Construction Management Assignment: Analysis on Importance of Prefabrication Technique
Task: Following the concept of ‘rethinking construction’, a revolution in the construction industry took placed. As a construction professional, what fundamentals do you emphasize that result in successful establishment of construction methods for productivity improvement? At which stages of the projects, these fundamentals are applicable and how?
Prefabrication has emerged as a revolutionary technique in the architecture, construction, and engineering (ACE) industry. In theory, key constructive objectives are achievable through this technique; however, some barriers disturb the fulfillment of these objectives. Identify other terms referred to this technique around the world and highlight the technique’s objectives. Explain how this technique results in project performance. Also,
Write a report (2000 words) on construction management assignment outlining the following aspects:
a) The definition of the technique, a background and the pioneer countries in adopting this technique
b) The preview of structure of report
• Literature Review comprising:
a) The reasons of establishment of new techniques
b) What are the objectives of prefabrication technique which contribute to the construction project performance?
c) Different prefabricated components
• Analysis and findings on:
a) The advantages/capabilities of the technique that have upgraded the construction industry
b) b) Potential inefficiencies in prefabrication-based projects which threat project performance
• Conclusion and Recommendations containing:
a) Conclusions drawn on the basis of the literature review, analysis, and findings included in the report
b) Opinions and recommendations to achieve a consistent upgrading trend in Australia as a developed country
The concept of prefabrication covered in this construction management assignment is the configuration or part assemblies at a place apart from the building site. By saving on energy, wage and resources, this approach limits building costs. In the warehouse, vast quantities of prefabricated parts are manufactured and then transported to different building sites. This process will proceed in spite of bad weather which can minimize pollution on site and material. This protocol should be implemented. Until used for building, precast concrete structures are cast and sealed. Builders often cast the construction materials and hug them after hardening. The requirement to move is needed as many qualified staff to the building site is eliminated by prefabrication, and other restrictive situations such as power shortages, water shortage, exposure to bad weather or dangerous environments are prevented. A column seems to be a vertical member that carries the floor and beam loads to the base. This is a compression part and the relation to the pillar is also essential. Continuity is the key concept involved in the development of column relations, and it can be accomplished by various methods. The modules used in floors and towers are made into the metal surface panels for electrical lighting, plumbing and airflow. The design of the beams will range from its very basic beam created by an independent opening, to the most often seen in pictures, where the beams pass their loads into the column.
Since previous centuries prefabrication has already been used. T he Sweet Track, built in England about 3800 BC, the oldest recognized engineered route, used prefabricated timber parts, which were shipped to the site instead of constructed on-site . Homes built in different areas were unaware of until the Industrial Revolution and never before. However, as new machines have been perfected, thorough craftsmanship has been developed, and homes have been a result of this production capacity. In 1833, an apartment house named the balloon structure was constructed on the actual location in Chicago. The building was transported by train or truck and inexperienced workers could build it. In the modern era, the system was commonly used to build prefabricated homes as a temporary accommodation for hundreds of urban residents destroyed during the Second World War in the UK. Production of parts in warehouses saved implementation time and the lightness of the frames lowered foundation and installation costs on site. Gray, flat-backed , prefabricated houses were freezing and un-insulated, as well as life in a prefabricated acquired some stereotypes but some of London's prefabricated prefabrications have been much older than the 10-year span.
Pic-1. Prefab building component 
The analysis has been done in different parts starting with the introduction of the technique in the industry and a little discussion of the background. Then the literature review is done by discussing the reasons, objectives and different component of the technique. The advantages and limitations of the technique have been discussed in the analysis part. Then some recommendation has been made with the conclusion.
Reason of establishment of new techniques:
In the construction and structural engineering, prefabricating is most often found in buildings with repeats of a certain piece or shape of prefabricated material and prefabricated metals . The shaping needed to mold structural panels on site could be difficult to manufacture and the delivery of concrete slab on site until it begins to be set involves a precise control of time. The benefit of the dumping of concrete parts into a plant is that the moulds can be re-used and that the concrete could be poured onsite without shipment to and drained wet on an embedded building site. The failure led to the modification of the construction standards by introducing a solidity clause to enable the residents to evacuate if one part of the building collapsed . The resultant loss of public trust led to a fast stop to this kind of structure, where it never fully recovered. In the building of residential buildings and urban complexes with multiple housing structures prefabrication methods are used. Prefabricated units were increasing in their efficiency to the extent that they could not be distinguished from historically  constructed units by those living in them. The technique can also be used in office towers, storage and construction sites. For the external areas of large structures, pre-made pieces of metal and concrete are commonly used.
Objective of the prefabrication technique:
Prefabrication seems to be the term used for the production of assemblies that are manufactured in manufacturing environments and shipped to the building site. Prefabrication processes can be differentiated by components, techniques, structural design, etc. The aim is to create and demonstrate a forum to provide the complete construction envelope and installation facilities for precast, multifunctional renovation components . The end user will merge these components, pick them and customize them according to the particular needs.
Different prefabrication components:
Prefabrication seems to be the process of assembling structural parts at a production or other assembly facility, and of shipping complete components or subsystems to the building location. Pre-cuts are being used to apply to construction materials which are fabricated and boiled into a pre-specified size according to the specification . The raw compounds are formed and refined for packaging or prepared packages. This technique is a kind of prefabrication which involves less off-site assembly. 3D modules constructed almost completely in the plant and supplied to the construction site.
Pic-2. Prefabrication components 
It is often recognized as sectional structure compilation is a typical structure in three dimensions that mixes with other components that provide a full building at the site . Panelized construction is another method of prefabrication. It shares parallels with pre-cut manufacture, but not only processes the raw materials into functional fragments, paneling the fragments. In other words, precut packages are comprised of lumbers and panels that are processed and panels that can be conveniently assembled in different cabinets and walls, bodies or ceilings that have pre-wired and insulation. In the manufacturing area 2D panel homes are partly installed. It will then be delivered to the assembly and building site. 2D panel combination with modular 3D builds. For specific component criteria, a hybrid system is beneficial. It is also able to climb up quickly to reach the site due to the problems of the site. The modular construction keeps the panels and introduces a new stage of production. The structural forms of the house are increasingly evident at this point . With regard to structural health, modular houses are also found to be constructed at greater efficiency than some other prefabricated structures.
Manufactured building, also called mobile homes, is perhaps the most complicated form of prefabrication. This style of architecture is the most detailed type of construction methods. In contrast to all other prefabricated housings, pre-shipment constructed houses have been fully assembled.
Analysis and findings:
Advantages of the prefabrication:
Builders do not think about disruptions and problems from rain, vandals, trespassers or other complicating things because prefab approaches are used at the workshop. This is a managed and secure environment that enables the building processes to be simplified and waste reduced. The transfer of partial groups from a plant also costs much less than transfer of pre-productive materials to each facility. On-site deployment of resources could add cost; pre-manufacturing assemblies can reduce costs through on-site operations . The producer would buy products in bigger amounts compared to conventional manufacturers in prefabricated manufacturing. By buying additional products, the retailer is more necessary to capture discounted rates from manufacturers. While a price discount represents lower profits per unit for retailers, the net income from higher volume purchases remains considerable. The providers will also profit from stable market ties with the manufacturing industry by providing attractive pricing. Factory equipment, such as jigs, cranes, cargo containers, etc.  will increase and increase the precision of output. Additional quality testing may be provided by factory instruments such as shake tables, mechanical testers, etc. Consistent factory indoor conditions minimize most weather influences on development. Prefab often in many ways decreases the effect on the climate. A building project will decrease air, water and sound emissions . Prefab is particularly useful for high redundancy programs. This indicates there are several similar or equivalent rooms in the hotel. Cranes and recycled plant supports will permit forms and processes on-site without costly mistakes. Higher precision manufacturing equipment may help create hot and air flow to reduce energy demand and to improve healthy buildings. In addition to minimizing manufacturing costs, prefabricated manufacturing can also shrink and reduce staff costs. This ensures that there is an increased desire to hire better or more qualified staff. This means that pre-fabricated processing has a greater ability to produce better efficiency. Moreover, this ensures that investment costs are smaller per unit in special machinery and operation. Fabric manufacturing can make the use of fabrics, recycling, noise collection, dust collection, etc. easier. Movement of machine mediated components and wind and rain free movement will increase construction safety . Prefabricated manufacturing provides employees with a higher degree of protection. Workers devote less time under minimum safeguards and safety doing high-risk activities and drugs. In addition to environment-friendly structures, prefabricated construction enables unique designs, innovative materials and high-tech characteristics to be implemented. Easy and clean minimum type housing can be exclusive designs. Pre-manufacturing promotes energy-efficient structures and characteristics. Prefabricated manufacturing has a larger opportunity to introduce unique equipment and other features to distinguish and boost its competitiveness.
Potential inefficiencies in prefabrication:
For bulky prefabricated parts, shipping costs could be greater than for their ingredients which can also be packaged densely. Large pre-constructed sections will require high-speed cranes and accurate measuring and handling. In addition to the expensive configuration and the associated financial difficulties on the manufacturing side, prefabricated housing often has challenges in terms of consumers. There are debates about how it is harder to build prefabricated homes. Before they are permanently built, prefabricated homes would not be eligible for mortgage on a house. Most commercial banks are unhappy with approving loans because they have some assets, such as a valuable asset, to protect their funds .
Constructors will expect to spend the prefabricated home deposit at an early stage when they have to buy from the manufacturers. The risk premium of the prefabricated house is also worrying. Management and transport will lead to member’s breakdown during the travel and additional arrangements must be made. Difficulty in linking precast components to have the same homogenous effect. The result is non-monolithic building. The time taken for prefabricated manufacturing can be less than the conventional one; however, the time needed to restore the pieces and carry out maintenance may be considerably longer . It can be difficult to replace pieces of prefabricated homes. With regard to the cost, it is important to keep in mind that prefabricated housing manufacturing works on a volume basis while the efficiency of prefabricated buildings can be increased due to engineering techniques and controls. This indicates that saving, even though it is cents, may be sufficient for the corporation to use relatively low goods over time. A serious danger is an error in the mass processing of prefabricated components in front of observable site work. Nevertheless, there is an area where 60 precast concrete staircases have been buried, since they have been manufactured improperly for one of the city's tower blocks . The transfer of the goods to the building site poses a problem of sustainability. The manufacturing in a factory requires stable and coherent demand, while building uses big quantities simultaneously, and then no demand.
Conclusion & recommendation:
Hence, from the study it is observed the prefabrications remove time and space with the traditional architecture. This technique allows for rapid structural installation. The prefabrication of simple modular units involves collaboration between developers, manufacturers and builders. Often modular units of porcelainised steel are also the roofs of huge structures. Stairwells in stainless steel models are supplied. In specific, the technique is used in which the structure consists of repeated units or shapes or where many representations of the same fundamental structure are produced. Prefabrication has a cost advantage because it is capable of profiting from large-scale manufacturing. By creating a stronger waste recycling and reuse infrastructure and increasing productivity would also provide a greater budget for proper waste management, the issue of sustainability will be mitigated. Rapid customization and site-specific choices will overcome the design cap. Finally, quality of protection will entail collaboration and the application of international standards and monitors
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