisfaction too.
  • Moreover, it will also reduce the chance of destruction or loss of specific and significant information.
  • Apart from the aforementioned benefits, it will provide strategic approach to the business process (Yoshiteru et al., 2019).

4. Challenges of the system
Although there are several advantages that are available, also the incorporation of this system creates some new challenges for the hospital as well. The major challenges are noted in the following section:

  • The rate of cybercrime is increasing day-by-day, which puts a great threat to the hospital to secure the organizational data along with the patient's data. There is always a risk of data leakage or data robber if the system is not monitored properly and timely (Courbis et al., 2018).
  • Furthermore, the skills of the existing staff working in the hospital may not be adequate to work with this system and maintaining the system in the further case.
  • The new environment of the working process also creates significant and critical issues for the organizational staff and the patients as well.

5. Adaptation issues
Adaption of any new system is equally hard as the implementation of the system. Thus, Royal Rundle Hospital may face some critical challenges during adaptation of the proposed multi-specialty hospital system. The major challenges are noted down:

  • The organizational staff may get challenges due to proper maintenance of the system, as they are not enough trained with technical knowledge.
  • Furthermore, the staff and the consumers of the hospital may get challenges for acknowledging the new working procedure of the multi-specialty hospital system in the RRH.
  • Moreover, the cost of maintaining the system should not be much higher; otherwise, it can put a negative impact on the hospital economy.
  • The organization needs to conduct an induction program for giving a proper and adequate understanding of the different individuals working in the hospital regarding the newly implemented system.
  • Apart from these, system failure has been considered as another major challenge in this case after the adaptation of the automated hospital management system.

6. Assumptions
Numerous assumptions have been made by me regarding the proposed system of RRH. The assumptions are noted below:

  • It has been assumed that the system will supply a strategic approach towards the business process
  • It will provide an effective rate of reliability and accuracy
  • The system will be data-redundancy free.
  • The system will allow immediate data storage, recovery and identification.
  • The functions included in this system will be easy to use.

7. Conclusion
This report is based on the case scenario of the Royal Rundle Hospital's multi-specialty hospital system development. After the discussion of this report, different things have been evaluated regarding the system, such as its benefits, utilization, challenges, database structure, and adaptation issues, etc. However, on the accomplishment of this discussion, it can be concluded that the implementation of this system will change the way of storing and managing data for the Royal Rundle Hospital. Still, the hospital authority should have a particular concern about the identified challenges of the system implementation as well.

8. List of references
Agapito, G., Simeoni, M., Calabrese, B., Caré, I., Lamprinoudi, T., Guzzi, P. H.,&Cannataro, M. (2018). Dietos: a dietary recommender system for chronic diseases monitoring and management. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 153, 93–104.

Attia, S., Boubetra, A., & Saoud, M. S. (2016). Development of an emergency response management using mobile devices for hospital infrastructures affected by power grid failures. International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics (Ijhisi), 11(1), 36–57.

Bhattacharya, S. (2016). A review of the application of automation technologies in healthcare domain. Data modelling assignment Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 9(12), 2343–2343.

Coronel, C., & Morris, S. (2018). Database systems : design, implementation & management (13th ed.). Cengage Learning US.

Courbis, A.-L., Murray, R. B., Arnavielhe, S., Caimmi, D., Bedbrook, A., Van Eerd, M., …& Bousquet, J. (2018). Electronic clinical decision support system for allergic rhinitis management: mask e-cdss. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 48(12), 1640–1653.

Hewko, S. J., & Cummings, G. G. (2016). Performance management in healthcare: a critical analysis. Leadership in Health Services, 29(1), 52–68.

International Medical Informatics Association. Nursing Informatics Conference. (2017). Forecasting informatics competencies for nurses in the future of connected health. (J. Murphy, W. Goossen, & P. Weber, Eds.) (Ser. Studies in health technology and informatics, volume 232). IOS Press.

Ionu? ??RANU. (2016). Data mining in healthcare: decision making and precision. Database Systems Journal, Vi(4), 33–40.

Jayaraman, R., King, N., & Salah, K. (2019). Improving opportunities in healthcare supply chain processes via the internet of things and blockchain technology. International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics (Ijhisi), 14(2), 49–65.

Le, D.-N., Le, C. V., Tromp, J. G., & Nguyen, N. G. (Eds.). (2018). Emerging technologies for health and medicine : virtual reality, augmented reality, artificial intelligence, internet of things, robotics, industry 4.0. John Wiley & Sons.

Mills, M. P. (2018). Work in the age of robots (Ser. Encounter intelligence, 4). Encounter Books.

Samra, H., Li, A., Soh, B., & Zain, M. A. (2020). Utilization of hospital information systems for medical research in saudiarabia: a mixed-method exploration of the views of healthcare and it professionals involved in hospital database management systems. Health Information Management : Journal of the Health Information Management Association of Australia, 49(2-3), 117–126.

Scott, N., Clark, H., Kool, B., Ameratunga, S., Christey, G., & Cormack, D. (2018). Audit of ethnicity data in the waikato hospital patient management system and trauma registry: pilot of the hospital ethnicity data audit toolkit. The New Zealand Medical Journal, 131(1483), 21–29.

Yoshiteru, Y., Nobuo, S., &Kiyohide, F. (2019). Establishing a hospital transfusion management system promotes appropriate clinical use of human albumin in japan: a nationwide retrospective study. Bmc Health Services Research, 19(1), 1–11.


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