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Community Service Assignment: Understanding Contemporary Issues in Australia


The below questions provided in this community service assignment will enable students to demonstrate their own understanding of contemporary issues in Australia concerning social and economic inequality. Students will be able to provide their own opinions regarding each of the question topics in their answers.

Questions to be answered:

  1. What is the current Religious System in Australia?
  2. How has the Family System in Australia changes in the past 50 years?
  3. What has influenced the Education System in Australia this Century?
  4. How are the Elderly protected on Australia?

Discuss your concept of the Australian lifestyle.


Current Religious System of Australia

As per the research on community service assignment, it is stated that Australia is quite a modern country on many fronts but on other hand, its religious diversity expands with geographical expansion and various ethnic and cultural boundaries. There are several institutions within the country that play a major role in observing and identifying the cultural and religious specifications of people within the society. Most of the people in Australia are Christian which comprise 52.14 % and this is followed by people who are at least or they don't have any religion and they comprise 29.63%. The objective of family identification and drawing cultural boundaries represents the regional culture and kind of development in society that has taken place on different levels. Apart from the above two sections, there is a significant percentage of minorities such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and inadequately described religions in the amount of 2.41 %, 1.8 %, 2.5 %, and 9.57 % respectively. This shows that Australia is quite largely a culturally diversified society with a major influence of Christianity.

Among the Christians, there are different denominations such as Anglican, Catholic, Presbyterian, uniting Church, eastern orthodox, reformed, etc. Each of them has its own specific contribution to the society of Australia and showcases a particular religious influence. Among the above-mentioned denominations, Catholic and Anglican comprise 36% of the whole Australian population. Among the Christian population, 43.37 % are Catholic and 25.42 % are Anglican. Despite the majority of the population is Christian, there are other religions that also hold a significant portion such as Judaism Buddhism Hinduism and Islam and among them, Islam constitutes 3% of the total population. Buddhism is the second-largest Christian religion in Australia which accounts for 2% of the total population. 13 significant numbers of people who are either not religious or inadequately defined based on their different cultural beliefs. These populations are considered under aboriginal and Torres strait islander spirituality which have a different and holistic view of life.

Most of the population in the country is Christian but the original population or substantial historical significance is held by the people of aboriginal and Torres strait. These people signify a certain level of cultural practices and view of life that has been the foundation of Australia that was identified by its geographical expanse. In the census of 2016, about 8100 practiced the religious beliefs of the aboriginal tradition of Australia. The modernized society is largely influenced by the Christian population which was a part of the spread and conversion coming out of the USA and European countries mainly.  This constituted a development during the colonization period and instigated a huge Christian population. Currently, Australia is a secular country that has diversified religious beliefs and freedom where each group or section of the society has maintained their separate entities. But largely the country is dominated by the Christian population due to the British settlers during the colonization. There was a certain level of religious diversity in the country but not until white Australian policy was abolished in 1970. Since then, various information has taken place and made the countrywide generalized all cultural level and reformed people to avoid explicit religious identity and belief.

Change in Family System in Australia in past 50 years

Australia has undergone significant change in the last several decades and there are important decisions and policies that could be made in the timeline which have brought significant modifications in the family system of the country. There was tax reform in 1986 and policy regarding child support and spousal maintenance in 1989. These things incorporate a different set of practices which requires people to shape their mindset in accordance to the required attributes for future development. There are significant sets of categories in which changes have been observed. For instance, marriage dates in Australia have been decreasing over the last hundred years. The rate of marriages was very high during World War 2. It was about 9.3 marriages per thousand population per year which have declined from 7 in the 1980s to 5.3 in 2001. Similarly in the last hundred years, the rates of divorces have increased substantially.

Australia incorporated the 'family law act of 1975' which gave a provision for 'no fault' divorce. This law brought a spike in the number of divorces as it reached 2.45 divorces 1000 operations during 1976 which also later stabilized up to 2.5 divorces per 1000 in 1985. Since 1991, the number of divorces has gradually increased over the years. There were substantial ups and downs but the rate of divorces resides around 2 per 1000 population. Since the number of people marrying these days is decreasing and that's why people have started to live in de facto relationships. This has increased the rates of cohabitation and from 1986 to 2001 the rate of cohabitation has doubled from 5.7 % to 12.4%. It has also been found that relationships based on cohabitation are more unstable than managers. There is evidence and data that supports the fact that cohabitation bricks up within the five years of commencement.

The family system in Australia has also seen significant changes in parenting as more sole parents are found within the geographical domain. The number of sole parents increased from 1,83,200 to 3,16,400. Such demographic transformation has caused a change in family composition and influence of people from the USA, UK, Canada, and New Zealand. It is also been observed that there are more people in the direction of stepfamilies now and people are more blended in family composition. Different levels of scenarios and presented different situations for the women which have also lowered the fertility rates and people have oriented towards inhabiting smaller families. One can comprehend some key trends in Australia that has been observed in the last several decades such as extended family and multi-generation households are quite uncommon in the country. One person household has become more frequent and common throughout the country which has been stabilized since 2006. Several parameters and attributes contributed to formulating small and diverse households so the time has landed the proportions of immigrants and indigenous people.

Influence of Education System

Education helps to meet innovation and enhance productivity that has a direct impact on individuals' wellbeing, health as well as social mobility. For better implementation of future perspectives in different factors like economy, finance, social, and environment are effective to include. Besides, the school education system is one of the foundations to achieve success and future growth in an adequate manner, along with skills and knowledge development (Volckmar, 2019). Total seven factors are involved with the education system of Australia, and these are as follows:

  • Socio-economic-level
  • Training environment
  • Self-concept
  • Socio-economic characteristics
  • Circumstances
  • Parental authority
  • Health characteristics

Most of the OECD countries like Australia are mainly focusing on ECEC services for their education system and increasing better learning outcomes along with the participation of female labour sources. Some of the schools in Australia are looking for P-12, and that includes o to 5 years children and that influence better performance in future and ECEC will be effective to manage conversation of the better education system. A sectoral boundary is there in the case of the education system in Australia, and that is no longer confined and recently more blurred (Martin-Sardesai et al., 2020). A "TAFE" study is followed by the university graduates that allow 11 to 12 years students and their learning abilities. A regular basis VET program is established to manage timetables and focus on more part-time traineeships. As a result, different pathways are available in the case of TAFE, school, and university students to learn effective education and the way of managing their learning process. Moreover, by managing the education system properly, Australia can meet 10% of additional income per annum for every extra education process and activity, and total GDP will be developed by 200% in Australia in this particular regard. 

Apart from that, teacher effectiveness and their activities in the education system of Australia can manage more than 10% of the world, and that is a high performing ability in science, technology, and different business management services. This can be influenced by long term economic growth with the help of $90 billion by more than 20508 Australians among 12% richer turnover in this particular country (PWC, 2014). According to a survey of OECD Audit skills ("PIAAC") in 2013, the best innovation is found in the case of numeracy, proficiency in literacy, and technology relevant to problem-solving with the best approach (PWC, 2014). This is productive to manage the labour market and employment with a great deal along with higher wages. Those who have lower proficiency in their working levels can have a chance of unemployment, and on the basis of the education system, the entire process is managed. 

The “2012 PISA” indicates that there is a big difference between poor and good and grade students in Australia, and in the culture of Australia, socio-economic dependency is a major priority. Besides, English speaking countries like Australia are able to manage all kinds of cultural problems with the help of a proper educational system in an inadequate way. The last “PISA test” in 2009 showed a gap of 5 points between girls and boys in math, but the latest results show the gap is extended to 12 (PWC, 2014).  

Protection of Elderly

It is necessary to protect the older aged, and the "aged care act 1997" must be implemented to protect health and wealth for the children as well as young aged people (Australian Government, 2021). In such accordance, several kinds of things, including pending regulation and kinds of approval corresponding to the providers are included in this procedure. 

Aged care act

In the main law, several rules of the government are included that refers to the Funding, regulation, approval of providers, subsidies and fees, standards of quality of care, rights of people receiving care and non-compliance (Australian Government, 2021). In such circumstances, several principles are included in the law.

Aged care diversity framework

In order to secure the aged care services, the Aged care diversity framework is the main target where all people need to maintain quality care. Along with that, social, cultural, religious, languages, spiritual, psychological and medical care are inaugurated. In such circumstances, different kinds of reports are created for the aged care diversity framework. It is too complex to abuse older people when older people trust someone (Badkar et al., 2019). On the other hand, phone lines are used in order to provide several kinds of information corresponding to the potential and actual cases regarding elder abuse. A lot of settings can be created by the abuse corresponding to the home of an elderly person. In such circumstances, there are a huge amount of definitions and famous works in order to encapsulate the abuse of older people. In the case of elder abuse, there is a lack of various appropriate actions corresponding to different types of relationships where various expectations are lost.

National plan to respond to the abuse of elder Australians

A framework has been conducted for monitoring several kinds of piety corresponding to the abuse of the elder in Australia. The main aim is to enhance the understanding. Along with that, community awareness and access regarding the information should be improved. Father mod various strengthening services should be responded to by the people (Cheng et al., 2018). Furthermore, various decision-making plans regarding the future should be created. In addition, the safeguard corresponding to the vulnerable older adults' suit has to be strong.

In such accordance with the information regarding elder abuse should be accessed in order to activate the government for targeting various effective and efficient responses. Hence various National plans are created for monitoring this process, whereas various executive groups are made by senior-level representatives from Australia.

Action for elder abuse

Different types of resources and information are combined across the country of Australia in order to reduce elder abuse where elder abuse axon Australia and compass has been designed to guide different actions on the abuse of elders. In such accordance, a huge amount of survey is processed corresponding to the community of Australia where 7000 people are aged 65 in the community (Badkar et al., 2019). Hands health justice is two significant for the protection of elders in Australia. Besides, mental condition and health should be monitored for the protection of the elder in Australia, where case management and medication services are provided. Therefore, the protection of the elderly is too significant.

Concept of Australian Lifestyle

Lifestyle mainly depends on cultural adaptation, its routes and way of managing the proper environmental aspects. This also helps to measure climate, environment, resources within the country to manage the modern societal activities and ways of improving great functionalities and performances (Hill et al., 2019). Added to this, modern society is more confident and has a unique identity that results in language, diversity, architecture, bush identity, "Australianised cuisine", and sporting prowess.  The lifestyle of Australians is laidback, and sport is a major culture for an Aussie. Australian sporting culture and effectiveness of this system is managed by generations, and that helps to make a big difference in fan bases like football, cricket, rugby, tennis, and soccer, as well as many sports. The way of life for the Australian includes hard work, individual freedom, small business, sporting success, egalitarianism, and enjoyment with great natural bounties. Along with that, the economy is developing day by day, where the population has been compromised and blended with the middle class. Furthermore, there is a good space for the foreign workers in this country as temporary jobs are not lacking.

Besides, all over the world and various people want to experience living in the modern nation in Australia. Australia is a healthy country regarding different types of growth. Australia has major events in their calendar year, and some big festivals are organised by the local and cultural teams for making fun and managing lifestyle more effectively and demanding with the ultimate life. Various local people, tourists, celebrate these events, and most effectively, festivals can bring the most effective to culture and socio-economic activities, and that is maintained in the case of Australia (Sinclair et al., 2019). Tennis tournaments, cricket leagues, and football leagues are entertainment for the Australian, and many of them are struggling to manage sportsman ships in this perspective. In the case of food, Gay and Lesbian Mardi in Australia and Australia's gourmet escape are celebrated diversity and connect people in a smooth way. 

The sense of Australian humour has spawned some whimsical events and celebrates “Queensland's Outback culture”  along with the “Bouria Camel Race '' for managing the fun of Australia (Australia, 2021). This supports different events like head to “Alice Springs for Henry in Todd Regatta '' for watching the “race on the dry riverbed”. Australia is a good country for living, which is too efficient and cutting edge. Along with that, there is a good balance between work lives and social lives. Moreover, Australia is the fourth happiest country in the world, whereas the lifestyle of people is known to the people.

Reference list:

Topic 1: Education system

PWC, (2014). Australia's Education System Good, but must do better. Retrieved from chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/viewer.html?

Volckmar, N. (2019). The enduring quest for equity in education: Comparing Norway and Australia. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 63(4), 617-631. doi: 10.1080/713656653

Martin-Sardesai, A., AM, J.G. and Parker, L., 2020. The neoliberal reality of higher education in Australia: how accountingisation is corporatising knowledge. Meditari Accountancy Research.

Topic 2: Elderly

Australian Government, (2021). Aged care laws in Australia. Retrieved from

Badkar, J., Callister, P., & Williams, J. (2019). The future supply of caregivers for the elderly: should Australia and New Zealand look to the Pacific?.

Cheng, J., Xu, Z., Bambrick, H., Su, H., Tong, S., & Hu, W. (2018). Heatwave and elderly mortality: An evaluation of death burden and health costs considering short-term mortality displacement. Community service assignment Environment international, 115, 334-342.

Topic 3: Lifestyle

Australia, (2021). A HANDY GUIDE TO THE AUSTRALIAN LIFESTYLE. Retrieved from

Hill, B., Ling, M., Mishra, G., Moran, L. J., Teede, H. J., Bruce, L., & Skouteris, H. (2019). Lifestyle and psychological factors associated with pregnancy intentions: Findings from a longitudinal cohort study of Australian women. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(24), 5094. doi:10.3390/ijerph16245094

Sinclair, C., Field, S., Blake, M., & Radoslovich, H. (2019). An examination of organisational policies for healthcare and lifestyle decision?making among Australian aged care providers. Australasian journal on ageing, 38, 90-97. DOI: 10.1111/ajag.12610


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