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Conflict Management Assignment: Measures To Avoid Conflict

Question

Task Description: Assessment task 3 requires the preparation of a full project proposal that should contain the following components:

  • A detail statement of the problem that you would like to investigate
  • Research aim, objectives and research questions: What are the potential research objectives and questions that can address the problem?
  • Justification and potential output of the research project: Why is your chosen project important both theoretically and practically? What are the potential outputs and outcomes of your research?
  • Conceptual framework: An analysis of the literature relevant to the research topic that will give you the conceptual basis for conducting this research.
  • Methodology and presenting secondary data: Based on the conceptual framework, research aim(s) and objectives, you need to provide a detail description of the data collection methods and tools, data sources and the methods/tools that you will use to analyse the data.
  • Organisation of the study, project budget and schedule: Write the names of the chapters/sections of your research report, and briefly discuss what you will write in those chapters/sections followed by a brief description of budget for conducting this study and project schedule i.e., Gantt Chart.

This is an individual research task. You are required to demonstrate your understanding of the relevant body of works to a real-life business research. We expect you to read and reflect on at least twenty recent refereed journal articles on your topic supported by any other evidence or information that can help refine the problem of your research, formulate conceptual framework and the methods of data collection and analysis. Please see detailed guidelines about specific research requirements on the unit Moodle site. You can write 3000 words maximum for this assignment. The cover page and the list of references are not counted in the word limit.

Answer

1.0 Introduction
Conflict avoidance is the method to overcome several issues, problems and critical situations that directly provide impact on the work process and decrease productivity. Appropriate measures that are directly connected with managing and mitigating the effect of organizational conflict are accommodating, avoiding, compromising and competing. Conflict Management Assignment on this subject will be immensely helpful to bring equality among the workers in various organizations. Additionally, it will focus on the specific factors that usually happen in different organization and management of conflicts. The aim of this Conflict Management Assignment is to enhance group activity and increase productivity of business house. In the growing competition of business, different companies are looking to develop their business activity with more skilled and collaborative workforce. This Conflict Management Assignment has made an approach to bring effective measures that can help to upgrade work process by avoiding conflicts in an internal management system.

2.0 Statement of the problem
Organisations are prone to conflicts due to intercultural workforce and ineffective communication between top level and low level employees. It results in decreased productivity and turnover rate which reduces brand image of organisations. Effective organizational strategies are required for reducing and curbing conflicts. Data shows that conflicts with colleagues and managers are the top issues faced by the organisations. Approximately 15% of employees are of the view that they have faced conflicts in the workplace (Edward, 2018). Conflicts arise due to the fact that the employees have to work for long hours which are followed by fear of redundancy, meeting expectations along with pressure from managers. These conflicts can be mitigated from careful constructed conversation and focusing on employee empowerment. The Fair Work Commission has the responsibility of resolving disputes in an organisation but they have no rights to give advice (fwc.gov.au, 2018). They cannot suggest the organisations to make strategies which can help in reducing conflicts and disputes.

3.0 Aim, questions and objectives
The main aim of this Conflict Management Assignment will be to understand the effective measures which can help in avoiding conflicts in an organisation. Conflicts in an organisation can result in less productivity and ineffective team management which results in increased turnover. It is required for the organisations to adopt effective dispute avoidance strategies which can help in reducing conflicts.

Objectives
Objectives of this Conflict Management Assignment are:-

  • To understand adaptability of dispute avoidance strategies which can help in enhancing culture of a firm
  • To identify factors which can result in conflicts in an organisation and the measures which can help in reducing these factors
  • To analyse weaknesses existing in recent measures For curbing and controlling conflicts
  • To suggest best measures which can help in solving issues pertaining to conflicts

Questions

  • How can adaptability of dispute avoidance strategies help in enhancing culture of a firm?
  • What are the factors which can result in conflicts in an organisation and the measures which can help in reducing these factors?
  • What are the weaknesses existing in recent measures for curbing and controlling conflicts?
  • What are the best measures which can help in solving issues pertaining to conflicts?

4.0 Potential output and justification
Based on different sources, it can be said that measurement design for avoiding conflict is mostly connected with a consistency of management. This Conflict Management Assignment has selected to point out specific factors that are creating workplace conflicts in Australian organization. Commencement of this research will bring a complete analysis of the specific factors that are the major reasons behind such an issue. Additionally, it will also resolve the barriers that are the barriers to avoid conflicts.

In the viewpoint of Sarooghi, Libaers & Burkemper (2015), unless a good management system, it is hard to access an equal working environment. According to the scholar, Workplace conflict is a very sensitive issue that waste money, time and workplace relationships. The effect of conflict can be found in different ways. For example, it can increase stress, illness, absenteeism and a high percentage of turnovers. In Australian Economy, workplace stress is estimated to a cost of $14.81 billion in a year. In an average basis, Australian ventures lost 3.2 days behind each worker due to workplace stress (mindfulmediation.com.au, 2018). A Study by Balcetis (2016) focuses on the organizing structure for motivation of employees whereas this study is completely focused to manage overall organizational conflict in Australian Ventures. On the other hand, Jensen (2017) said about general corporate objective function and stakeholder’s theory. Thus, there is no particular indication of conflict avoidance or management. Apart from these articles, this research will completely approach a new concept that has not clearly focused before.

For further study, it is important as it will help to manage the idea and provide an effective solution for different organizational conflict in a business venture. It can bring a general idea of several measures that may help to overcome or manage the situation of any such cases. Conflict management is important to bring consistency and support the productivity of business level.

The research questions as identified in this Conflict Management Assignment will be replied according to the data collection. The outcome of this research will be viewed as an essential academic solution for the issue that has identified in the proposal. End users will be benefitted when they use the potential solutions in practical ground of conflict avoidance.

5.0 Conceptual framework
5.1 Understanding of conflict avoidance: Conflict avoidance is regarded as the method and process of reacting to conflicts which can help in avoiding issues having in hand. Rahim (2017) is of the view that methods include not bringing the matter of contention, putting off the decisions or changing the matter. Prevention of conflicts is regarded as temporary measure of buying time or permanent means of disposing conflicts. However, Epstein (2018) argued that prevention of conflicts can result in withdrawing from relationship and leading to lose connection with employees. Conflict avoidance cannot be regarded as effective methods because effective prevention strategies are required for mitigating conflicts on permanent basis.

5.2 Adaptability of dispute avoidance strategies: Conflict avoidance requires concise, careful, proper and clear planning of strategies which can help in resolving conflicts and execution of tasks effectively. In the words of Balcetis (2016), disputes can be avoided with the help of effective communication and coordination which can help the organisations to perform well. Dispute avoidance strategies can help organisations to run smoothly and increase productivity of employees. Bolman & Deal (2017) argued that avoidance of litigation along with contractual disputes can help in saving businesses from increased costs and prolonged time. Formation of Dispute Resolution Board can help in resolving conflicts and disputes and ensure proper working of employees. Effective dispute avoidance strategies are as follows

  • Assisting parties to avoid situations which is likely to results into disputes
  • Informing them of their obligations and rights as proper information can help in reaching to a agreement (Slawinski et al. 2017)
  • Determining matter for the parties along with benefit of the experts who have real understanding of problems which can be derived from continuous involvement

5.3 Factors which can result in conflicts in an organisation: The factors which can result in conflicts in an organisation are misunderstandings, poor communication, and lack of planning, poor selection of staff, stress and frustration. Poor communication and inadequate adjustment lead to conflicts as the employees feel that they are unheard. Tjosvold, Wong & Feng Chen (2014) stated that they feel that the management is indifferent towards their problems which results in conflicts and disputes. In another instance, different cultured workforce can result in conflicts as they may find opposing interests and involve in personal conflicts. However, Workman (2015) argued that working of cross cultural workforce helps in sharing of knowledge and skills which are required for enhancing performance of employees. Poor selection of staff and nepotism leads to conflicts as employees become dissatisfied and demoralised. It is required for the organisations to select employees on the basis of merit for improved productivity and performances. Prolong working hours can result in conflicts as employees may feel that the management is indifferent towards their interests.

5.4 Theories of conflict
5.4.1 Organisational conflict theory: Organisations are prone to conflicts due to power struggles and mismanagement. Interpersonal conflicts, role conflict along with intergroup conflict are the conflicts which can be seen in an organisation. Ghislieri et al. (2017) stated that as per this theory, conflicts arise when employees are involved in power struggles and do not follow the instructions given by higher authorities. Due to varied functions of roles and departments, often the employees get involved in conflicts which results in poor performance of organisations. Effective coordination among employees can help organisations to understand the needs of employees and devise strategies accordingly. Decisions should be taken as per the reason of conflicts as employees involved in conflicts tend to have decreased performance. However, Gilin Oore, Leiter & LeBlanc (2015) argued that conflicts play the role of checks and balances which can help in bringing improved performance of employees. In many cases, group conflicts result in best competition. Though there can be some prodding and jeering, this can help in driving one another to perform better, producing better our outcomes for organisations.

5.4.2 Game theory: As per this theory, the conflict sources are poor organisational climate, competitive reward mechanism, denial of identities, and poor definition of responsibilities, differences in interests and values and urge for power acquisition. Robson et al. (2015) commented that the methods which are used for resolving conflicts are effective as this theory helps in formulating rules of behaviour which can optimise results. This game theory can be applied in competitive situations which involves two or more individuals who are having conflicting objectives. Game theory is that mathematical analysis that can be developed for making decisions in conflicting circumstances. Effectiveness of mediation, arbitration and mediation methods of conflict resolution are dependent on mathematical game theory. However, Arsenyan, Büyüközkan & Feyzio?lu (2015) argued that this theory does not necessarily improve effectiveness in negotiation method in resolving conflicts in those organisations that are unable to implement this method. Organisations sometimes fail to understand the causes of conflicts which results in ineffective implementation of proper dispute resolution techniques.

5.5 Weaknesses existing in recent measures for curbing and controlling conflict: In many instances, it is not possible for the parties or employees to avoid conflicts as various unpleasant situations can occur. It is inevitable for the organisations to face conflicts as various cross cultural employees work in various positions. According to , Gilin Oore, Leiter & LeBlanc (2015), top employees may want to assert their power and authority to their subordinates for making effective decisions. In addition, conflicts cannot be perceived as negative aspect of organisations as sometimes conflicts can bring best out of the employees. Halevy et al. (2014) argued that though it is advised to consult with top executives for resolving conflicts, sometimes their decisions may hamper the interests of employees. Informing of rights may not help in resolving conflicts as rights itself can become cause of conflicts for some employees. The managers may ignore conflicts of the employees as they may perceive it an inevitable aspect in organisations. Moreover, managers and employees may reinforce stereotypes regarding gender while handling conflicts.

5.6 Best measures which can help in solving issues pertaining to conflicts: HR professionals play an important role in managing and curbing conflict by meeting the needs of employees and making them understand their desired roles and responsibilities. Setting of guidelines for workplace conflict can help in understanding the reasons of conflicts. In addition, managers need to behave as mediators for resolving conflicts and giving impartial decisions. Michael-Tsabari & Weiss (2015) commented that they should not ignore conflict and help employees to regain their focus. It is required for the management to eliminate gender bias and cross cultural conflicts for better performance and productivity. Educating managers and clarifying priority can help in reducing conflicts in workplace. Therefore, three main techniques of dispute resolution are as follows

Negotiation-It results in solving of parties among themselves
Conciliation- Assistance of third parties for resolving difficulties
Adjudicative- Final results are determined by the third parties (Slawinski et al. 2017)

Thus, techniques can help in resolving and preventing conflicts without going through court procedure which involves huge costs and time.

6.0 Methodology
6.0 Methodology: Among the three types of research philosophy, this research will follow the philosophy of positivism. It is effective in this sense as the issue of this research is based on real facts and outcome is based on actual findings related to this issue. In the viewpoint of Bryman & Bell (2015), unlike realism, this philosophy does not completely base on any observation. Additionally, it does not depend on social outlook or perception of people. It has the unique way to find out facts from different existing works of literature. Avoidance of conflicts has several sub consequence that is associated with an organizational process. In finding out the sub factors it will compare and analyse the issue for accessing an outcome.

6.2 Research approach: An approach to this Conflict Management Assignment will be deductive that are based on different theories, existing concepts. As suggested by Heinrich & Riedl (2016), deductive research approach is helpful due to its freedom to generate a new concept from existing methods. Researchers will take an idea from different existing theories and developments in own style by conducting both primary and secondary research. They can gather different existing idea about conflict avoidance and bring a developed one that will be helpful to resolve issue of this Conflict Management Assignment.

Research approach in conflict management assignment.

Figure 1: Research approach (Source: Created by researcher)

6.3 Research design: Research design will be explanatory as it will not only gather and describe the findings of existing literature but also provide an explanation. Unless appropriateness of explanation and logical analysis, it will be difficult to explain the theoretical existence related to variables of this research (Jackson, 2015). As in this research, researchers will gather information and data based on the issue. Then with logical analysis and explanation, they provide potential measures that can be applied by different business ventures.

6.4 Research methods: This research will be based on a mixed methodology. As there will be both qualitative and quantitative data collection process researchers will approach with first and second-hand information. Based on the issue of this research, it is necessary to access data from workers as the type of conflict they face. On the other hand, reviewing on company websites, reports, and case scenarios is also important to understand how far conflict avoidance is effective in their work process. Additionally, it also finds out the impact of conflict on organizational work process (Palinkas et al. 2015).

6.5 Data collection type: Both qualitative and quantitative data will be collected by the researcher. As they will access primary and secondary method, it covers qualitative and quantitative data collection.

6.6 Data collection tools: An interview is the data collection tool for primary research. A Questionnaire will be provided to the employees in firms about the cause of conflict. It will gather descriptive and statistical information. Statistical data will be explained in a quantitative way and descriptive data will be analysed in a qualitative way. Quantitative data collection is helpful to access the present situation of a firm. On the other hand, statistical data will guide a venture for present and future conflict avoidance.

6.7 Sample size: 55 employees will be interviewed with questionnaires for primary research and 3-4 journal articles will be reviewed for secondary research process.

6.8 Sources of data:
6.8.1 Primary data sources: Interview with the help of a questionnaire and organizational records are the sources of gathering data. Primary data collection will be helpful in this research as human resource department can have a complete view about workers problems and issue in internal working process. Proper understanding of such issues will provide good decision making in future.

6.8.2 Secondary data sources: Researchers will review different journals, books, case study and organizational report of relevant publication to understand approaches for conflict avoidance in an organization. Different materials can reflect on data analysis part with well established guidance about research topic.

6.9 Data analysis method: In primary data analysis, researchers will follow statistical and descriptive analytical approach. As it is based on questionnaire responses, statistical representation will be helpful to give logical analysis based on collected information. On the other hand, in secondary research process thematic data analysis will be done based on collected information. It is helpful to bring appropriate focus on the issues based on which researchers proceed to explain and recommend it in further part.

6.10 Research ethics: This research will follow Privacy Act 2003 for proper using of information and collected information will not be misused by the researchers. In secondary data collection, authors and writers of existing literary sources will be acknowledged properly. It will be plagiarism free content and copyright regulation will be followed.

7.0 Anticipated outcome
This research will be successful to bring out the impact of conflict avoidance in organizations. Additionally, it will develop suggestive measures that can be used as a practical guide to avoiding conflicts in organisational process. The outcome of this research will also be helpful to manage the future researches on the similar issue of conflict avoidance measurement.

8.0 Organisation, project budget and schedule
A budget of this proposed research will be allocated which is $5000 in order to complete it within the time frame.

Budget has been specified for these reasons:

  • Literature review will be done with reviewing different textbooks, journals and articles and online sources which will cost around $1000.
  • Preparation of questionnaire and survey of employees will combine another cost of $1000.
  • Data purchase from secondary sources will cost $2000
  • Data analysis will cost around $900-$1000.

Literature review

$1000

Preparation of questionnaire and survey of employees

$1000

Data purchase from secondary sources

$2000

Data analysis

$900-$1000

Table 1: Project budget
(Source: created by researchers)

8.1 Project activity and schedule

project activity in conflict management assignments

Figure 2: timeline of the project
(Source: created by researcher)

The above time line will be followed at the time of conducting this research. Divisions of the research sections are properly segmented in according to the given times. It is helpful to complete the task within allocated time. Conflict management assignments are being prepared by our management homework help experts from top universities which let us to provide you a reliable best assignment help service.

Reference list:
Rahim, M. A. (2017). Managing conflict in organizations. Ed 2 Abingdon: Routledge. Retrieved from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.453.1220&rep=rep1&type=pdf#page=386

Epstein, M. J. (2018). Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental and economic impacts. Ed 3 Abingdon: Routledge. Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/download/35813317/Making_Sustainability_Work_EXCERPT.pdf

Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2017). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. Ed 2 US: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/download/36951459/Bolman-Deal-Reframing-Organizations.pdf

Jackson, S. L. (2015). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach. Ed 1 US: Cengage Learning. Retrieved from: https://www.bgs.org.uk/sites/default/files/content/attachment/2017-11-30/Research%20Methods%20and%20Statistics%20by%20Sherri%20L.%20Jackson.pdf

Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2015). Business research methods. Oxford University Press, USA. Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/download/28102671/researchmethodsp.pdf

Arsenyan, J., Büyüközkan, G., & Feyzio?lu, O. (2015). Modeling collaboration formation with a game theory approach. Expert Systems with Applications, 42(4), 2073-2085. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4fb4/c1a40d8c9d7cb4e102453b7d664eef005a88.pdf

Balcetis, E. (2016). Approach and avoidance as organizing structures for motivated distance perception. Emotion Review, 8(2), 115-128. Retrieved from: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1754073915586225

Ghislieri, C., Gatti, P., Molino, M., & Cortese, C. G. (2017). Work–family conflict and enrichment in nurses: between job demands, perceived organisational support and work–family backlash. Journal of nursing management, 25(1), 65-75. Retrieved from: https://iris.unito.it/retrieve/handle/2318/1621086/286566/Ghilsieri%20et%20al_JNM%202016_pre%20print.pdf

Gilin Oore, D., Leiter, M. P., & LeBlanc, D. E. (2015). Individual and organizational factors promoting successful responses to workplace conflict. Canadian Psychology/psychologie canadienne, 56(3), 301. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael_Leiter/publication/282295599_Individual_and_Organizational_ Factors_Promoting_Successful_Responses_to_Workplace_Conflict/links/5645f7a008ae451880aa2295/Individual-and-Organizational-Factors-Promoting-Successful-Responses-to-Workplace-Conflict.pdf

Halevy, N., Cohen, T. R., Chou, E. Y., Katz, J. J., & Panter, A. T. (2014). Mental models at work: Cognitive causes and consequences of conflict in organizations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(1), 92-110. Retrieved from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.842.7177&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Heinrich, L. J., & Riedl, R. (2016). Understanding the dominance and advocacy of the design-oriented research approach in the business informatics community: a history-based examination. In Enacting Research Methods in Information Systems (pp. 143-179). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Retrieved from: http://relaunch.rene-riedl.at/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/heinrich-riedl-2013-jit.pdf

Jensen, M. C. (2017). Value maximisation, stakeholder theory and the corporate objective function. In Unfolding stakeholder thinking, 12(5), 65-84. Retrieved from: http://chinadinghui.com/doc/306.pdf

Michael-Tsabari, N., & Weiss, D. (2015). Communication traps: Applying game theory to succession in family firms. Family Business Review, 28(1), 26-40. Retrieved from: https://en-coller.tau.ac.il/sites/nihul_en.tau.ac.il/files/RP_313_Weiss_0.pdf

Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J. H., McCarthy, I., & Pitt, L. (2015). Is it all a game? Understanding the principles of gamification. Business Horizons, 58(4), 411-420. Retrieved from: https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/38021108/2015_Is_it_all_a_game__BH.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1538384649&Signature=bI5C%2BObIneptWPs7T% 2BKFk9Z4WKQ%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DIs_it_all_a_game_Understanding_the_princ.pdf

Sarooghi, H., Libaers, D., & Burkemper, A. (2015). Examining the relationship between creativity and innovation: A meta-analysis of organizational, cultural, and environmental factors. Journal of business venturing, 30(5), 714-731. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Dirk_Libaers/publication/267510586_Examining_the_relationship_ between_creativity_and_innovation_A_meta-analysis_of_organizational_cultural_and_environmental_factors/links/5a69c3674585154d1544b6d1/Examining-the-relationship-between-creativity-and-innovation-A-meta-analysis-of-organizational-cultural-and-environmental-factors.pdf

Slawinski, N., Pinkse, J., Busch, T., & Banerjee, S. B. (2017). The role of short-termism and uncertainty avoidance in organizational inaction on climate change: A multi-level framework. Business & Society, 56(2), 253-282. Retrieved from: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0007650315576136

Tjosvold, D., Wong, A. S., & Feng Chen, N. Y. (2014). Constructively managing conflicts in organizations. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav., 1(1), 545-568. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Dean_Tjosvold/publication/261181240_Constructively_Managing_ Conflicts_in_Organizations/links/0c9605338da1c48f3e000000.pdf

Workman, M. (2015). Perceptions and interpretations of benign situations: a study of organisational conflict using a dual-task method. International Journal of Business Environment, 7(2), 119-136. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael_Workman/publication/265845473_Perceptions_and_ Interpretations_of_Benign_Situations_A_Study_of_Organizational_Conflict_Using_a_Dual-Task_Method/links/59cc00cf45851556e982fb65/Perceptions-and-Interpretations-of-Benign-Situations-A-Study-of-Organizational-Conflict-Using-a-Dual-Task-Method.pdf

Edward, V. (2018) Australian workers name conflict as major issue ]Online] 6, 344. Retrieved on 1st October 2018 https://www.theaustralian.com.au/careers/australian-workers-name-conflict-as-major-issue/news-story/d0a2adbc406bfea6770754f957fc5725

McLain, D. L., Kefallonitis, E., & Armani, K. (2015). Ambiguity tolerance in organizations: definitional clarification and perspectives on future research. Frontiers in psychology [ Online] 6, 344. Retrieved on 1st October 2018 Retrieved from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00344

Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 533-544. Retrieved on 1st October 2018 Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4012002/

fwc.gov.au. (2018) Fair Work Commission Retrieved on 1st October 2018 https://www.fwc.gov.au/disputes-at-work mindfulmediation.com.au (2018). Mindfulmediation.Com.Au Retrieved on 1st October 2018 Retrieved from: http://www.mindfulmediation.com.au/workplace-conflict-management/

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