Critically analyzing Cognitive therapy as a talking-based psychological intervention
Task: Develop a discussion essay examining and critiquing a talking-based psychological intervention of your choice. Give details like history, development and current evidence related to the intervention. Consider the intervention from a nursing perspective and include high-quality literature that discusses its use by nurses.
Psychosocial interventions are actions that aim at helping people who are struggling within the society. Such interventions help patients overcome mental health disorders like anxiety, depression, and stress. Talking-based psychosocial interventions are an important part of intervention that involves counselling. Moreover, these interventions focus actions that are related to psychology and social. This can further change biological, social, or psychological outcomes (Gonzalez, et.al., 2015). This essay aims at choosing a talking-based psychological intervention and critically analyse this intervention from the perspective of nursing. Cognitive therapy is the intervention that has been chosen for this essay. Cognitive therapy is an important intervention that can help patients manage their problematic thoughts by changing their thinking and behavioural pattern. It has been selected because it initiates social skills training for patients suffering from mental health disorders (Bourke, et.al., 2021). This therapy can be further applied to the patterns of behaviour of a patient. Such patterns are further used to understand the underlying beliefs of patients.
Cognitive therapy is included under psychotherapy which was developed by an American-based psychiatrist named Aaron T. Beck. This therapy was first presented by this American-psychiatrist in the year 1960. The fundamentals based on which this theory has been formed comes from Ancient Greeks. This therapy can be closely associated with Plato’s idealism. According to this idealism, the substantive reality that we see and experience around us is the reflection of a higher truth. However, this theory does not focus on ceasing the empirical knowledge (Suhaimi, 2019).In this therapeutic model, the underlying beliefs of an individual are discussed. These beliefs include central ideas of an individual about the world and their own self. People who suffer from various mental health problems often belief that they are unlovable and ineffective in this modern world. Patients can be treated with the help of increase in the level of their engagement (Beck, 2020).This theory was further developed by Burns in the year 1980. Few cognitive distortions were included for further development. These distortions include emotional reasoning, personalization, change fallacy and many more. Currently, this therapeutical technique is improving the functioning and quality of life of individuals.
Depression and anxiety have been identified as common phenomenon among patients who are suffering from mental health disorders. Such training can further focus on cognitive difficulties that patients are encountering. Training also helps in changing the behavioural pattern of these patients (Bourke, et.al., 2021). This is how negative symptoms among patients are reduced within the help of Cognitive therapy (CT). Moreover, it has been found that cognitive thinking strategies help patients to manage the patterns of their thinking. Such changes in thinking pattern can further help patients because it prevents intensification of any kind of depressionogenic patterns (Goldberg, et.al., 2019). These patterns must be prevented because it increases depression and anxiety among patients in different parts of the world.
In addition to this, it has been found that there are various kinds of psychosocial interventions and theories that can be taken into consideration by psychiatrists while treating their patients. However, a wide range of psychiatristsprefer following CT for various reasons and better results. This theory includes problem-solving, psycho dynamic treatment and other activities that help patients change their own beliefs. Moreover, CT also includes super-relaxation treatment. Such treatment are responsible for releasing stress from the mind of an individual. Such treatment procedures are not included in other forms of psychosocial interventionsTherefore, this theory is widely implemented by healthcare professionals across the world. However, there are various disadvantages that are associated with this therapeutical model. When a patient goes for Cognitive therapy, then they need to completely cooperate with the therapists. Therapists in their sessions can only guide these patients, but patients need to follow the guidance start thinking differently. Such attempt towards treatment can often become complex for patients who are dealing with serious mental health issues like Schizophrenia, panic disorders and phobias. Moreover, therapists who leverage CT for treating their patients expects their patients to express their emotions and problems that are increasing their anxieties. There are patients who might fail to express their anxieties because they often are emotionally uncomfortable (NHS, 2022). Thus, from the above discussion it can be concluded that CT might create barriers for therapists and it can make the process of treatment less effective.
In addition to this, it can be found that nurses who are supposed to care and assist mental health patients are trained and they have significant knowledge about CT. CT is generally used by nurses to build strong and empathetic relationship with their patients. There are patients who are heavily disturbed due to their mental health conditions. These patients often feel disgusted and they consider themselves inferior. In such scenario, it is the responsibility of healthcare professionals including nurses to make them feel empowered and lovable. Such feeling among these patients can only be generated with the help of empathetic relationships. Moreover, CT involves constant communication with the patients, therefore, it can be said that this therapeutic technique is often used by nurses to engage patients actively in the entire process of treatment. Such approach undertaken by nurses further help in improving experiences of patients (Tanoue, et.al., 2023). Moreover, this theory can also be used by nurses within the healthcare sector for the purpose of motivational interview. This is an interviewing technique that are often used by nurses to motivate and empower patients(Mullen, et.al., 2020). This therapeutical technique is also used by nurses for the purpose of medication management, monitoring the health conditions of the patient and finally it also help nurses to increase patient engagement. Once, patients engage themselves in the entire counselling sessions it can further enhance the treatment process. This is how patients suffering from mental health disorders can overcome their mental health problems However, CT might create problems in nurse-led treatment. There are nurses who do not have enough knowledge that can further help them to implement CT principles in the process of treatment. Ineffective implementation of principles can lead to negative outcomes. Moreover, due to lack of training nurses might fail to engage patients in the core process of treatment. Patients who are vulnerable and are suffering from serious mental health problems might feel left-out if they are not involved in the process of training. Finally, it can also be found that due to lack of effective training, there are nurses who fail to develop critical thinking skills. Lack of critical thinking skills might also prevent them from understanding the underlying beliefs and thoughts that have led to serios mental health problems among their patients (Safren, et.al., 2021). This is how cognitive therapy might not be properly used by nurses who are responsible for treating mental health patients.
This essay aims at critically analysing a psychosocial intervention and how this intervention can help patients who are suffering from mental health problems like anxiety, depression, and stress. The essay suggests that Cognitive therapy has been selected as a psychosocial intervention. This therapy helps in discussing about the underlying beliefs and thoughts that further have negative impact on the health of any individual. The findings of the essay suggest that this theory helps in initiating super relaxation technique. Such technique can further help in reducing stress among patients. However, CT often involves interaction with patients, but patients who are suffering from serious mental disorders might prevent themselves from communicating with the medical professionals. This can prevent them from treating patients effectively. Moreover, from the essay it can also be concluded that nurses in different parts of the world often leverage this therapeutic technique to build empathetic relationship with their patients. However, there are nurses who are incapable of implementing this technique. Such lack of skills and training might create hindrances in the process of treatment.
Beck, J. S. (2020). Cognitive behavior therapy: Basics and beyond. Guilford Publications. http://bratella.ucoz.ru/_ld/1/124_ryw.pdf.
Bourke, E., Barker, C., & Fornells?Ambrojo, M. (2021). Systematic review and meta?analysis of therapeutic alliance, engagement, and outcome in psychological therapies for psychosis. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 94(3), 822-853. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12330.
Goldberg, S. B., Tucker, R. P., Greene, P. A., Davidson, R. J., Kearney, D. J., & Simpson, T. L. (2019). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for the treatment of current depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis. Cognitive behaviour therapy, 48(6), 445-462. https://doi.org/10.1080%2F16506073.2018.1556330.
Gonzalez, M. L., Butler, A. S., & England, M. J. (Eds.). (2015). Psychosocial interventions for mental and substance use disorders: A framework for establishing evidence-based standards. National Academies Press. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK321284/#:~:text=Psychosocial%20interventions%20capitalize%20on%20psychological,%2C%20and%2For%20functional%20outcomes.
Mullen, A., Isobel, S., Flanagan, K., Key, K., Dunbar, A., Bell, A., & Lewin, T. J. (2020). Motivational interviewing: reconciling recovery-focused care and mental health nursing practice. Issues in mental health nursing, 41(9), 807-814. https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2020.1731891.
NHS, 2022. Overview - Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). [online]. Available at https://www.nhs.uk/mental-health/talking-therapies-medicine-treatments/talking-therapies-and-counselling/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-cbt/overview/ (Accessed 20 May 2023).
Safren, S. A., O'Cleirigh, C., Andersen, L. S., Magidson, J. F., Lee, J. S., Bainter, S. A., ... & Joska, J. A. (2021). Treating depression and improving adherence in HIV care with task?shared cognitive behavioural therapy in Khayelitsha, South Africa: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 24(10), e25823. https://doi.org/10.1097%2FMD.0000000000022429.
Suhaimi, A. (2019). Concept of Idealism philosophy in islamic education According to Imam Al-Ghozali. Utopía y praxis latinoamericana: revista internacional de filosofía iberoamericana y teoría social, (5), 359-369. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/7531753.pdf.
Tanoue, H., Hayashi, Y., Shikuri, Y., & Yoshinaga, N. (2023). Cognitive behavioural therapy for mood and anxiety disorders delivered by mental health nurses: Outcomes and predictors of response in a real-world outpatient care setting. Journal of International Nursing Research, 2022-0023. https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.ijnss.2018.06.005.