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Data Communication &Networking Assignment: A Critical Discussion

Question

Task: You are required to prepare a networking assignment on the concepts related to data communication and networking channels.

Answer

Introduction
As per the research on networking assignment, data communication is defined as a system which is capable to interconnect numerous computing networks and devices effectively by which communication-related operations can be done significantly. The wireless network is a part of communication that enables the companies to send or exchange data without requiring connecting cables or wires. The aim of this research on networking assignment is to review weekly notes and data related to the communication systems and networking channels. In this era, most of the companies are implementing data communication and wireless networking systems for performing business activities and operations effectively.

Background
TCP/IP is a type of communication model which is used for developing significant communication architectures and networking frameworks by which companies can interact with the consumers and connect their servers with the networks (Cunha, et al., 2017). In terms of effectiveness, the TCP/IP model is more effective that helps to reduce communication gaps and problems effectively. LAN is a part of a communication network which is capable to interconnect computing devices and systems so that the local area can perform data transmission. This research will help to understand the key concept behind data communication and networking systems.

Week 1: Introduction to computer networks and data communications
Part a: discussion

In this week, we have covered numerous topics and information related to the computer networks for example TCP/IP model and OCI communication models. A computer network is defined as a system which is able to connect two or more devices or networks in a reliable manner. We have also included a comparison section between TCP/IP and OSI model. Numerous kinds of computing networks are included for example LAN, MAN, and WAN by which communication can be done effectively. I have experienced that OSI is more effective that contains major 7 layers for the example application, transportation, session, presentation, data link, physical layer and network layer.

Part b: interpretations of the contents
According to my point, this week included the information related to the computing networks and data communication systems. Evaluation of TCP/IP and OSI model helped to enhance awareness and managed communication gaps.

Part c: outcome
I have learned that the OSI model is more capable and significant computing network that can be used for performing data communication operations easily. Moreover, I examined that WAN is a leading and suitable communication channel that has the ability to cover larger geographical areas.

Week 2: Fundamentals of data and signals
Part a: discussion

We have covered the fundamental concepts behind data communication and networks. This week also highlighted the differences between data and signals along with the signal strength and attenuation. The term data is defined as information which is mainly shared from one server to another using data communication networks and channels (Liu, et al., 2017). On the other side, signals are defined as electrically encoded data that helps to perform data communication. We have reviewed and evaluated the encoding technique used in data communication. I have found that encoding is defined as a technique which is able to convert signals into codes so that level of security and effectiveness can be improved.

Part b: interpretations of the contents
I have experienced that this week provided effective information related to data communication and encoding techniques. Mainly, two kinds of signals are used in the data communication for example analog and digital signals.

Part c: outcome
I have learned that modulation is a significant technique used to modulate the transmitted signals in order to improve the strength of the signals. Major three components are included in the data communication for example frequency, phase and amplitude.

Week 3: Conducted and wireless media
Part a: discussion

In this week, we have covered numerous topics, for example, twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, microwave systems and many more. We have reviewed the characteristics of the connecting cables used in the data communication systems (Tomi?, and McCann, 2017). It is found that major two kinds of media networks are adopted for performing data transmission for example wireless media and conducting media. According to my opinion, this literature provided depth information about the twisted pair and other data connecting cables used in the communication networks.

Part b: interpretations of the contents
From this lecture, I have found that twisted-pair wiring cable is more easy and reliable to install in the larger communication networks. With the help of twisted pair cables, data or signals can be shared from one network to another in a reliable manner. We have covered major two media networks in this week for example wireless and conducted cables.

Part c: outcome
I have learned that wireless media is more effective and appropriate by which larger communication systems can be developed and data transmission can be done without requiring any connecting cable. We have observed that mainly three kinds of connecting cables are included for example twisted pair, fibre optic cable and twisted pair.

Week 4: Making Connections
Part a: discussion

In this lecture, we have covered major two kinds of connections for example half-duplex and full-duplex connections. We have also improved our understanding in regards to the terminal to mainframe connections. I have determined that connecting peripheral devices is a challenging task for the companies that can impact on communication performance and effectiveness.The term interface is defined as the connection to a peripheral process which is a process of delivering proper communications among computer and networks.

Part b: interpretations of the contents
In this lecture, we have provided depth information about connections and also included the most relevant information about interface standards. Mainly, two kinds of standards are added in the connections for example official standards and de factor standards. I have determined that interface standard contains major four components for example electrical components, mechanical, functional and procedural components.

Part c: outcome
I have learned that proper interface among computer networks and peripheral devices and proper communication needs a significant network or connection that can help to reduce the communication-related problems and issues in a reliable manner. We have improved our experience about interface and connection related systems used in the communication networks.

Week 5: Local area network
Part a: discussion

In this lecture, we have covered the key characteristics of local area networks along with their advantages and disadvantages. LAN is defined as the local area network which is capable to interconnect two or more computing networks in a significant manner. We have reviewed complete information related to the local area networks and systems used in the communication systems and channels. Moreover, we have compared wireless LANs and wired LANs in order to obtain effective information related to communication networks and channels.

Part b: interpretations of the contents
We have found that wireless LANs and wired LANs both are most relevant networks used in the communication systems where data transmission can be done without requiring additional servers and networks. Personally, I have experienced that wireless local area networks are more effective and capable by which long-distance communication can be performed without using connecting cables and servers.

Part c: outcome
I have learned that local area networks provide larger data speed to the users where communication between two computer networks can be done in less time. In terms of effectiveness, the LAN network is more effective but cannot be used for long-distance communication because of their less capability to handle communication networks.

Week 6: Introduction to MAN and WAN
Part a: discussion

The aim of this lecture is to review the concept behind WAN and MAN communication networks. We have reviewed and evaluated the key characteristics of wider area networks and metropolitan area networks. MAN is defined as a leading communication network that provides a larger data rate and effectiveness as compared to the local area networks. On the other side, a wide area network is capable to utilize for larger geographical areas without requiring additional systems and servers.

Part b: interpretations of the contents
I have analyzed and evaluated both MAN and WAN are significant and reliable communication networks that can be used in the business communities in order to exchange data from one server to another. I have observed that MAN networks have larger transfer speeds and can recover from networks from the faults in less time. SONET and Ethernet both are common MAN networks used in the companies and helpful for enhancing the level of communication.

Part c: outcome
From this lecture, I have learned that in order to perform communication at a larger distance and geographical areas, both MAN and WAN networks are more effective and appropriate that can be used easily.

Week 7: The Internet
Part a: discussion

In this lecture, I have reviewed and evaluated the concept behind internet and numerous kinds of communication protocols used in the computing networks and systems. The Internet plays a key role in the computing networks where users can connect two or more devices in a reliable manner and capable to deliver significant communication channels and platforms (Hafeez, et al., 2017). TCP refers to the transmission control protocol that may be adopted for creating and reliable end to end communication network. Numerous other protocols are used in the communication for example internet protocol, ARP, DHCP and NAT protocols.

Part b: interpretations of the contents
In this lecture, I have examined that information about TCP/IP protocol is more relevant and effective that can help to propose advanced and highest communication model for the business communities. I have observed that IPv4 and IPv6 protocols are very common and able to reduce problems and errors from the communication systems effectively.

Part c: outcome
I have learned that security of data is a challenging task while using internet and communication protocols due to which the cyber-crimes and security threats can be produced easily. TCP/IP is one of the significant and reliable communication protocol that can be used for improving the security of communication networks.

Week 8: Voice and Data Delivery Networks
Part a: discussion

In this lecture, I have analyzed and reviewed the key elements of a telephone system along with the limitations of telephonic signals. Moreover, the difference between an interexchange carrier and a local exchange carrier was completed in order to improve our understanding and experience. I have observed that voice networks have provided a platform to the data networks and capable to exchange data or voice signals in an appropriate manner. In the field of telecommunication, data networks and servers are helpful for leading effectiveness of the telecom systems. Major three components are added into the telecommunication for example lines, trunks and numbers.

Part b: interpretations of the contents
I have determined that information about voice signals can be helpful to understand and manage the communication gaps effectively. A POT is a major telephonic system which is able to perform long-distance communication in a reliable manner.

Part c: outcome
From this lecture, I have learned that a telephonic system includes major two sections for example sender and receiver systems. The sender is capable to send signals from one server to another and the receiver is beneficial to gain data or information within less time (Liu, et al., 2018).

Week 9: Network Security
Part a: discussion

This lecture helped to understand and review the security concerns and problems linked with the computing networks and servers. We have evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of the computing passwords and security of data (Van, Eldridge, and Urias, 2017). Network security refers to the process of securing computing networks from security vulnerabilities and threats effectively. We have also reviewed the numerous security techniques and programs used to improve the privacy of computer systems for example encryption algorithms, digital signatures and biometric authentication.

Part b: interpretations of the contents
From this content and lecture, I have observed that securing computing networks and servers are major information that should be reviewed and analyzed properly so that data security and confidentiality can be improved.

Part c: outcome
I have learned that a lack of awareness and improper security techniques are major risk factors that increase security threats and vulnerabilities in the computer networks and servers (Gowtham, and Ahila, 2017). I have found that encryption is a significant algorithm that can be used for improving the security of data.

Week 10: Making connections efficient: multiplexing and compression
Part a: discussion

In this lecture, I have reviewed numerous multiplexing techniques and programs used in the communication systems. Multiplexing is defined as a technique which is used for transferring numbers of data signals through a single system so that more than one user can perform data transmission effectively.

Part b: interpretations of the contents
Multiplexing is a major technique used in the communication system and from this lecture we have gain proper and relevant information about multiplexing algorithms. We have also enhanced our knowledge in regards to the lossy and lossless compressions used in the computer networks.

Part c: outcome
I have learned that multiplexing is a more effective and appropriate technology that can help the telecommunication companies in order to send numbers of signals from one server easily. Wireless networks are mainly linked with the multiplexing systems in order to enhance the performance of the data transmission channels.

Week 11: Errors, Error Detection and Error Control
Part a: discussion

In this chapter, we have described various errors occurred in the communication systems along with the error detection techniques or programs. Error is defined as a problem that occurs between data transmission and communication channels where the receiver cannot obtain original signals.Numerous chapters are covered in this week for example different types of noise commonly found in computer networks, different error-prevention techniques and many more.

Part b: interpretations of the contents
I have observed that noise is a part of error that affect communication networks and servers easily for which noise detection sensors and programs need to be implemented while performing data transmission operations.

Part c: outcome
I have learned that major three error detection techniques are used in the communication for example parity, arithmetic checksum and cyclic redundancy. The presence of such techniques will be helpful for managing errors and distortions effectively.

Conclusion
From this research, it may be summarized that communication networks are capable to help the companies for connecting two or more devices effectively and allows exchanging data in a reliable manner. This research reviewed and analyzed11 weeks covered in the lectures and helped to enhance understanding and knowledge about communication networks, protocols, errors and multiplexing techniques. I have found that three basic forms of error detection are parity, arithmetic checksum, and cyclic redundancy checksum. Once an error has been detected, there are three possible options: do nothing, return an error message, and correct the error.

References
Cunha, F., Villas, L., Boukerche, A., Maia, G., Viana, A., Mini, R.A. and Loureiro, A.A., (2016) Data communication in VANETs: Protocols, applications and challenges. Ad Hoc Networks, 44, pp.90-103.

Liu, Y., Liu, A., Li, Y., Li, Z., Choi, Y.J., Sekiya, H. and Li, J., (2017) APMD: A fast data transmission protocol with reliability guarantee for pervasive sensing data communication. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 41, pp.413-435.

Tomi?, I. and McCann, J.A., (2017) A survey of potential security issues in existing wireless sensor network protocols. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 4(6), pp.1910-1923.

Hafeez, A., Malik, H., Avatefipour, O., Rongali, P.R. and Zehra, S., (2017) Comparative study of can-bus and FlexRay protocols for in-vehicle communication, 12(6), pp. 12-18.

Liu, K., Seuret, A., Fridman, E. and Xia, Y., (2018) Improved stability conditions for discrete?time systems under dynamic network protocols. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, 28(15), pp.4479-4499.

Gowtham, M. and Ahila, S.S., (2017) Privacy enhanced data communication protocol for wireless body area network. In 2017 4th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS), 12(4), pp. 1-5.

Van Leeuwen, B., Eldridge, J. and Urias, V., (2017) Cyber analysis emulation platform for wireless communication network protocols. In 2017 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST), 12(5), pp. 1-6.

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