Cyber Security Assignment: Mitigation Plan for Threat Report
Task: Context: Cyber security help organizations to mitigate threats/risks, reduce financial loss and safety violations, decrease unethical behaviour, improve customer satisfaction, and increase efficiency, as well as to maintain these improved results. Threats can be resolved by Risk Acceptance (doing nothing), Risk Transference (pass risk to an externality), Risk Avoidance (removing the feature/component that causes the risk) and Risk Mitigation (decrease the risk). This cyber security assignment gives you an opportunity to demonstrate your understanding of cybersecurity and your capability to explain Risk Mitigation strategies for such threats. Mitigations should be chosen according to the appropriate technology and resolution should be decided according to the risk level and cost of mitigation.
For this assessment, you are required to write a 2500 words mitigation plan for threat report based on knowledge you gained about threat types and key factors.
Management AssignmentPart One
Employee motivation and performance are two interrelated factors that work in an organization where the individuals that are motivated to work demonstrate better commitment and work outcome. According to Atatsi, Stoffers&Kil (2019), motivation is referred to as a process of allocating cognitive resources where the person makes the choices about the time and energy they will allocate or devote towards a task. It is a process that measures the intensity of an individual to move towards a direction to achieve their goals. Various motivational theories have been introduced to shows the relationship between task performance and employee motivation such as Herzberg’s two factor theory, Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs and other. However, Vuong et al., (2020) has argued that critics have suggested various views against these motivational theories and on their assumptions in influencing task performance in the organization. The theories have been criticized for lack of precision, while some has failed to act as an indicator of employee motivation in several situations or industries.
The purpose of the project is to critically evaluate the use of different motivation theories in influencing or increasing the effectiveness of employee task performance. The project assesses the context based on the advantages and disadvantages of different motivational theories in enhancing organizational effectiveness and critique the way diverse theories has been effective in practice in different workplace and industries context.
Thesis statement- task performance of the employees in an organization does not rely solely on motivational factors.
Definitions of Motivations
Motivation has been defined differently and variably by different authors showing the actual meaning and assumptions about the term by different organizations and in different situations. Atatsi, Stoffers&Kil (2019) has defined workplace motivation as a process that helps in activating the physiological and psychological deficiency or need within a person and drives their behaviors towards a certain goal or incentive. On the other hand, in the opinion of Jonas (2016)workplace motivation is a process that is related to internal and external to the individual that enhance enthusiasm and persistence among them to pursue an action in the organization. In simple terms it can be stated that the causes that make the employees to behave in a certain manner towards the workplace they are working and are related to satisfaction they attain from their work (Meyer & Maltin, 2010). However, such definition of workplace motivation avoided other dynamic intricacies of motivation such as it is goal oriented, outlines the achievement of goals and should be environmentally dependent. Omollo&Oloko (2015) has argued that workplace motivation is not directly observable, not same as job satisfaction and not directly controllable. For example, in a sales job a sales representative might be motivated to work because he/she likes the job role, however, he might not be satisfied with the workplace conditions such as poor support from leaders or timely training. This shows that efficiency in task performance in an organization is influenced by motivation and job satisfaction differently.
Two Types of Practices Implemented by Organizations to Enhance Task Performance
Task and performance management has been an integral part of the business and has impacted their development of policies, procedures and interventions from time to time. The organizations also focus on various types of practices in their environment that help them to improve the level of task performance at work (Anitha, 2014). Souza &Beuren (2018) has pointed out that performance appraisal practices that is implemented by organizations help in improving individual performance at work. This means that the performance management activities in the organization help in aligning staffing, incentives, past performance feedback and supervision. This in turn helps the organization meet its strategic goalsbecause this activity helps the organization to share effective feedback with the staffs and enable them to recognize the areas they need to improve. Moreover, the performance appraisal activity has also enabled firms to motivate the employees to work harder by giving those rewards and incentives for their work (Jalagat, 2016). This is the activity that is commonly adopted by all large, small and medium size organization. This activity directly or indirectly has an impact on the motivation and morale of the employees and in turn improves task performance. Likewise, DeNisi& Murphy (2017) has also claimed that there is a close relationship between performance management system and psychological empowerment because such performance management practices help in implementing characteristics like repair, flexibility and internal transparency in the workplace. Such workplaces characteristics in turn make the employees show better commitment to work and improve task performance.
On the other hand, there are other activities that are specific to types of industry and organizations adopt it for enhancing their task performance. For example, Kim et al., (2019) has pointed out that the hotel industry implementsgreen human resource managementactivities to enhance the performance of the employees. The green human resource management activities help in improving eco-friendly behavior of the employees in the hotel and their commitment. This is because such activity makes the employees feel proud and motivated to work in an organizationwhere they can be a part of the environmental cause. Similarly, such activity improves the environmental performance of the hotel property. Moreover, the green human resource management practices also make the hotel focus at encouraging environmental training and educational programs for the staffs and thus enable them to take pridein being a part of the green hotel and this in turn increase their work commitment. Such industry specific practice also shows that any type of practices adopted by businesses to enhance task performance, directly or indirectly has an impact on the motivation and work commitment of the employees and in turn enhances task performance.
Critical Analysis of Motivational Theories in Practice and Enhancing Organizational Effectiveness
Motivation is a critical variable that helps in improving the sustainable competitive advantage and performance of the organization. Various theories have been implemented from time to time to show the way different motivational factors can help improving workplace motivation and overall performance. Maslow hierarchy of needs is one such motivational theory that focus at five categories of needs that the employees demand and that help in motivating the employees (Osemeke&Adegboyega, 2017). Haque, Haque & Islam (2014) has stated that the underlying philosophy of this motivational theory is that unsatisfied need creates high level of tension among the employees and in turn reduces their commitment and motivation to work effectively in the organization. However, Nielsen et al., (2017)have argued that job satisfaction and motivational behavior does not always has an impact on improved work performance. This is because people have different needs and it is difficult for the organization to satisfy the needs of the employee across the entire hierarchy. For example, one employee may be satisfied and motivated with job security, while the other is satisfied with higher pay than security of work. In such a circumstancefulfilling all the needs is difficult and in turn needs fails to improve work performance behavior because the level of motivation and willingness to work differs among workers in a company. Kuranchie-Mensah &Amponsah-Tawiah (2016) on the other hand, stated that the Maslow Hierarchy of need theory in highly effective in improving job performance tremendously in the organization because fulfilling any of the needs helps in offering high level of security and psychological benefits to the employees. For example, in small and medium size enterprise when the organization practice change in organizational culture then they can influence the social needs of the employees. This can be by changing organizational culture that demand improved employee relationship and these help employees in an organization to attain high self-esteem and self-actualization. In such practice when employees experience that their organization care for them and their development then they will offer their best service and thus enhance task performance. However, Jerome (2013) has argued that the effectiveness of Maslow hierarchy of needs is not effective in motivating employees and work performance in every kind or sizes of organization. This is because in large organization knowing the need of every employee is difficult and it also becomes challenging for the leaders in such organization to mentor their staffs and develop practices that can satisfy needs and demand of every employee. Similarly, Omollo&Oloko (2015) has stated that the importance of different kinds of needs in the Maslow’s hierarchy theory differs from one employee to another based on industry. For example, in banking sector it is seen that the employees are more motivated by monetary rewards than by any other forms of rewards. Thus, the effectiveness of the need theory in enhancing employee performance is critical and based on various other factors.
The second motivational theory that is used in enhancing task performance in an organization is Herzberg two factor theorywhere one factor is related to job satisfaction and the other is associated with job dissatisfaction. Lundberg, Gudmundson& Andersson (2009) has pointed out that the hygiene factors of job satisfaction are related to physical working conditions, supervision, salary, company policy and others. While the other factor is a motivational factor that is related to recognition, responsibility, achievement and advancement. These two attitudes play an important role the job in done and favorable attitude in the organization such as better working conditions, salary, and supportive policy affect task performance positively. This is because such positive hygiene factor along with better recognition at work and favorable attitude make the employees feel happy and show better commitment at work. However, Stello (2011)criticized that implementing the Herzberg model is not easy and requires careful considerations. Many organizations focused at improving the hygiene factor to increase productivity; however, this can be a wrong approach in certain work environment. In some cases, it is important to improve the motivation factors to increase satisfaction and work performance. This shows that the theory confuses the events that actually cause feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction among the employees and thus achieve enhanced work performance. For example, in large organizations it is important to restructure the job and increase the ability of the workers through training to handle critical tasks along with improving hygiene factors such as workplace environment and salary for improving their work performances. Similarly, job satisfaction and better task performance is also received by effective distribution of responsibilities across employees and increase recognition of the employees in decisions making.
Further, Lundberg, Gudmundson& Andersson (2009) has criticized that the Herzberg two factor model has failed to consider the individual differences of needs and values reflected through the personality traits of a person that has direct impact on workplace performance. McClelland need theory recognized three individual need differences such as achievement, power and affiliation and individual performance is highly influenced by the focus of achieving these needs. For example, the hospitalization industry has highly seasonal workforce with diverse needs and where there is limited opportunity for promotion and progression and. Moreover, it is perceived that this industry is charactered by anti-social working conditions and casualized remuneration. Thus, the employees that have more need for affiliation or an introvert personality will never be willing to offer improved performance in such industry even if they are given better hygiene factors. This is because they give more stress on growth factors and stability at workplace.
Therefore, it can be concluded that implementing motivational theory in practice is affected by several factors and behaviors at work and thus does not always help in enhancing workplace performance. This shows that in contemporary business the motivational theories are not always effective in improving employee task performance. Task performance is also dependent on the kind of industry one belongs, the kind of individual personality as well as organizational size. It is evident that task performance solely does not rely on the motivation of the employees and depends on other factors as well that should be implemented together in collaboration with motivational factors. The factors that help in motivating the employees and improving work performance in small and medium size organization does not always affects the performance in large enterprises. Further, the type of organization also affects employee commitment and work performance such as in banks employee want more monetary benefits, while in hospitality sector the employees want better stability and security in job. Thus, it is important for organization to consider various factors when improving employee work performance.
Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International journal of productivity and performance management.
Atatsi, E. A., Stoffers, J., &Kil, A. (2019). Factors affecting employee performance: a systematic literature review. Journal of Advances in Management Research.
DeNisi, A. S., & Murphy, K. R. (2017). Performance appraisal and performance management: 100 years of progress?. Journal of applied psychology, 102(3), 421.
Haque, M. F., Haque, M. A., & Islam, M. (2014). Motivational Theories-A Critical Analysis. ASA University Review, 8(1).
Jalagat, R. (2016). Job performance, job satisfaction, and motivation: a critical review of their relationship. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 5(6), 36-42.
Jerome, N. (2013). Application of the Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory; impacts and implications on organizational culture, human resource and employee’s performance. Management assignmentInternational Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2(3), 39-45.
Jonas, J. (2016). Making practical use of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory to motivate employees: a case of Masvingo Polytechnic. Journal of Management & Administration, 2016(2), 105-117.
Kim, Y. J., Kim, W. G., Choi, H. M., &Phetvaroon, K. (2019). The effect of green human resource management on hotel employees’ eco-friendly behavior and environmental performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 76, 83-93.
Kuranchie-Mensah, E. B., &Amponsah-Tawiah, K. (2016). Employee motivation and work performance: A comparative study of mining companies in Ghana.
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management (JIEM), 9(2), 255-309.
Lundberg, C., Gudmundson, A., & Andersson, T. D. (2009).
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of work motivation tested empirically on seasonal workers in hospitality and tourism. Tourism management, 30(6), 890-899.
Meyer, J. P., & Maltin, E. R. (2010). Employee commitment and well-being: A critical review, theoretical framework and research agenda. Journal of vocational behavior, 77(2), 323-337.
Nielsen, K., Nielsen, M. B., Ogbonnaya, C., Känsälä, M., Saari, E., & Isaksson, K. (2017). Workplace resources to improve both employee well-being and performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Work & Stress, 31(2), 101-120.
Omollo, P. A., &Oloko, M. A. (2015). Effect of motivation on employee performance of commercial banks in Kenya: A case study of Kenya Commercial Bank in Migori County. International journal of human resource studies, 5(2), 87-103.
Osemeke, M., &Adegboyega, S. (2017). Critical review and comparism between Maslow, Herzberg and McClellands theory of needs. Funai Journal of Accounting, Business and Finance, 1(1), 161-173.
Souza, G. E. D., &Beuren, I. M. (2018). Impact of an enabling performance measurement system on task performance and job satisfaction.
RevistaContabilidade&Finanças, 29(77), 194-212.
Stello, C. M. (2011). Herzberg’s two-factor theory of job satisfaction: An integrative literature review. In Unpublished paper presented at The 2011 Student Research Conference: Exploring Opportunities in Research, Policy, and Practice, University of Minnesota Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy and Development, Minneapolis, MN.
Vuong, B. N., Duy Tung, D., Hoa, N. D., Chau, N. T. N., & Tushar, H. (2020). An Empirical Assessment of Organizational Commitment and Job Performance: Vietnam Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(6), 277-286. ?
Organizational change is an important process that is adopted by a business to make certain improvement in their existing processes or systems. Wilson & Van Haperen (2015) has stated that organizational change is a process of bringing alteration in the organization at individual, group and collective level across the workplace environment.
Managing change effectively in the organization requires appropriate methods and processes so that it can assist the individuals and the organization to effectively adjust new systems and procedures with old systems. However, successful organizational change takes into considerations several factors such as organizational culture, the people and communication (Sankaran, Tay & Orr,2009). This shows that managing change is not an easy process and requires various considerations and system. Further, one most crucial challenge that is seen during organization change is resistance from employees. This means that while implementing change in the organization, there is resistancefrom employees to accept the change and this acts as a barrier to change.
There are broadly two types of systems adopted by the organization for implementing organizational change such as soft systems and hard systems. Soft system is a new approach that is being implemented by the organization and has replaced the ineffectiveness of hard systems. The report analyzes the practice of organizational change methodology by seeking the difference between soft and hard systems models of change. Further, the report analyzes the pros and cons of each model and critically analyzes the factors that should be taken into consideration even when implementing hard systems approaches to change.
Differences between Soft and Hard Systems Models of Change
Soft system methodology is a kind of method that is implementing by the organization to structure complex issues and to develop desirable and feasible changes among group of people from different background and characteristics. It is one of the most effective problem-solving tools implemented by the organization wherein the opinions are gathered and received from different group of people such as employees, developers, customers and others (Sankaran, Tay & Orr, 2009). According to Wilson & Van Haperen (2015), soft approach takes into account the cultural and political issues in the organization when implementing change, unlike hard systems approach that only considers structure of the organization when implementing change. Soft systems of change management help in managing change by taking into consideration the norms and values that exists in the organization. The political analysis on the other hand helps in providing information on power issues within the organization. Thus, soft issue enables in implement organizational change practice by considering all integral and critical aspect that can act a change barrier and place the change in the most effective way. Unlike this, the hard systems approach of change only implement change based on tasks and the existing structure in the organization (Siriram, 2012). They usually ignore psychological aspects such as behavior and beliefs of the employees when implementing and planning change. Hard systems model for change is a process in which the stable and formal structure in taken into consideration in a change process and make use of resources from the environment and implement it to produce changed outputs. While soft systems model of change is considered as an organization that make use of rights, privileges, obligations, culture and responsibilities when implementing change process over time and effectively managing change related conflict (Sankaran, Tay& Orr,2009). Asadi(2020) has stated that there are various problems occurring in the organization when implementing change and this act as a barrier to the change process. Soft system model is considered as a mental model in the organization that allow them to think about problematical situations. In relation to organizational change process it is seen that the soft systems methodology helps in tackling problematic social situations in the organization that can restrict the change from happening such as cultural differences and political notions. Soft system approaches areefficient in handling real world problems and enable in making feasible improvement, unlike hard system that only considers the hard end of the change that is only organizational structure. The hard systems model of change is implemented only through three phases such as descriptive phase that is diagnosing the situation, the options phase where the different options for change is generated and implementation phase where feasible plan for practice is developed. Unlike this, the soft system has a much detailed and a greater number of phases where internal workplace situations are also considered when practicing change (Augustsson, Churruca& Braithwaite, 2019). Further, Siriram (2012)has stated that hard systems model of change in usually applied in low to medium complex system, while soft systems approach is implemented in diagnosing the complex change environment efficiently by overcoming the political and moral issues.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Models of Change
Each of these models has its own pros and cons and can be implemented in different scenario effectively. In the situation where hard systems approach fails to implement change the soft systems work in that area to implement change.
In relation to soft systems it is seen that the model works appropriately in a complex work situation and handling change related issue. The soft system management process has an advantage that it can effectively analyze the situation in details and has the ability to understand the problematic situation in great detail.
This is because, soft system approach enables in implementing a detailed process of change that gain perspectives from different stakeholder groups such as managers, employees and others (Wilson& Van Haperen, 2015). Thus, with such wide information from different sources enable the organization to plan change that is easily accepted by everyone. Moreover, this approach also has the advantage of low resistant to change because while implementing this system the organization takes into consideration the cultural, social and moral views of various stakeholders. Likewise, Siriram (2012) has pointed out that soft systems approach takes into account the human dimension in the change process and thus has the benefit of introducing better understanding and resolution to a given change situation. However, one of the researchers has argued that soft systems approach is not to implement as it seems because of different thinking and values of mixed stakeholder groups. The different cultural beliefs and political views of different stakeholders pose a challenge, especially because of different power structures. Members included in change process in soft system approach holds different levels of power in the organization and people at higher levels usually do not consider the opinions of employees at lower level. Such instances cause more conflicts among the employees in the business and thus increase the chances of conflict. However, Sankaran, Tay& Orr, 2009) has stated that implementing change in an organization is highly challenging and difficult because of different level of commitment of the people and their thoughts. This requires multiple level of approach to implement change effectively and effective level of commitment among workforce. The soft system is seen to offer a multiple level of approach where change in implemented after effective analysis of cultural and political scenario in the organization. Moreover, this approach also focusses at buy-in from the workforce and thus helps in successful implementation of change without much resistance. Thus, it is not appropriate to implement soft systems approach if the organization has complex hierarchical structure and ineffective leadership ability to manage conflict or diverse opinions.
On the other hand, the hard systems models of change work with focusing on the hard end factors of change such as organizational structure and the decision of the management. This approach is most appropriate when building change associated with systems engineering, project management and operational research. This kind of changes focuses on means and ends instead of other social aspects such as culture, morals and others. Unlike soft systems approach, the hard systems approach is useful in area where quantitative criteriaare used to test different change options. Moreover, hard systems approach of change helps in building change in a much shorter and fast manner and are highly time and cost saving. In this kind of approach, the management take the decision by analyzing the existing organizational structure and plan change by effectively testing different test options through pilot studies, parallel running and big bang method (Sankaran, Tay & Orr,2009). This approach is highly cost effective and minimizes replacement and maintenance cost, as the change is implemented after testing and there is less chances of failure. However, Siriram(2012) stated that the hard systems approach has a disadvantage that it fails to implement change in complex situation and diverse organization. This is because this approach does not consider the attitudes and behaviors of the people in the organization. In a complex work environment, it is important for the organization to use a much-detailed approach to change or soft systems approach.
Critical Analysis of Factors for Hard Systems to Change
Keeping in view the disadvantages and limitations of hard systems approach when implementing change, it is important to consider several factors that should be taken into account when considering hard systems approaches to change. The growing challenges of hard systems approach make it important for the organization to consider a combination of hard and soft systems approach when implementing change (Siriram, 2012).
However, in doing so it is first important to consider the factor of change type, which is being planned. Thus, the organization should start by categorizing change into simple or more complex one. This will help the business to decide whether to consider only the hard end factor of change such as structure or system or to consider other complex factors as well (Asadi, 2020). This is because the cultural and political factors help in implementing change which is otherwise difficult to achieve.
In a complex work situation, it is highly important to consider wide variety of factors along with structure and systems such as culture, values, morals and political factors. Considering these wide factors when implementing hard systems approach it important if the change is more complex. This means that during the diagnosis process of planning and managing a complex change situation it is important to consider various cultural views of employees. This will help in reducing the resistance to change among employees. However, considering cultural and political factor in change is not important when implementing simple change. Asadi (2020) has argued that when considering the human factor in hard systems approach to change it is also important for the management to manage chances of conflict among employees. However, considering a wide range of factors in implementing change in hard systems approach may sometimes be time consuming and thus require an effective time management and planning. Further, Wilson & Van Haperen (2015) stated that when implementing hard systems of change it is important to conduct situational analysis of the forces that can act for or against the change and thus implement the change in a way that can help in placing change successfully in the organization.
From the above analysis it can be concluded that soft and hard systems approach to change is implemented in different situation depending on the type of change, the organizational culture and organizational structure or hierarchy. Further, it is seen that soft systems models of change are more time consuming compared to hard systems. However, soft systems approach can be effectively implemented in complex change situation unlike hard systems approach. Thus, both the approaches are implemented based on the situation and the kind of change to be implemented.
Asadi, S. (2020). Soft systems methodology approach to IS change management.
International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, 7(1), 66-80.
Augustsson, H., Churruca, K., & Braithwaite, J. (2019). Re-energising the way we manage change in healthcare: the case for soft systems methodology and its application to evidence-based practice. BMC health services research, 19(1), 1-11.
Sankaran, S., Tay, B. H., & Orr, M. (2009). Managing organizational change by using soft systems thinking in action research projects. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business.
Sankaran, S., Tay, B. H., & Orr, M. (2009). Managing organizational change by using soft systems thinking in action research projects. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business.
Siriram, R. (2012). A soft and hard systems approach to business process management. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 29(1), 87-100.
Wilson, B., & Van Haperen, K. (2015). Soft systems thinking, methodology and the management of change. Macmillan International Higher Education.