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Annotated Bibliography Assignment: Contextual Factors Influencing Internal And External Business Environments

Question

Task 1 : Identify five (5) journal articles that match the first five topics of this unit
That is, you must find one journal article per topic

  1. Organisational structures or governance,
  2. Environmental forces,
  3. Risks confronting the firm,
  4. Organisation and business practices, and
  5. The functions of diverse firms.

2. Write a short 150 word introduction discussing why the contextual factors are important to organisational decision making. The introduction is 150 words in total not 150 words per article.

3. Write approximately 250 words per journal article that:

  1. Defines the main contextual factor being discussed in the journal article,
  2. Discusses the new findings in relation to the contextual factor, and
  3. Highlights what these findings mean for managers in organisations.

4. Write a short 200 word conclusion recommending one specific contextual factor as most important to CQUniversity’s organisational performance. Explain your reasoning.

5. Write a reference list correctly

  • It must use the APA referencing style
  • Each reference appears before each annotated bibliography
  • It has a hanging indentation
  • There are specific fonts and formatting that must be used:

Derouiche, I., Hassan, M., & Amdouni, S. (2018). Ownership structure and investment-cash flow sensitivity. Journal of Management & Governance, 22(1), 31-54. DOI: 10.1007/s10997-017-9380-x

Answer

Introduction
This annotated bibliography assignment explores 5 management journal articles related to strategic management approaches used to boost business operations. This helps promote decision making in the organisations, the contextual factors play a significant and noteworthy role as these factors are the key characteristics of the internal and external environment of the organisation based upon which an organisation functions. The contextual factors includes cost, functions, risks, structure, environmental forces, benefits, competence, capability and several other aspects. On the basis of the contextual factors, an organisation can measure that in what manner it can attain its objectives and goals. The contextual factors holds much significance as they present the characteristics and specific context which are particularly related to that particular group, a community, the society or an individual. The various research conducted are basically depended upon the various contextual factors as these are considered as the factors on which the significance and purpose of any study is relied upon.

Annotated Bibliography
Article 1: Cross-National Work-Life Research: Cultural and Structural Impacts for Individuals and Organizations

Ollier-Malaterre, A., & Foucreault, A. (2017). Cross-national work-life research: Cultural and structural impacts for individuals and organizations. Journal of Management, 43(1), 111-136. DOI: 10.1177/0149206316655873
Retrieved from: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0149206316655873

The primary contextual factor which has been discussed in this particular article are culture and structure. The article throws lights upon the organisational structure and the organisational culture. Both these aspects have a direct impact upon the work-life practices as well as upon the work life interface. This annotated bibliography assignment article pay emphasis upon the development of the gender equality, social satisfaction systems and family structures, It shows how these aspects affect the work life interface at both the organisational and individual levels (Ollier-Malaterre & Foucreault, 2017).

There are various finding in relation with the contextual factor such as it indicates that the various organizational work-family programs have a positive impact upon the competence of the employees for balancing their family and work roles. The researchers found that the employee in the individualist cultures report less family –to-work conflict and more work-to family conflict in comparison with the employees in the collectivist cultures.

In respect with the organisational managers, it is evaluated that the organisational managers should try to maintain a supportive organisational culture and structure so that the employees can attain a sound work life balance in their lives. The better work-life practices in the organisation support the employees in enhancing their competence to balance their professional and personal lives.

Article 2: Motivating Organizations to Learn: Goal Orientation and Its Influence on Organizational Learning

Chadwick, I. C., & Raver, J. L. (2015). Motivating organizations to learn: Goal orientation and its influence on organizational learning. Journal of management, 41(3), 957-986. DOI: 10.1177/0149206316655873
Retrieved from: https://bit.ly/2OMfg2b

The primary contextual factor which has been discussed in this particular article is goal orientation and organisational learning. The primary objective of this annotated bibliography assignment is to shed light upon the organisational learning which is considered as one of the most common processes for improving the organisational actions by the means of improved knowledge and understanding. The article pays emphasis upon the goal orientation as it explained as one of the best behavioral norms while working at the group level.

There are various finding in relation with the contextual factor goal orientation and organisational learning such as it is stated that when there is a goal orientation behavioral norm within the organisation and among the employees then the productivity and the outcomes are highly effective. The employees have their complete direction towards the attainment of the work goals which both motivates them to work hard at individual as well as at organisational level. The researchers found that organisational learning is one of the motivational theories which improve the competence as well as the motivation of the employees through continuous development and trainings (Chadwick & Raver, 2015).

In respect with the organisational managers, it is evaluated that the organisational managers should focus on enhancing the organisational learning in the organisations and also develop goal orientation behavioral norm so that the outcomes can be more effective and efficient.

Article 3: Social Enterprises as Hybrid Organizations: A Review and Research Agenda

Doherty, B., Haugh, H., & Lyon, F. (2014). Social enterprises as hybrid organizations: A review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 16(4), 417-436. DOI: 10.1111/ijmr.12028
Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/ijmr.12028

The primary contextual factor which has been discussed in this particular article is the social enterprise. The article throws lights upon the existence of social enterprises as the hybrid organisations whose mission is to show clearly in balancing and managing the issues among the pursuit of social mission and the commercial opportunity exploitation. This annotated bibliography assignment pays emphasis upon working as the social enterprises as these organisations do not trade for the private gains but for generating the positive environmental and social externalities.

There are various finding in relation with the contextual factor social enterprise, it has been stated that the social enterprise hybridity has a positive impact upon the mobilization and the acquisition of the financial resources. The researchers found that the social enterprise hybridity also has a major effect upon the speed and volume of the returns on investment. An organisation with increased SE hybridity has more chances of getting support from the investors (Doherty, Haugh & Lyon, 2014).

In respect with the organisational managers, it is evaluated that the organisational managers should develop their organisations as the social enterprises because of the fact that such types of organisations have high social enterprise hybridity which results in higher access to financial resources.

Article 4: Corporate Social Responsibility and Access to Finance
Cheng, B., Ioannou, I., & Serafeim, G. (2014). Corporate social responsibility and access to finance. Strategic management journal, 35(1), 1-23. DOI: /10.1002/smj.2131
Retrieved from: https://bit.ly/2nPj0EO

The primary contextual factor which has been discussed in this particular article is the corporate social responsibility. The article throws lights upon the use of corporate social responsibility strategies which leads to better financial growth and development of the business organisations. The article pays emphasis upon the relation between financial performance and CSR. When the organisations develop their CSR activities, there are high chances of financial benefits, support from the stakeholders and higher competitive advantage.

There are various finding in relation with the contextual factor i.e. corporate social responsibility such as the business organisations with improve corporate social responsibility face lower capital constraints. The annotated bibliography assignment paper researchers found that the voluntary disclosure of CSR activities also resulted in decrease in the cost of capital of the firm (Cheng, Ioannou & Serafeim, 2014).

In respect with the organisational managers, it is evaluated that the organisational managers should have their high emphasis and focus upon the corporate social responsibility. In the past few decades there has been increased focus upon the CSR to get support from the investors, public and also to have increased financial support.

Article 5: Entrepreneurship in China: An overview

Ahlstrom, D., & Ding, Z. (2014). Entrepreneurship in China: an overview. International Small Business Journal, 32(6), 610-618. DOI: 10.1177/0266242613517913

Retrieved from: https://bit.ly/2ALK8gi

The primary contextual factor which has been discussed in this particular article is the entrepreneurship. The article throws lights upon the development of entrepreneurship in China in past few decades. The article pays emphasis upon the continuous innovations taking place in China which has enhanced the competence and the capability of the individuals of the country to develop as entrepreneurs. The country has also experienced huge growth and economic development which has led to the growth of entrepreneurial sector in China.

There are various finding in relation with the contextual factor entrepreneurship such as it has been found that China has a much high proportion of the young business entrepreneurs. The researchers found that in past few decades there has also been experienced a growth in the educational sector which ultimately had resulted in increased number of entrepreneurship in the country (Ahlstrom & Ding, 2014).

In respect with the organisational managers, it is evaluated that the organisational managers should focus on developing the spirit of entrepreneurship among the employees so that there can be attained better viewpoints and competencies which can help the business organisations to achieve higher productivity and sound decision making.

Conclusion
The study of the various contextual factors and the understanding of the several articles state that there is a significant role of contextual factors in the development, growth, performance and decision making of the organisation. From the complete analysis, it is suggested that the most significant and the vital contextual factor is the corporate social responsibility. In last few decades, the companies and the business organisations have started emphasizing upon the development of corporate social responsibility as it is one of the vital factors behind the success, recognition and growth of the development. The reason behind selection of this contextual factor is that in the globalized world and continuously increasing competition, the business forms required support from the government, public and other stakeholders. Thus, the increased corporate social responsibility results in higher support from all these bodies which offer increased recognition and brad value to the organisations. This annotated bibliography assignment also emphasizes on the role of Corporate social responsibility also helps the organisations in getting better financial support as well as increased number of customers because of the concern paid by the organisation on the social cause.

References
Ahlstrom, D., & Ding, Z. (2014). Entrepreneurship in China: an overview. International Small Business Journal, 32(6), 610-618.

Chadwick, I. C., & Raver, J. L. (2015). Motivating organizations to learn: Goal orientation and its influence on organizational learning. Journal of management, 41(3), 957-986.

Cheng, B., Ioannou, I., & Serafeim, G. (2014). Corporate social responsibility and access to finance. Strategic management journal, 35(1), 1-23.

Doherty, B., Haugh, H., & Lyon, F. (2014). Social enterprises as hybrid organizations: A review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 16(4), 417-436.

Ollier-Malaterre, A., & Foucreault, A. (2017). Cross-national work-life research: Cultural and structural impacts for individuals and organizations. Journal of Management, 43(1), 111-136.

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