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Discussion on the Concepts of System Analysis and Design

Question

Task: Students are required to analyse the weekly lecture material and create concise content analysis summaries of the theoretical concepts based on system analysis and design. Where the lab content or information contained in technical articles from the Internet or books helps to fully describe the lecture slide content, discussion of such theoretical articles or discussion of the lab material should be included in the content analysis.

Answer

Executive Summary
In business "system analysis and design" refers to the precise process of analyzing a particular business situation to unfold a better procedure of improving its position. It includes structuring an organization, improving its all-over (inner & outer) performance, people, and data to support business requirements along with information technology. The ultimate objective is to bring profit and growth through a perfect roadmap. System analysis and design typically apply software that can help all associates to achieve their given tasks with great efficiency. System analysis has to be used where something is going to be developed. As a professional system analyst, you will be the key to develop the particular software.

Background
A business is constructed and maintained through a balance of several components. But in the case of profitability and growth, it can just not be best on internal skull development and management. It needs a competitive and internal model analysis to design a perfect system. The changes in' System analysis and Design ' come with the present need along with the business condition. In this era where technology is acquiring everything and consumers are captured online, a system analyst has become one of the key members of a growing business. The need of managing a small or large group of people to improve profitability and efficiency, the requirement of developing this software takes place.

Content Analysis
Week- 1
Theoretical Discussion:
I. Important Topics Covered:

  • Introduction to Information Technology
  • Introduction to System Analysis and Design
  • System Analyst’s job
  • Information system components
  • Present business model
  • User required information
  • System Development Tools
  • System Development methods
  • Information Technology Department
  • The system analyst
  • Trends to Information Technology

II. Definitions:
Information Technology: It’s a combined system of hardware, software, and services to reduce manpower by boosting up productivity with efficiency. (Dahlstrom & Bichsel, 2014)

System Development Tools: These are the tools for making the framework and to make a graphical representation of the process for development purposes.

System Analyst: A person who interacts with people like users to maintain the organization’s internal information system by investigating, analyzing, developing, installing and evaluating the information.

Interpretations of the Contents:

  • Introduction to the Information technology
  • Introduction to the information system and its components
  • How businesses work nowadays
  • How business information system works
  • Which are actually the important information for the user
  • The actual work of a system analyst.

Outcome:
Information technology is actually the basic concept or the basic structural organization of system analysis. The software came from that. According to the business model, the process can be changed, so studying the business must be the first priority. Then the system analyst comes to do the main part. He interacts with the people outside and goes through several steps to form a perfect roadmap with an analytical report. Business information tools also help him on that matter. A skilled system analyst also needs to understand the information technology trends to interpret the conditions. Then his work will be more efficient and professional.

Week- 2
Theoretical Discussion:

I. Important Topics Covered:

  • Basic overview of CASE Tools
  • CASE terms and concepts
  • Development Environment
  • CASE Tools Trends

II. Definitions:
CASE Tools: These are the tools, a system developer uses to reduce production costs, speed up development for future maintenance or enhancements. (Osman & Chaudron, 2012)

Development Environment: It is basically a workplace for developers where they can develop the software more efficiently while reducing the cost and other troubles.

Interpretations of the Contents:

  • Basic and advanced introduction to CASE (Computer-aided System Engineering) tools.
  • CASE tools History
  • CASE terms and concepts
  • Introduction to different kinds of tools.
  • Introduction to Development environment
  • Types of Development an environment with a brief explanation
  • CASE tools trends

Outcome:
When we are building an information system, then we need a platform and some tools to make it. Those technical tools are called CASE tools and that platform, where the system is made, is called the development environment. Then there is that central storage, where all the data are saved and the system is finally developed to work on. There are different kinds of CASE tools, which are used as per the requirement. There are several factors to determine the specific one. Those are like business model, required features, budget, the scope of use, etc. Also, there are some pros and cons of every one of them. It depends on the individual who is using it. These two things are deeply integrated into each other and used together to finish the end product.

Week- 3
Theoretical Discussion:
I. Important Topics Covered:

  • A framework for IT System Development
  • Business Case
  • Evolution of System requirements
  • Overview of Feasibility
  • Setting priorities
  • Primary investigation overview

II. Definitions:
Business Case: It is basically a justification to take one or more certain projects, based on their skills and capabilities.

Feasibility: It is a kind of analysis of operations, a survey of users and a lot more to determine the project’s relevancy.

Interpretations of the Contents:

  • Introduction to business case
  • A framework for IT system development
  • Evaluation of system requirements
  • Different kinds of feasibility with a brief explanation
  • Factors and process to determine the top priorities
  • Basic and advanced Introduction to preliminary investigation

Outcome:
Before taking any proposal or project, a detailed analysis of the company’s capabilities has to be prepared. The business case determines that. That leads us to feasibility. Each kind of feasibility has its own significance. After that, the framework takes place which is also divided into parts to make the work smooth and efficient. Then we need to set a well-organized priority list. It is important in every situation. Starting from cost reduction to serving the organization, it leads the system. (Willcocks, 2015)

The last thing is the primary investigation. It consists of several steps again. The first step is to interact with project managers and users. Then we will find the specific problems. Then the scope will be determined to act. After that, an organized action will be taken against those. At last, an analytical report will be prepared also to show everything.

Week- 4
Theoretical Discussion:
I. Important Topics Covered:

• System Analysis phase
• Joint Application Development
• Rapid Application Development
• Agile Method
• Modeling tools and Techniques
• Future growth, costs, and benefits
• Fact-Finding
• Interviews
• Documentation
• Introduction to Information Management System
• Logical Modeling

II. Definitions:
System Analysis: It is basically an analytical report-making the method that is based on a company or a business’s future goals and making a new system to make it in a better way by increasing their productivity, efficiency, and profitability. (Glover & Sarma, 2017)

Joint Application Development: In this particular application development process, users participate actively throughout the procedure. That formal or informal interaction makes it better.

Rapid Application Development: This application development basically uses a group approach like JAD. It makes it cost-friendly and faster developed compared to joint application development.

Interpretations of the Contents:
• Introduction to System analysis phase
• Different kinds of application development system and their explanation
• Agile methods with brief description
• Different modeling tools and techniques
• System requirement checklist
• Fact-finding
• Interviews

Outcome:
In system analysis, we determine the business condition and its goals so that the application can be the best fit for itself. Between two of the processes, we have to choose one as per the situation and other factors. After that, the software will be on the way. With continuous prototypes, it can be improved drastically. Besides, fact-checking will help to increase the quality over time. At last, the interview sessions will make the last call. Although some of them will surely be failed. But in the end, the outcome will be the best to use.

Week- 5
Theoretical Discussion:
I. Important Topics Covered:

• Data and Process modeling tools
• Data flow diagrams
• Creating sets of data diagram
• Data dictionary
• Process description tools
• Logical vs Physical models

II. Definitions:
Data Flow Diagram: It mainly shows the movements of data into the information system, but doesn’t show the process or internal steps of moving.

Data Dictionary: Data dictionary is the mother storehouse of all the data, the system produces or receives.

Process Description Tools: These tools are like structured tables or trees which are basically used for representing the processing steps and business logic.

Logical and Physical Model: Logical model is when a system plans and a roadmap is determined. But a physical model of the system is more effective under the system, though it costs more time. (Klishin & Singer, 2021)

Interpretations of the Contents:
• Introduction to data and process modeling tools
• Introduction to data flow diagram with explanation
• Way of creating a set of data flow diagrams
• Explanation of data dictionary
• Brief to process description tools
• Logical vs Physical models of a system

Outcome:
Using a data and process modeling system, the whole system is represented in a graphical overview. Data flows and stores itself in a data dictionary to be accessed later. Process description tools come then and organize the stored data in tables and trees. However, system models are also two types, such as logical and physical. Though physical is more effective, it costs more time than the logical system.

Week- 6
Theoretical Discussion:
I. Important Topics Covered:

• Introduction to object-oriented Analysis
• Relationships among objects and classes
• Object modeling with the unified modeling language
• Organizing the object model

II. Definitions:
Object-Oriented Analysis: This analysis is actually represented by objects or shapes. The object name is stated on the top and other attributes and methods are followed.

Unified Modeling Language: Unified modeling language (UML) is a group of symbols that actually represent the whole system in a graphical overview with various components and relationships within the system. (Gu & Cao, 2012)

Object Model: Object model is also a system model, where the system is described or represented through objects.

Interpretations of the Contents:
• Basic concept of object-oriented analysis with brief points
• Different methods of object-oriented analysis
• Concepts of classes
• Relationship between objects and classes
• Brief explanation about Unified Modeling Language (UML)
• Basic concept of the object model and the way of its organization

Outcome:
The object model of a system and the object-oriented systems are actually interconnected. When a system is described by different objects, then that is called the object model of a system. And the way the analysis for that system is done, by making a graphical overview, is called object-oriented analysis.

Besides, there is a language made of some unique symbols to make it easier to understand. The whole system can be described or explained by those symbols. This is called Unified Modeling Language or UML.

Week- 8
Theoretical Discussion:
I. Important Topics Covered:

• Development Strategies Overview
• Impact of the Internet
• Outsourcing
• In-house Software development options
• The Systems Analyst’s role
• Analyzing cost and benefits
• The software acquisition process
• Completion of systems analysis tasks
• Transition to system design

II. Definitions:
Outsourcing: It is a process of transferring information systems development, operation, or maintenance to an outside organization.

In-house Software Development: Instead of purchasing, building a new software by in house developers, especially for a company’s own needs is called In-house software development.

The Software Acquisition Process: Instead of building own software, when a company or organization is outsourcing the software from an outside company or vendor, then that is called software acquisition process. (Kuorelahti, 2018)

Interpretations of the Contents:
• Development Strategies
• Impact of Internet
• Outsourcing Introduction
• In-house software development and software acquisition process
• System analyst’s role
• Analyzing cost and benefits

Outcome:
We can make software in-house, or even can outsource it. That would be faster, but the in-house one will be modified as per our needs. However, the software can analyze each and every task we want, like cost calculating and profit measuring. After entering into the era of the internet, the traditional system of incompatibility and lots of other problems have gone with this information system. It can even do a competitive analysis for us. So that, a company or an organization can move forward with a perfect roadmap of beating their competitors.

Week- 9
Theoretical Discussion:
I. Important Topics Covered:

• System Design Phase Overview
• User Interface
• Seven Habits of a successful interface designer
• Guidelines for user interface design
• Source document and form design
• Printed Output
• Technology issues
• Security and control issues
• Where do we go from here?

II. Definitions:
System Design Phase: It is the phase where the main goal is to make the whole system effective, smooth, reliable, and maintainable.

User Interface: The user interface is the landing page if the software, where the user typically lands and interact with the software and get a response from the computer. (Akhin & Tillmann, 2012)

Technology and Security Issues: When a large information system is working with thousands of people, then there is a probability of technical or privacy problems, which can be very harmful. The problems regarding those technical factors and security or privacy are called technical and security issues.

Interpretations of the Contents:
• System design phase
• User Interface
• Basic Guideline to design form, source document, and user interface
• Technology and security issues

Outcome:
A system is not only about functionality, but it's also about the user experience, and a better user interface is key for that. So, the guideline of being a great user interface and form designer is very important. Besides, the printed output is also very important, because that will be the hard copy of every sensitive document.

Even the highest features can disappoint us if there is any kind of technical issues and security issues. So that must be checked too. There are certain ways to check and correct those too.

Then the prototype part will take place for reviewing again and again. That will eventually make the software the best fit for a particular business, whether it is in-house or outsourced.

Week- 10
Theoretical Discussion:
I. Important Topics Covered:

• Data design concepts
• DBMS Components
• Web-based data design
• Data Design Terms
• Entity-relationship diagrams
• Data normalization
• Data control

II. Definitions:
DBMS: DBMS stands for the database management system. It is a system, where all the data have been saved to core storage and then is to be managed in any way you want.(Dennis & Wixom, 2011)

Web-Based Data Design: When the database is connected to the web, then any data can be removed, add, and modified. That design to do that is called web-based Data Design.

Data Design Terms: Every single field in a database has a unique entity. To make those fields properly we use keys like candidate key or foreign key. These terms of managing or developing the system are called data design terms.

Data Normalization and Control: Using tables and notes can make the database much better to use and access. That is called data normalization. On the other hand, backing up, forms protection, these are the parts of data protection to protect sensitive information.

Interpretations of the Contents:
• Introduction to data design concepts
• DBMS Components
• Web-based data design
• Data Design Terms
• Data normalization and control

Outcome:
After making a database, all the DBMS components have to be maintained to make it work in a better way. Besides, the data should be normalized through tables and other short formats to access and use smoothly.

However, the protection of data may be the most important issue here, because data is one of the most private things. So, data control is more important than anything else.

Week- 11
Theoretical Discussion:
I. Important Topics Covered:

• Architecture Checklist
• System Architecture: Then and Now
• Client/Server Designs
• The Impact of the Internet
• Ecommerce Architecture
• Network Models

II. Definitions:
Client/Server Design: The mother server, where all the data are originally stored and from where supplied, is called the server. Besides, from the client-server, that data reaches many small systems or computers, which are called client. This particular design is called Client/server design

Ecommerce Architecture: A modern architecture system, where company can offer more services and products freely and has full control over it, is called Ecommerce Architecture.

Interpretations of the contents:
• Architecture Checklist
• System Architecture: Then and Now
• Client/Server Designs
• Ecommerce Architecture
• Network Models

Outcome:
A proper architecture checklist helps to build a perfect working system for an organization. Before this, the systems were week, especially for the poor network systems like LAN. But now all the technology has improved. After introducing the cloud computing technology, the server strengths have grown too.

On other hand, eCommerce architecture has also introduced in the market and it has also increased the sales and profitability of the companies.

The information management system has to lead us to System analysis and design, which have a large impact on businesses, especially in this era of the internet. Organizations are getting benefits, along with increasing competition. The technology has also improved user experiences. Soon, these management systems will convert the manpower to technology totally and will make things faster and more efficient.

References:
Eden Dahlstrom,Jacqueline Bichsel, 2014. "ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology" (Page- 6)

J. Duncan Glover, Mulukutla S.Sarma, 2017. "Power System Analysis and Design" (Page- 1).

Vicky Ching Gu, Qing Cao, May,2012."Unified Modeling Language (UML) IT adoption — A holistic model of organizational capabilities perspective" (Page- 1)

Marat Akhin, Nikolai Tillmann, June, 2012. "Search by example in touch develop: code search made easy," (Page: 5-8)

Alan Dennis, Barbara Haley Wixom, 2011. “Systems Analysis and Design 5th edition” (Page- 14)

TopiKuorelahti, 2018. "WHAT IS BEHIND A SOFTWARE ACQUISITION PROCESS? EMPIRICAL CASE STUDY FOCUSING ON FINNISH IT SERVICE PROVIDER AND ITS POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS" (Page: 7-8)

Andrei A. Klishin, David J. Singer,February, 2021. “Avoidance, Adjacency, and Association in Distributed Systems Design" (Page- 3)

Leslie Willcocks,2015. "Information Management the Evolution of Information Systems Investments" (Page-3).

Hafeez Osman, Michel R.V. Chaudron. April, 2012. "Correctness and Completeness of CASE Tools in Reverse Engineering Source Code into UML Model" (Page- 193)

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