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Sport Organization Behavior: Cricket Australia Case Study

Question

It’s just not cricket: A case of ethics, integrity and organizational culture within a national sport governing body
Patrick Murphy knew he would be up for a challenge from the moment he accepted the position of Integrity Manager at Cricket Australia (CA). He was no stranger to the sport industry, holding an impressive resume including recent stints at the Australian Grand Prix Corporation (AGPC) and Tennis Australia (TA), helping these organizations re-package aspects of culture and rebuild their public profile. He relished the challenge of developing credibility and trustworthiness as part of a sport organization’s corporate culture. More specifically, he was able to demonstrate how an organization was able to project a renewed culture to external stakeholders. His reputation in this domain had been held in high regard, drawing global interest as an eminent integrity and culture renewal consultant.

Growing up in Victoria, Australia, Patrick was well aware of the importance sport played in Australia’s national identity. Although he never truly adopted the passion for the athleticism and intrigue of some sports like his peers, he had always been captivated with the way sport organizations managed ethical situations and what part the sport’s culture played in being socially responsible. He was notorious for his expert handling the negative public opinion of the Australian Grand Prix within Melbourne’s Albert Park boundary. For much of his time at the AGPC, he ensured various stakeholder groups supporting, protesting and reporting the event were engaged equitably and honestly. In particular, the Save Albert Park group had been particularly vocal for over 20 years and their often obstructive protests for staging the Australian Grand Prix at the public open spaces of Albert Park in Victoria (see SaveAlbertPark.org.au) required a delicate balance of Murphy’s public relations skills and organizational socially responsible practices.

He would watch and read news stories across the globe with a keen interest for developments in sport related to organizational culture and ethical behavior, as well as maintaining a general interest in social responsibility. At his last job with Tennis Australia, he managed to build an inclusive culture with the organization’s management, staff and playing personnel. This came about because Australian players were becoming known more for their on-court antics and mediocre results than for their sportsmanship and successes (Pettigrew, 2017). Added to this was the increasing pressure being put on the organization with regards to match fixing (Howard, 2017), and the controversial decision to maintain the naming of Margaret Court Arena, despite Margaret Court’s public disapproval of same-sex marriage laws (Puvanenthiran, 2017). Patrick’s plans included the creation of an Integrity Unit at TA and a selection of educational strategies which successfully put an end to the culture of entitlement. It made him the most likely candidate to take on Cricket Australia and its own set of drama. Despite his experiences and expertise, he knew CA was going to be an entirely new test.

Sandpaper-gate
In March 2018, a few months before Patrick’s appointment, the Australian men’s national cricket team was found to have cheated in an international test match with South Africa. Reports indicated that the captain, Steve Smith, the vice-captain, David Warner, and a young, up-and-coming batter, Cameron Bancroft, had carried out a plan to tamper with the match ball during a critical time in the four-game test series (Ferris, 2018). Part of the fielding ritual in cricket is for the player at first slip position (in this case, Bancroft) to assist the bowlers in keeping the ball in good condition throughout the match. They generally do this by polishing or rubbing the ball on their uniform before returning it to the bowler for the next delivery. In the crucial third game of the series however, Bancroft carried a small piece of sandpaper in his uniform pocket and, when the ball was in his possession, he scuffed the ball with the sandpaper in an attempt to alter its integrity and deceive the South African batsmen. Whether it be through ignorance or arrogance, the offending player was unaware that the broadcaster Supersports, had exposed this premeditated plan to tamper with the ball and focussed its cameras on Bancroft and Warner (Ferris, 2018), catching the incident in its entirety. As more information surfaced, team captain Smith and vice-captain Warner were implicated in the planning of the illegal action. This eventually culminated in a CA organized press conference where Smith and Bancroft both confessed and apologized for their part in the deviant action. The incident affixed with the label ‘Sandpaper-gate’ sparked outrage from the media, competitors, cricket fans and many Australians for some time. This was certainly seen as a blight on Australian sport.

While the tampering of equipment is not a new development in sport generally, being blatantly caught tampering with the match ball on international television left the cricket world aghast. Cricket in most Commonwealth countries is held in such high regard, and Australian cricket has served as the benchmark nation for the “play hard and play fair” mantra. This refrain replicates much of the Australian sport ethos generally, so it was quite a surprise for Australians and cricket fans alike that cheating occurred at the hands of Australian athletes.

According to its latest strategic plan, CA claim to be “Australia’s national sport, embedded in [the] country’s identity” (Cricket Australia, 2018a). But on that fateful day in March, Australia’s cricket and its overall sporting reputation was brought into disrepute. As one news article suggested, “we venerate our test cricketers and, as part of that deal, hold them to the highest possible standards of conduct” (Ferris, 2018). Indeed, there was little doubt that Australian cricket was in trouble with its reputation and its effects were starting to grow on Australia as a sporting nation more generally.

Patrick had been looking for a new opportunity in sport after building a solid reputation at TA and AGPC. On hearing about the ball tampering fiasco, he undertook some background research on CA for his own interest. Unsurprising to Patrick, he found that CA described itself as not just the governing authority for all forms of cricket in Australia, but the “custodians” of the game. Cricket Australia purports three key values including “how we play, the spirit of cricket and integrity” (Cricket Australia 2018a). Further research found CA espoused a philosophy of “a sport for all with a purpose to inspire everyone to love cricket” (Cricket Australia, 2018a). It was clear to him that cricket embodies the national culture in Australia. When an Australian says, “It’s just not cricket” they mean something is unfair. Patrick deduced then that Sandpaper-gate was the most powerful example that Australians do not tolerate blatant cheating in sport.

Patrick had also noted that a recent major staff restructuring had occurred at CA in February 2018. As he continued his research, it was discovered that CA had formed an executive management team to steer the sport onwards for the next five years. It included a wide variety of positions in key areas such as game and market development, team performance, events and leagues, broadcast, digital and commercial, public affairs, strategy, and finance. As he reviewed each of these portfolios, Patrick began to reminisce about his pleasure in working with multiple teams like these in the past; having worked for large sport organizations, he knew that despite operational complexities, there is always a need for collaboration across functioning units in order to succeed commercially.

As a result of the ball tampering incident, CA’s management board and the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) were in damage control. The organization had introduced an integrity team in 2013, charged with developing and managing culture and ethical behavior standards. However, the focus of the unit was primarily with the playing of cricket matches (e.g., liaising with other national teams). With the Sandpaper-gate incident, repercussions were being felt across all forms of the game. The once proud culture of the organization was challenged and CA board and CEO felt an urgent appointment of a new Integrity Manager was necessary to adequately respond to the incident and make wholesale recommendations for CA. This seemingly rash move was not supported by many naysayers who believed that cricket is the one institution in Australia whose culture was far too ingrained for any one person to be able to change unilaterally or overnight.

Organizational culture takes time to build and maintain, and can be significantly disrupted when unethical practices are revealed. Traditionalists maintained their stance for the new Integrity Manager to have a strong working knowledge of the nation’s number one sport; a solution to a cricket problem should be provided by a cricket person. Thus, when the position was publicly posted, Patrick Murphy was not in the frame. He thought it was an interesting challenge but felt there was plenty of evidence to show that CA select from within its own cricket circle and so he did not immediately apply. Despite the great opportunity, he thought there would be too much vitriol because he was not a ‘cricket guy’. However, after some convincing discussions with former colleagues at TA and AGPC, Patrick realised he was more than capable of making a positive change to CA and submitted an application. With his track record, the CA CEO did not hesitate to interview Patrick. In their sit down, the CEO made it clear to Murphy what CA was all about:

CEO: Our purpose is to “inspire everyone to love cricket”. It is something we strive for and are very proud to continue.
Patrick: Well, while my passion for cricket may not be as high as other potential candidates, but I have been very successful in changing the culture of other major sport organizations like Tennis Australia and the Australian Grand Prix.
CEO: Be that as it may, it is important for us that our vision is kept intact. That is, to ensure cricket is “Australia’s favourite sport” and “A sport for all Australians.

Unfazed by the high expectations the CEO had for the role, Patrick knew he had the capabilities to lead the organization in the aftermath of Sandpaper-gate, redeem CA’s reputation, and build a strong ethical culture. The CEO also knew that with his track record, Patrick could help turn things around. A few days later, Patrick was selected as the new Integrity Manager at CA.

In his first few days at CA, Patrick took his time to orientate himself with the organization and its personnel. His first meeting with the Integrity Unit was the awakening he needed to get stuck into the job. In particular, it was the Data Integrity Officer (DIO) who brought to attention the more covert issues that needed addressing.

Patrick: there are one or two controversies that occurred recently that we need to sort out as the Integrity Unit.
DIO: Well if you only look at those on-field indiscretions in this unit, I cannot see how our integrity will be restored.
Patrick: What do you mean? Is there something else I should know?
DIO: The focus in the past has always been on the integrity of the game. We are always being reminded that Australians love cricket; it’s our very fabric; it’s what makes us Australian. But there are other problems behind the scenes here that I think are equally as important as to how the game of cricket is played. Patrick: Well unless I have some evidence, I will not be making wholesale changes at CA.
DIO: Well, here you go.

The DIO proceeded to hand Patrick with a range of files for him to work through. As Patrick began to review all the files and documents he received, he saw a much bigger problem festering at CA. He felt that any attempt to change the culture and instil professional, ethical standards across all areas at CA would not be successful if a piece-meal approach was taken. As such, it was best he assess the entire organizational culture at CA. The most intriguing files he were handed were about internal stakeholder issues. This became his starting point.

File One: Integrity Strategy
The strategy began by outlining the Integrity Unit’s specific aims: to “further protect Australian cricket from threats of doping, match-fixing and other activities that may undermine the integrity of its competitions and the game of cricket” (Cricket Network, 2013). In addition, the unit was to “be responsible for overseeing CA’s anti-corruption measures, code of behavior issues, and the CA anti-doping and illicit substance program. It [coordinated] with the International Cricket Council (ICC) and other ICC member countries, to ensure CA is aligned with ICC best practice codes and policies…[including] all disciplinary protocols for domestic cricket and player education compliance” (Cricket Network, 2013).

Patrick was surprised by the strategic focus of this unit. He was disappointed that with over 200 employed staff, volunteers, and event staff at CA in a variety of business activities, the unit’s agenda related to the integrity of games and teams as opposed to the management of cricket itself. Ironically, he thought if the unit was so intent on keeping the game honest, why the ball tampering occurred in the first place? Interestingly, the file recorded that all major decisions made in relation to cricket’s integrity were determined by the CEO and the Risk and Compliance Manager. This was Patrick’s first inkling that power and authority came from a central source at Cricket Australia. There seemed to be no collaboration with unit members as to what values and beliefs they have when it came to the management of integrity and compliance issues. The CEO was the sort of leader who wanted to ‘lead from the front’ in much the same way he expected an Australian cricket captain to lead; the CEO managed the resources and exercised control over the delivery of programs for the Integrity team.

If Patrick was to fully understand the culture of Cricket Australia and the workers’ ability to make sound ethical decisions, he needed to expand his research. Other shared values, attitudes, and beliefs are often well below the surface of an organization and can only be revealed by looking for deeper clues as cultural indicators. By reviewing other files he believed he would find those submerged issues affecting CA’s organizational culture and ethical practices.

File Two – Staffing
Cricket Australia is a large organization spread across two primary locations (i.e., Melbourne and Brisbane), with other staff based around Australia. Despite most of the general staff having business or management qualifications ranging from diploma to master levels, much of the decision making is conducted at the senior management level. Patrick had already noted that CA had a traditional hierarchical structure dominated. In order for anyone to move up the hierarchy and into senior management positions, he found that was only possible when working at CA for many years and only when a position was vacated through retirement. In fact, some staff have been waiting years for the chance to flex their sport management “muscle” in the workplace. Much of the dialogue with paid staff focused on the lack of opportunity at CA, with revenue streams limited to traditional media and sponsorship. Patrick noted that there was a growing group of male staff in their mid-30s who were primed for senior management positions. Patrick sought out one member of this group to find out how positive he was about promotional opportunities at CA.

Patrick: You must be in line for a promotion here soon, John? I see you have excellent qualifications and have achieved consistently good results.
John: Ha! Not likely! Welcome to “old the boys” club. If you are not a past player with state or national team experience, then you’re probably not going to get noticed around here.
Patrick: That seems a bit harsh. Surely an annual review process would identify high performances and set a pathway for the next level in the hierarchy for each of you?
John: Nice idea, but good jobs rarely come up for internal promotion anyway. Most of us just get tired of waiting and get out of here to spread our wings.

Patrick noted in the file that there were several reports by disenchanted staff who felt they were being overlooked for senior positions. He pondered that this would only underpin an already stagnant organization. Through his experiences, he found a number of excellent people in TA and the AGPC who had previously “cut their teeth” at CA and who were successfully establishing themselves in senior management posts. Patrick knew the kudos for working at CA was very high in the jobs market; they had long been branded (externally) as the industry leader.

File Three – Sex, Diversity, and the Workplace
Murphy was horrified with the records kept in file three. Much of the reporting in this file were allegations which would cause the organization great concern if challenged through the legal system. Firstly, he noted that the ratio of males to females working in the office at CA was 4:1. Females at CA nearly always started in administrative positions regardless of how equal their qualifications were to male counterparts. Very few women were given any management responsibilities. Patrick even read one male joking about the “grass ceiling” as that barrier which prevented advancement opportunities for his female peers in the cricket environment (Pitt, 2018). The Workplace Gender Equality Act (2012), ensuring employment opportunities in the workplace are equal for all, was also enclosed in file three, and Patrick felt he had sufficient evidence to show that this law had been flouted and for which CA would be culpable if challenged.

Secondly, he noted another staff member had recently returned from maternity leave and requested for a 4-day working week schedule. She had put a formal request to work remotely at home for one day a week, as much of her job did not require face-to-face contact with other staff or stakeholders. Patrick knew that flexibility in work arrangements arguably improves staff morale, encourages a better work-life balance, and enables workers to think more creatively about the management of their jobs. However, CA management were cynical in their response to the request, responding that such a practice would only encourage deviant behavior in productivity, as well as it being unfair to others who cannot work from a remote location. The CEO, in particular, had pointed out that the organization did not want an “avalanche of requests” for offsite work stations as he makes every effort to be in the office when his schedule allows. Evidence in the file showed that at least two people have been threatened with dismissal by the CEO because they worked from home when the CEO had been away on business in the past. Because of these threats, other staff no longer disclosed that sometimes they worked off site and were now reluctant to suggest creative and flexible solutions to improve working conditions for fear of being sidelined at CA.

Thirdly, Patrick sensed morale had been deteriorating slowly amongst those staff that work up to 50-hour weeks (or more if a major event was being held). The file revealed several staff unashamedly admitted that these restrictions, and high expectations by management, were manifesting into unacceptable work behaviors such as gossip, work soldiering, and pilfering of merchandise or other CA property. It was clear from the file that he had to address some these unethical habits.

Finally, the file revealed that CA had a noticeable lack of diverse staff in its ranks. It was obvious to Patrick that the organization completely ignored the organizational values espoused in its strategic plan. There were very few enterprises he had worked with that were not genuinely creating a diverse workforce. For some organizations, it was to keep in line with ethical standards or diversity laws, but for more proactive entities, it was the recognition that diversity can be a source of competitive advantage. However, despite cricket being appreciated by many countries around the world and played by many community groups, very few in CA came from a diverse background.

File 4 –Player Issues
Patrick was curious about the title of this file. He acknowledged that it was the athlete that is the core of a sport organization. However, in the current climate, what those athletes do off the field is equally as noticeable as what they do on the field. Sandpaper-gate was a testament to the impact the offending athletes had on the organization and Australian society. The analysis of each individual’s on-field offence extended to include their past behaviors, their lifestyle outside of the game, their families, and their overall character.

In retirement, the profile of the elite athlete rarely diminishes. At CA, the same sentiment applied. Patrick noted the work of past players in middle and upper-management positions was a reflection of their past playing days. The file revealed many staff were annoyed at the arbitrary way past players were employed and treated by CA. First, those past players were allowed work time access to CA sports and medical facilities. Responses from former players argued that as they were injured representing their state or country, they were entitled to be rehabilitated by CA in perpetuity. However, complainants felt past players used this freedom to work fewer hours and contribute less to department activities despite the work contracts being the same as other employees. Patrick was astonished to learn that many of the past players were contemporaries of the CEO and/or board members, and often met with them socially. In particular, some of the top players had been volunteering their services to attend non-CA functions as a favor to board members, for which they then invoiced CA separately for their services or passed off the absence by “working from home”.

Looking at some of the big names from the past working at CA or allied state associations, Patrick had realized that past players (with no academic qualifications) were often promised work. It had become an expectation by the players that playing cricket was their “career” and working in cricket was their retirement package. Patrick continued to read the file, discovering that players would arrive and depart from the organization on their own terms. Past players dressed casually and usually without any form of formal identification at work; free merchandise was also part of “the deal” for working at CA. Given so many were used to having free uniforms and equipment when they were players, they were now finding it difficult to separate the two separate work conditions. Conversely, other staff members were only able to purchase merchandise at a discounted rate, making some staff more resentful and revengeful. It seemed accusations of stealing at CA were increasing, a particularly tricky challenge for Patrick, as imposing a blanket rule could impact valuable assets he knew were critically to culture renewal (e.g., athletes, paid staff).

Harassment issues were always a concern for Patrick in the workplace, and CA was no different. A confidential report in the file revealed one female staff member was made to feel very intimidated when a past player, who worked in her area, continued to make unwanted advances. After some time, the female staffer finally resolved to speak to management about his advances. However, the trail of conversation between the complainant and the manager revealed that the manager had dismissed her claim and explained the player’s action as “tomfoolery”. A copy of an email sent by the manager showed he defended the player’s action by writing, “He is a popular man, who wouldn’t want his attention?” Most other females on staff had made an effort to avoid the player whenever he bothered to show up for work. Patrick was astonished that a masculine culture still existed in sport and that female staff felt powerless to influence change. If harassment and bullying were not addressed, he feared the already dysfunctional culture at CA would worsen. Unlike other paid staff, Patrick discovered that past players do not need to comply with the same employment induction procedures as the Players’ Union argued that they were already well briefed throughout their career on socially acceptable behaviors and compliance in the community

It seemed to Patrick that the players themselves struggled to shift their approach from being a team member on a playing field to team member in the workplace. He knew that everything would always be a competition to them. To win a game, to win a spot on the team, to win an overseas playing contract or sponsorship, it was all about self-esteem. Most players were used to being lauded on the public stage, but when it came to being part of an administration team behind the scenes, their self-serving ways did not always mesh with colleagues. On-field banter, known as “sledging” did not translate to the workplace at all. Reports also showed that some workers considered sledging by former players as offensive, aggressive, and a disruption to organizational productivity. Moreover, Patrick read that senior management found it difficult to reprimand former players; there looked to be no plan in place to overcome such behavioral issues.

File 5 – Interns
Patrick opened the fifth and final file, notes about the adoption of an internship program. CA was proud of its relationship with a local university which delivers a highly respected, globally-ranked sport management program. Part of the joint relationship was to create intern positions for first-year sport management postgraduate students. Many of the students, who apply for these positions, are from international backgrounds including India and Sri Lanka. The appeal for these students had always been a love for cricket, first and foremost. Added to this was the opportunity to acquire work experience in sport while they studied abroad. The file had a copy of the orientation program for interns which was a three hour “meet and greet” session with the CEO and the Head of Strategy and People. The program comprised of a short film showing the past successes of CA, including footage from the Bradman era, the Ashes team at the start of the 21st century, and the recent success of the Southern Stars representations of the cricket culture in Australia. Interns were then issued with a CA logo shirt and handbook of CA staff expectations. Sometimes, if a known player was in the building, they would come and introduce themselves to the group. However, feedback recorded at the end of the internship revealed that by the time the orientation session was over, they knew very little about their job expectations and requirements at CA.

Interns were paid a nominal amount by the organization for their time. By law, international students were not allowed paid employment for more than 40 hours per fortnight during the school semester. On paper CA abided by this condition. However, while reading this file, Patrick happened to come across a group of interns working near him and he sensed a high level of disenchantment. When Murphy broached the subject of the value of their internship, Rajiv spoke up on behalf of the group.

Rajiv: Many students are often asked to work longer hours as a “volunteer”. We are happy to learn about cricket management in Australia, but our extra work here is never acknowledged. I would not tell my university how much they expect us to work here. Patrick: Do you feel you are treated fairly by others in the organization? Rajiv: Most of us feel a lack of respect from staff, players, and management. We are tired of the snide comments made about the Indian cricket team, our beliefs, and English language skills.

This behavior seemed to have been pervasive over the course of the internship program:

Rajiv: Most jobs given to interns are fairly mundane, such as photocopying, filing, preparing gift packs, and cleaning up after events. I, for one, am a former state player in India. When I played for the Punjab Cricket Association, I applied my data analytics skills to player performance statistics so that the Association could maintain excellent records. This is a future specialisation for sport organizations. However, when I tried to explain that I have other skills which would help Cricket Australia, my supervisor dismissed the idea as theoretical nonsense. “Textbooks do not relate to the real world”, was his response.

Patrick was disappointed to hear this anecdote, as he well knew the benefits cultural intelligence brought to a sport organization. His thought was the CEO must be clearly challenged by the idea of embracing diversity and cannot see how to transform individual differences in to organizational strengths. The CEO and some board members seemed to be risk averse when it came to exploring innovation and creativity through workforce capabilities. They preferred to think changing the format of the game is what innovative thinking was all about.

A New Innings for Cricket Australia
After reviewing the files, Patrick felt he had a better grip on CA’s shortcomings, but still needed to do more research. However, a few days into his tenure at the organization, the CEO had summoned Patrick to his office:

CEO: So, Patrick, what have you found thus far? We do not want Sandpaper-gate being the reason that turns people away from cricket.
Patrick: I’ve come across some interesting things. We must start to change our organization’s behavior and public perception, and do so quickly.
CEO: I’m glad we are in agreement. We must uphold our policies for transparency, accountability and integrity if we are to rebuild our reputation. There is a board meeting set for next week, and I would like you to present your findings and outline a course of action.
Patrick: Well, sir, I was hoping to collect a more thorough review with staff and our partners.
CEO: Well, I’m told you’re the best man in Melbourne to handle integrity, so you’ll just have to make do with the files you have been briefed on thus far. I need you to deliver the integrity and cultural change strategies – we’re all counting on you.

Patrick has a substantial job on his hands to present to the board and CEO about the challenge of CA’s integrity . However, he also knows that a sound, all-encompassing strategy and a supporting public relations campaign, could affect cultural and ethical change. But, in order to do so, he must prioritize the issues at Cricket Australia in order of critical to minor importance. Afterwards, the Integrity Manager’s job is to then undertake a culture audit and analyze the organization, its ethics, power structures, and other practices which will be the foundation for developing culture renewal strategies. Patrick was confident in his abilities, and the tasks before him; just like his time at TA and AGPC, he was going to get the job done.

Discussion Questions
1. From Patrick’s review of the five files, what are the main issues at Cricket Australia?
2. With the use of examples from the case and supporting theory, undertake a culture audit at Cricket Australia.
3. What ethical considerations are confronting Patrick and how might they be addressed? Investigate other instances where good ethical practices have occurred in sport.
4. As the Integrity Manager, what strategies do you propose the Board of Directors at Cricket Australia endorse? Draw on evidence from the culture audit and ethical issues to create a range of strategies marked as either “immediate” or “future consideration” to assist with organizational culture renewal and support Cricket Australia’s vision.

Answer

Executive Summary
This cricket australia case study explored the history of cricky and how is has grown to be amount the most popular sports in Australia. Australian Cricket Board is one of the oldest cricket council across the world. It is popular for their aggressive mentality towards the game of cricket. The history says that the game of cricket was initiated in Australia. Australians are also recognized for the on-field sledging practice during the match. They mastered in diminishing the opponent's confidence by giving them various statements., in this Cricket australia case study we review how in recent time has been accused of the Sandpaper Gate controversy, where the international television has caught the illegal activity of the Australian players during a match between South Africa and Australia in the month of March 2018. The Board of directors has appointed a new Integrity Manager after occurring the incident.

Introduction
The study is based on the sandpaper gate conspiracy of the Australian cricket team. The Cricket Australia case study reviews how the board was accused of the violation of the rule set by the International Cricket Council. The main convict of the case was the Cameron Bancroft. Steve Smith, captain of Australia and the vice-captain David Warner, has also accused of the same dilemma. The Board of directors has come in a point that Cricket australia case study needs a new and capable integrity manager for the betterment of the management section. Patrick Murphy was appointed as a new integrity manager as identified during research of the Cricket australia case study. In his tenure, he discovered that the cricket board of Australia has covered with different ethical as well as management issues. In order to mitigate them, he took the help of the different theories, which can benefit from mitigating the problems in the management process of the Australian cricket board.

The study will discuss the different issues with its categorical anatomy and the effectiveness of those in the cricket team. The different theories and its application will also be mentioned with respect to the problems. Diagram depicting workplace deviations is also mentioned in the following study. Some good ethical approaches to a different section of the cricket will also be mentioned in the given study. Immediate and future consideration will also be highlighted in this study.

Issues in Australian Sports Organizational Behavior

Serial Numbers

Issues

1

Sandpaper Gate Issue

2

Integrity Issue

3

Staffing Issue

4

Gender, Diversity and Workplace Issue

5

Issues related to the players

6

Interns Issues

Table 1: management Issues identified during the Cricket australia case study
(Source: As stated by the author)

Issues

Categories

Sandpaper Gate Issue

Leadership and management issues

Integrity Issue

Cultural issue

Staffing Issue

Ethical issue

Gender, Diversity and Workplace Issue

Morale issue

Issues related to the players

Organizational issue

Interns Issues

Ethical issue

Table 2: Different categories of the issues
(Source: As stated by the author)

Issues

Priority

Sandpaper Gate Issue

Moderate

Integrity Issue

Critical

Staffing Issue

Minor

Gender, Diversity and Workplace Issue

Minor

Issues related to the players

Moderate

Interns Issues

Critical

Table 3: Priorities of the Issues
(Source: As stated by the author)

Detailed Discussion of the Issues and Related Applications using Theories
Sandpaper Gate Issue: The first identified issue was related to the Sandpaper Gate Phenomenon, which occurred during the test match series held between Australian Cricket Team and South African Cricket Team in 2018. The problem aroused when the international cameras caught the actions of the newcomer to the Australian Cricket Team, Cameron Bancroft. The accused aspect was tampering the match ball during the match, which is an illegal action according to the rules of the cricket council. Apart from that, Captain Steve Smith and Vice-captain Steve Warner were also accused in this case. This phenomenon has indicated the problems related to the integrity were observed during the Cricket australia case study research and diminished the reputation of the Australian Cricket Council (Jeanes et al., 2019).

In order to mitigate the problem, the Implication of the great man theory is appropriate. According to this theory, a leader or the captain of a team must fill with some necessary characteristics like confidence, management skills and intelligence. This theory is beneficial in giving the proper training to a leader to become successful in the respective field. The proper understanding of the theory can help the captain of the Australian cricket team not to repeat the poor activity like the Sandpaper Gate phenomenon.

Integrity Issue: After becoming the new Integrity manager as identified on the Cricket australia case study, Patrick Murphy was found that the internal section of the cricket board has some hidden problems related to the integrity level. He was aware of the previous issue of the cricket board, but after entering and researching the different files, he found that the illicit substance programs have been exercising inside the Board. Many members of the Board were engaged in doping, match-fixing and other activities, which is not ethical with respect to the rules and regulations of the ICC. Moreover, the distribution of power has been concerned in the central part of the Board, where the CEO made the decision. The other active staff, in most of the cases, has opposed the decisions. He founded that this issue has generated due to the lack of distributional power of the cricket council (O'Brien, Parent, Ferkins&Gowthorp, 2019).

The social power theory can be implemented in this case as it describes the division of power among the staff with related fields. This theory has explained that the power distribution helps in making the right decision by reducing the working pressure among the staff. The right decision and proper respect can alter the practices of illegal activities like doping and match-fixing among the officials.

Staffing Issue: The staffing issues are considered as a minor issue where the promotional event is stagnant. It has been seen that some of the millennials have captured the senior post, and most of the experienced persons are staying in the same post. The management has not given a promotion to the experienced persons, which leads to a lack of motivation in the working field. One of the staff has mentioned the cricket council as "old boys" club as the promotional campaign is stagnant here, and the capable persons are always overlooked despite the capacity. Patrick has also seen that the performance meter is not shown in the annual report. After discovering the staffing issues, he has implemented the rating system among the staff and which will be published in every annual report (Wade, 2019). Based on the performance and the experience, the promotional event will be constructed. The fair decision in the field of promotion can motivate the staff, which can mitigate the ethical problems inside the working area.

Gender, Diversity and Workplace Issue: On the Cricket australia case study, Patrick Murphy was seen to face gender inequality inside the Board of directors. The ratio of the male to female staff was 4:1, and it has also been seen that despite the same qualification, the recruitment of the female staff is less inside the Cricket council. Moreover, the management responsibilities were not given to the female staffs, and this kind of gender discrimination has affected the ethical norms identified during the Cricket Australia case study research. In order to fulfill the needs of the female candidate, the Workplace Gender Equality Act has been enacted. This act helps in describing the equality of the genders inside the workplace (Waite, 2019).

On the other hand, despite the option of work from home facility, a staff coming back from the maternal leave was not considered to take a work from home facility though her work is not the front-office job. The lack of flexibility in the working environment has reduced the morale of the cricket council.

The other issue was the lack of diversification of staff inside the workplace. The loss of diversified staff has cost the lack of morale in the working environment. In order to maintain the gender gap, the Gender Pay Gap Theory can be implemented in this field as it helps in developing the awareness of the importance of the female staff in the workplace. It has also described that the female staff are as worthy as the male ones (Casey,Fowlie, Charity, Harvey&Eime, 2019).

Issues related to the players: It has been seen that the on-field, as well as off-field activity of the players, have affected the personal and the social life of the players. This kind of activity was not only affected personal life but also affected the council. The past evidence has pointed out that the illicit activity affects the Australian cricket council as their illogical activity has put the reputation of the country on the edge of a cliff. Moreover, an activity, which is not proper, has cost them the salary deduction even after performing well in consecutive matches. On the other hand, the on-field sledging is not cultured in the dressing room, which is also a critical issue for the Cricket council as it hampers the reputation of the Board of directors. It has been published as the main reason for these threats is fueled from the back of the office (Sharma, 2018).

Organizational Culture Theory is appropriate for mentioning the problems regarding this. This theory is beneficial for the improvement of the organizational activity as the proper organizational structure can enhance the morale of the whole team as well as the management.

Interns Issues: The cricket council of Australia has a good relationship with the universities, and they have recruited many of the candidates after spending time tenure as an intern. The time of internship is fixed, and the boards of council do not appreciate the volunteer work. The CA has also given the opportunity for the immigrants who have studied and done their postgraduate in Australian universities. They have faced disrespect from the other staff based on the speaking and the behavioural activities. Despite the capability, they have been judged by the English speaking capability. Apart from that, the immigrant internees are given the jobs like photocopying of documents and the cleaning procedure after an event, which is not associated with the internship programs. There was no skill-developing program, which can increase the analytical ability of the interns to operate the management of the cricket council of Australia. These types of issues led to the management problem that triggers illegal activities among the council (Pitt, Thomas, Bestman, Daube&Derevensky, 2017).

Culture Audit: Patrick Murphy who has been selected as an integrity manager at Cricket australia case study has relished the challenge of creating credibility and trustworthiness, which is considered as an important part of the organization sport’s culture. More particularly, he was also able to examine the processes involved in the organization and successful in projecting a new culture to the external stakeholders. He successfully holds high regard in terms of eminent integrity and renewal consultant of culture. A month before his appointment, the organizational culture was tampered completely with the tampering of the match ball before the match. The incident leads to outrage among the competitors, cricket fans as well as in the media. Patrick had been seeking for an opportunity after establishing strong reputation at TA and AGCP. Patrick conducted some of the background research at CA and it was found that CA represented itself as the not only a governing authority but also held itself as the custodians of the games played in Australia. The three chief values that Cricket australia case study purports are how they play, the spirit of cricket as well as integrity (Barnett, 2019). Patrick also noticed major staff recruitment and restructuring has been done in the year 2018 and also found that an executive management has been formed by CA to managing the sport for the coming five years. This majorly included various positions in games and areas of marketing development, events and leagues, public affairs, strategies and most importantly performance of the team. With his extensive experience, he concluded that there exists a need for effective integration among the functioning units to achieving success commercially.

The Cricket Association of Australia had introduced an integrity team around the year 2013, which was responsible for the development, management of culture as well as ethical behavior standards. However, the major focus was laid on the playing of cricket matches. The proud organizational culture was challenged and the CEO of the Association felt the need for a new integrity manager (Siddiqui & Humphrey, 2016). The organizational culture of the association takes time and effort to reach the paramount. This can specifically lead to significant disruptions when the smoke of the unethical practices gets revealed. The conventionalist has sufficiently maintained their stance for the arrived integrity manager for having strong working knowledge of cricket.

The organization now focused to protect Australian Cricket from vulnerable threats such as doping, match-fixing and any such activities which can harm the integrity as well as the culture of CA. Along with this, CA ‘s anti-corruption measures, code of behavior was also looked after by Patrick. Effective coordination between the International Cricket Council and ICC member countries was also ensured to conduct the appropriate practices and code of ethical behavior. Patrick was quite satisfied with the employees, volunteers and every variety of business members at CA. The integrity of the team and games was in complete contrast to the cricket alone. Patrick did not receive any collaboration with the individual unit members regarding the values and beliefs in the context of compliance problems and management integrity. The organization developed better understanding of the culture of the CA and the ability of the workers for developing meaningful ethical decisions. The cultural indicators can often reveal the shared values, norms and beliefs. Along with these, the files, which were handed over to Patrick, was also reviewed for inquiring the issues, which might affect CA’s organizational culture as well as the practices of ethics. The organization followed traditional hierarchical structure, which dominated there. The company offered new positions for only those who are undergoing retirement. In Spite of general staff who hold management qualification, which varied from diploma to master level, the majority of the decision was taken by the senior management positions.

The organization included more number of males than females in CA and the ratio that was established is 4:1. The females always initiated the administrative positions in spite of having equal qualification when compared to qualification of males. In the organization women, were given almost no big responsibilities. CA would be hold as a culprit when proper evidence regarding the issue in effective establishment of Workplace Gender Equality Act within the organization. The integrity manager also had extensive knowledge regarding the flexibility in working shifts which helps in enhancing the morale of staff, improved work-life balance and incorporation of creative thinking in their jobs. Along with this, the morale of the staff was deteriorating because of their long hours of working. Such high expectations and restriction is just unacceptable working behaviors. The organization also lacked diversity among its staff members and added to these, the organization also ignored the strong organizational value, which was incorporated in their strategic planning. The staffs were also annoyed at the random way the previous players were treated by CA. on the cricket australia case study it is identified that previous players were provided with substantial medical facilities and work time. Some of the players also argued regarding their injuries while representing the state and were entitled to undergo rehabilitation by CA.

Ethical Issues in Cricket australia case study
Ethics in sports has played a great role in building sportsmanship. The ethics of sports contains two different aspects, such as gamesmanship as well as sportsmanship. Gamesmanship refers to winning everything at any cost putting everything online. The athletes and the officials can bend the rules and regulation in order to achieve the goals that have been set. Some of the practices are taking advantage of the opponents and paying less attention to the safety and regulations of sports 9Brown, Butt&Sarkar, 2019). The major aspects of the gamesmanships are

  • The main objective is to win everything
  • Cheating is considered as cheating when someone is caught
  • Finding out of the illegal activity is the responsibility of the referee, not the responsibility of the players as well as the coaches.

Some examples of the gamesmanships are

  • Cheating on the filed by damaging the game materials
  • Creating fouls in the game
  • Head starting the match prior to the other
  • Use of performance-enhancing medications
  • Rapid sledging
  • Fixing the match

On the other hand, sportsmanship denotes the real value and spirit of sports. The taking of the advantages, as well as illicit practices, are not used in this type of practice. This aspect gives the proper value of the game by instating the rules and regulations. This aspect denotes the proper way to give the players good ethics in the field of sports. The sustainability in sports is given the top priority. It helps in maintaining the ethics of games (Hammond, Penney&Jeanes, 2019).

Four key virtues are mentioned in order to maintain the ethics of the sports, which are mentioned below

Fairness: The ethics of sports have mentioned the fair play should be the main goal in sports events. Taking advantage of the ground as well as the crowded, is considered as the unfair playing in the sports section. The scarcity of personal integrity and violation is related to against fairness. The ethics can only be maintained by playing the game with fairness (Harper, 2019).

Integrity: Taking advantages through giving fake observations can decrease the integrity of the sportsmanship. This is considered as a violation of the sportsmanship.

Respect: Respect is the basic criteria for sportsmanship. All athletes should respect the opponent players in order to maintain the sustainability of the sports (Braham& Small, 2018).

Responsibility: The responsibility should be taken the coaches, the captains as any kind of illicit activity are regarded to the management of the team, and the coach sat on the top of that queue.

It has been seen that the Australian cricket team has violated the ethics of the sports by tampering the match ball during the third test match between Australia and South Africa in 2018. The major event has been caught in the international cameras where the use of sandpaper for disorganized the ball has been seen. Cameron Bancroft is the main accused player in this event; David Warner was also seen in this process. In the press conference, Steve Smith apologized for the entire incident.

cricket australia case study

Figure 1: Diagram depicting workplace deviations
(Source: As stated by the author)

Sandpaper Gate Scandal has cost the Australian team a huge blow, where the team has face difficulties even among their own citizens. Cricket is considered as the gentleman’s game, and the unethical practices have degraded the sovereignty of the game. There have so many examples where the different team has practised good ethical practices in the game of cricket. The national league system of India is a perfect example of the good ethical approach in the game of cricket as it offers the players from the different countries to come to India and play together with the other compatriots (Beeson& Bloomfield, 2019). The concept of IPL is formed due to increase the friendliness among the nations with the friendly rivalry. The players compete among the same county players where the unity among the players is increasing. On the other hand, this type of practice has helped to reduce the illegal activities like doping, match-fixing and the sandpaper gate like incidents. The increased friendliness among the different national players demotivates those who are generally engaged in the illicit movement in the sports world. The frequent tournaments and the increased awareness against illegal activities have the strength to control the overall illegal activities in the sports world.

The nation’s league concept is the extended version of the cricket club league. Here, the clubs from different countries have participated in the competition, the same fellow citizens have competed among them, and it leads to an increase in the friendly environment among different countries. On the cricket australia case study every team consists of the different country players and the winning team have at least a player of different countries as no country face the demotivation(Beeson& Bloomfield, 2019).

Recommendations for the Boards of Directors in this Cricket australia case study
Australia has recently faced a major ethical issue regarding the Sandpaper gate phenomenon, where the morale of the Australian cricket team has been questioned. The major problem that has been seen as related to the failure of leadership quality. As an integrity manager, Patrick should implement the grooming strategy for the captain, and they take the senior players as main decisions. The major problem was seen from the end of the young player, and it can be considered that the lack of leadership fuels this type of activity. The leaders should follow the rules first, and at a result of that, the young players can follow the instruction of the captain. The integrity manager should strengthen the disciplinary field as this can enhance the morale of a team as a whole.

Recommendations for the Boards of Directors in this Cricket australia case study
Australia has recently faced a major ethical issue regarding the Sandpaper gate phenomenon, where the morale of the Australian cricket team has been questioned. The major problem that has been seen as related to the failure of leadership quality. As an integrity manager, Patrick should implement the grooming strategy for the captain, and they take the senior players as main decisions. The major problem was seen from the end of the young player, and it can be considered that the lack of leadership fuels this type of activity. The leaders should follow the rules first, and at a result of that, the young players can follow the instruction of the captain. The integrity manager should strengthen the disciplinary field as this can enhance the morale of a team as a whole.

Apart from that, Australia is also accused of the doping charges in the biggest stage, like the cricket world cup. The gamesmanship practice must be discarded, as this is the only cause for practising illegal activities. The skill-building programs must be incorporated as this can enhance the practice of the sportsmanship. The application of the sportsmanship can reduce the illegal activities like doping, match-fixing and incidents like sandpaper gate. The ethical activity is the only way to reduce integrity problems.

Board of the Australian Cricket Council has implemented the Workplace Gender Equality Law in order to maintain the equal distribution of the gender in the staffs of the managing team. The proper importance has also been given to the foreign interns as the immigrants have faced difficulties in the training programs(Casey,Fowlie, Charity, Harvey&Eime, 2019).

The distribution of the jobs must be practised as this can lead the proper infrastructural growth. The decentralization of power can increase the ethical approach as it can reduce the illegal activities among the players. Moreover, the players should be played more ethically, reminding the reputation of the country. In most of the cases, it has been seen that players took the loss very personally and the revenge thought has provoked them to adapt the sandpaper gate related phenomenon(O'Brien, Parent, Ferkins&Gowthorp, 2019).

Immediate Consideration

Future Consideration

  • The Board of directors has to concentrate on the ethical approaches of the Australian Cricket team by advancing the leadership quality. The proper grooming of the captain can reduce the practice of the illegal activity on-filed. The strict leadership quality can reduce illegal dilemmas.
  •  The illegal activity like doping and match-fixing can be reduced by maintaining the proper discipline in the workplace or in the dressing room.
  • Bookkeeping of the performance report can indicate the proper result that is capable of promotion as it can smoothen the process. This practice has helped in creating a fair decision regarding the promotional process.
  •  The Implication of the Workplace Gender Equality Actmust be incorporated in the management department of the Australian cricket council.
  • The proper infrastructure for the training process will be beneficial for the future purpose of the game
  • The strict rule and regulation regarding the illegal approaches and the heavy penalty and suspension for the player who will practice the activity will be beneficial for the entire cricket team.
  •  The publication of the performance report in the annual report has helped in keeping the date and evidence of staff in that particular year.
  • The concept must be revised in order to maintain sustainable condition in the workplace.

Table:Immediate and Future Consideration
(Source: As stated by the author)

Conclusion
The integrity manager, when reviewed the files related to the Cricket Association found that there are a number of issues which are faced in Cricket australia case study namely Sandpaper Gate controversy, which involved the issue related to the tampering of the match ball. This was caught in the international television, which highlighted the illegal activity of the Australian players, which was then going on between South Africa and Australia. The organization basically focuses on protecting Australian Cricket from vulnerable threats such as doping, match-fixing and any such activities which can harm the integrity as well as the culture of CA.Various issue related to the controversy was highlighted in the report such as the effectiveness of organizational culture, integrity, workplace diversity and so on. At the end of the paper, recommendations for the Board of Directors has also been listed which comprised of immediate as well as future considerations on this cricket australia case study .

Reference List
Beeson, M., & Bloomfield, A. (2019).The Trump effect Downunder: US allies, Australian strategic culture, and the politics of path dependence. Contemporary Security Policy, 40(3), 335-361. cricket australia case study Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13523260.2019.1594534

Braham, C., & Small, M. (2018). Complex networks untangle competitive advantage in Australian football. Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 28(5), 053105.Retrieved fromhttps://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.5006986

Brown, C. J., Butt, J., &Sarkar, M. (2019).Overcoming Performance Slumps: Psychological Resilience in Expert Cricket Batsmen. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1-20.Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10413200.2018.1545709

Casey, M., Fowlie, J., Charity, M., Harvey, J., &Eime, R. (2019).The implications of female sport policy developments for the community-level sports sector: a perspective from Victoria, Australia. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 1-22. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19406940.2019.1618892

Hammond, A. M., Penney, D., &Jeanes, R. (2019). Sport coaches as policy actors: an investigation of the interpretation and enactment of disability and inclusion policy in swimming in Victoria Australia. Sport, Education and Society, 1-16. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13573322.2019.1628013

Harper, A. (2019). From bastard child to a place in Australia’s family; the Federal Government’s role in repositioning Australian soccer as a legitimate, mainstream sport: a qualitative study. Sport in Society, 1-19. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17430437.2019.1618569

Jeanes, R., Spaaij, R., Magee, J., Farquharson, K., Gorman, S., & Lusher, D. (2019). Developing participation opportunities for young people with disabilities?Policy enactment and social inclusion in Australian junior sport. Sport in Society, 22(6), 986-1004.Retrieved fromhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17430437.2018.1515202

O'Brien, D., Parent, M. M., Ferkins, L., &Gowthorp, L. (2019). Strategic Management in Sport. cricket australia case study. Routledge.Retrieved fromhttps://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781315266671

Pitt, H., Thomas, S. L., Bestman, A., Daube, M., &Derevensky, J. (2017). What do children observe and learn from televised sports betting advertisements? A qualitative study among Australian children.Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 41(6), 604-610.Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1753-6405.12728

Sharma, V. (2018). Cricket a gender biased game?India in relation to the world.Retrieved from http://dspace.jgu.edu.in:8080/jspui/handle/10739/2297

Wade, M. (2019). Tactics of the 'Ugly Australian': Morality, masculinity, nationalism and governance amid a cheating controversy in sport.Journal of Sociology, 1440783319833466.Retrieved fromhttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1440783319833466

Waite, C. (2019). Enabling and constraining migration: the multiscalar management of temporary, skilled, international migration of English professional cricketers. Sport in Society, cricket australia case study. 1-20.Retrieved fromhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17430437.2018.1555226

Appendix
Issues in Australian Sports Organizational Behavior:

Serial Numbers

Issues

1

Sandpaper Gate Issue

2

Integrity Issue

3

Staffing Issue

4

Gender, Diversity and Workplace Issue

5

Issues related to the players

6

Interns Issues

Table 1: Issues related to the management of Cricket australia case study
(Source: As stated by the author)

Issues

Categories

Sandpaper Gate Issue

Leadership and management issues

Integrity Issue

Cultural issue

Staffing Issue

Ethical issue

Gender, Diversity and Workplace Issue

Morale issue

Issues related to the players

Organizational issue

Interns Issues

Ethical issue

Table 2: Different categories of the issues
(Source: As stated by the author)

Issues

Priority

Sandpaper Gate Issue

Moderate

Integrity Issue

Critical

Staffing Issue

Minor

Gender, Diversity and Workplace Issue

Minor

Issues related to the players

Moderate

Interns Issues

Critical

Table 3: Priorities identified during the cricket Australia case study
(Source: As stated by the author)

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