Climate Change Case Study: A Wicked Problem To Be Managed
Case Study #2: Climate Change: A wicked problem to be managed
“Intensifying climate change will increase the future risk of conflict within countries, according to a study published in the journal Nature. The study estimates climate has influenced between 3% and 20% of armed conflict risk over the last century and that the influence will likely increase dramatically.”
You are requested to investigate the Climate Change (CC) issue as a wicked problem by applying
the knowledge you developed throughout PPMP20014. Your tasks are as follow:
What is the scope of the problem?
1- Investigate the context and the scope of CC issue as a wicked problem using all available published resources. This means you need to justify why is it a wicked problem using all
knowledge you have developed in PPMP20014. This may require you to explain the CC considering the complexity factors, ICCPM outcomes and any other complexity characteristics.
2- Define the scale of the problem through defining the causes, impacts, policies, conflict
and disagreement, any policy changing..
3- How it is managed right now, what is the main disagreement among the stakeholders
and how this leads to complexity and even chaos situations
4- What are the risks associated from the current management practices?
5- The main stakeholders involved in the CC, use a representative Stakeholder matrix.
6- Investigate the level of complexity of the CC. You can use Delphi method (refer to Week
4) or scorecard to estimate the level. This need consulting your peers to get the weights
7- Evaluate the factors contributing to the CC complexity refer to week 5 slides:
Characteristics of complex project slide
8- Draw radar diagram representing these factors and then another one mapping these
characteristics into the four main complexity types (structural, technical, temporal and
How to manage this problem?
9- If you are to manage the CC issue, you may need to propose one of the tools to do that
(refer to Chapter 9-11). This may include DSM, System approach or any other tool.
Investigate one of these tools and show how this can enhance managing the CC issue
The critical analysis on the climate change case study mentions that increasing rate of climate change has led to increase in future risks of conflicts within several countries. Climate change has triggered armed conflict between 3% to 20% risks in the last century and it is expected to increase further. The issue of climate change is a wicked problem and is investigated in the current climate change case study analysis with contribution from works of Udawatta, Zuo, Chiveralls and Zillante (2015) as well as from works of Jiazhe Sun and Yang (2016) and Whelton and Ballard (2002).
In the world of design problems there is a clear distinction between ill-structured and well-defined problem. Simon (1984) states that a problem lacking structure in some respect is an ill-defined problem such as the climate change. The current climate change case study analysis will define the complexity factors of climate change with ICCPM outcomes. Methodology adopted from complex project approaches will define scale of the problem, its management with key disagreement between varied stakeholders, level of complexity in CC using stakeholder matrix. The problem will be defined by means of its causes, policies, impacts, conflicts and disagreements with risks associated with the current policies. Then Delphi method will be used in estimating complexity levels and a radar diagram to map the key complexity related issues. The factors that further increased complexity levels of the project will be evaluated. The main outcome of this climate change case study assessment is in suggesting a tool, System approach in management of the issue of CC.
Management of complexity aspects in similar projects
Complexity aspects in CC have emerged as one of the most integral and urgent problems during this century requiring integrated and global response. An integrated approach can bring about limiting effects to climate change and in attaining sustainable development along with social equity (Hess, McDowell, & Luber, 2012). As per NASA and NOAA, 2015 was the warmest year recorded ever since 1880. Complexity aspects in CC in article by Sun and Yang (2016) was discussed by undertaking theoretical and qualitative aspects of the context. This article utilized in this climate change case study analysis undertook an approach based on social mess as well as fragmentation. The climate change case study analysis effectively discussed learning models to understand various reasons organizations engage in corporate environmental strategies with respect to CC to arrive at better solutions with regards to CC (Wilby, & Dessai, 2010).
In another waste management practices across construction projects by Udawatta, Zuo, Chiveralls and Zillante (2015), the complex project of waste management was dealt in quantitative manner with project management approaches. The article explored herein climate change case study identifies the construction industry as a major generator of solid waste hence the article aims at finding sustainable methods in manage such construction waste. This article first undertook appropriate categorization of construction waste in Australian context with relevant reports from the Australian Bureau of Statistics estimating overall landfills in the country. The climate change case study analysis then undertook pertinent literature review with focus on profit maximization as against reducing environmental impacts from construction actions. The literature also identifies the complexity of the stakeholder expectations in managing the project. The article presents the project findings in terms of quantitative analysis using descriptive statistics using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (Woodward, Kapelan, & Gouldby, 2014). The article’s findings indicate communication as an integral factor in complex projects.
In evaluation of CC as a wicked problem in an institutional context for rural water management in Ghana by FitzGibbon and Mensah a detailed application of knowledge of systems have been applied. The article describes the concept of wicked problem as mention in the climate change case study within the notion of complexity. Applying rural water management wicked problem in Ghana, an adaptive co-management ACM is proposed as an institutional approach. Climate change trends in Africa using methodical approach. Stakeholder and institutional arrangement of water management and supply is undertaken. Then the uncertainty of the complex wicked problem is analyzed. Ralph Stacy’s agreement and certainty matrix are applied in solving complex project problem is undertaken. Mess Mapping, Resolution Mapping Processes along with General Morphological Analysis and ACM is used.
Another article by Finegan analyses research methods for wicked projects. This article evaluates literature and methodologies applied for resolving wicked projects. This article focuses on systems thinking approach to be able to provide structure and collaborative response in solving such projects. Stakeholder approach in resolving wicked problems have been discussed in this paper. System dynamics modeling (SD) originally developed by Forrester (1961) as a method for managing and studying complex project is discussed (Sankaran et al., 2009). Action research and action learning is also a collaborative approach suggested in this article as proposed by Sankaran et al. (2009). Soft systems methodology (SSM) have been suggested as an interpretive approach enabling understanding of systems theory.
Previous studies view of complex projects
Various previous studies as discussed above within the climate change case study analysis depict and views complex projects according to their complexity procedures. Most studies depict their complex projects in terms of literature analysis. Most of the studies have models suggested which can be used in managing and understanding of complex projects. Such as article by Sun and Yang depicts literature analysis in handling complex projects such as CC by understanding the varied implications of these (Yousefpour et al, 2012). It evaluates the definition of complex projects by defining the wicked problem of CC in terms of environmental response. The wicked problem and linear rationality are established by understanding the uniqueness of the complexity with the diversity and its various causes. A theoretical approach was adopted in this climate change case study analysis in evaluating the wicked problem, by applying the theory of a social mess which mentions that no problem exists in complete isolation but is impacted by other issues affecting the society (Stakhiv, 2011). Then theoretical strategies to address the problem is undertaken to arrive at the given solution.
In the article by Udawatta, Zuo, Chiveralls and Zillante a research approach using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance is undertaken. This paper adopts post-hoc testing amongst PM groups on WM systems with existing regulations. A descriptive statistics approach is adopted in discussing project management approach across complex project. This article adopts a cost effective and profitable approach in resolving the complex construction projects.
In the article by FitzGibbon and Mensah explored in the context of climate change case study analysis evaluates the wicked problem of CC in management of rural water management in Ghana is analyzed using stakeholder management and other approaches. This article undertakes various analyses in evaluating wicked problem by use of ACM approach.
The article by Finegan evaluates complex problem resolving approach by means of systems thinking methodology. It makes use of system dynamics modelling (SD) and action research and action learning approach is resolving complex projects. This article suggests various contemporary methodologies in resolving complex project problems. It analyses and describes some of the most prominent tools that are used in resolving complex projects.
Benefit from this approach and gaps analysis
While there have been various approaches adopted by varied articles, the benefits from these varied approaches includes the learning of various models. Few articles have critically described the issue of CC in-depth and critical manner. Some articles have adopted approach of stakeholder analysis for understanding expectations of various stakeholder groups. The methodological models for handling complex projects have also been suggested in these articles. These models are the primary benefit arising from evaluation of peer reviewed articles. Learning of the various models for analysis of complex projects can lead to critical understanding of resolving CC wicked project as mentioned in the climate change case study (Bauer, Feichtinger, & Steurer, 2012). Learning of stakeholder analysis is also a major benefit arising from this approach.
Gaps in the approaches adopted from the article include absence of radar diagram and Delphi matrix has not been undertaken. The scale of the problem had not been analyzed as it has been expected from the current complex project, such as by exploring in a methodical manner its causes, impacts, policies, conflicts and disagreement and also any relevant policy changing reasons (Keohane, & Victor, 2011). The articles utilized to develop this climate change case study analysis report do not effectively discuss the risks associated from the current management practices, though there has been discussion undertaken in regards to stakeholder disagreement in regards to the subject. The complexity levels in these articles have not been undertaken by use of Delphi method or either scorecard estimation levels. No radar diagram representing the complexity levels mapping have been undertaken in these articles.
Previous data and related articles for climate change case study
This climate change case study will make use of qualitative data from the article by Sun and Yang to understand the scale of the problem by analyzing its causes, impacts and so on. This article used for climate change case study has effectively undertaken a broad descriptive analysis of the impact from CC by reviewing the problem at a global level. Moreover, this article evaluates the issue from its impact on the environmental aspect. This climate change case study will make use of data of qualitative nature represented by FitzGibbon and Mensah in evaluating climate change as a wicked problem in Ghana. This climate change case study will adopt stakeholder approach adopted in this paper to understand the varied relevant stakeholder group connected in the management of the wicked problem of CC. Most importantly this climate change case study will adopt systems approach as suggested by Finegan. This methodology applied to the project will enable resolving complex project problem of CC. This climate change case study will undertake some secondary analysis from research paper and data available online to understand the risks associated with CC in order to assign weights and arrive at a concrete understanding related to the project.
Framework and methodology, tools and resources
The current climate change case study is undertaken in management of the complex project of climate change, which is a wicked problem. It deals with the growing awareness regarding the group of ill-defined and complex problem set, which cannot be easily solved. This complex issue of CC discussed in the climate change case study involves changing behavior of all citizens globally. Thus, the issue of complexity arises in this project due to solving or resolving the issue across external and internal organizational boundaries, in engaging citizens and in stakeholder policy making along with its appropriate implementation. Most importantly attending to this wicked problem requires innovativeness and comprehensive solution which is modifiable on the basis of feedback. This however is challenging to traditional policy making and programme implementation approaches. Hence, it can be expected that wicked problems do not respond well to rigorous or structured tools or processes identifiable with standard project management technique.
This climate change case study analysis will be conducted by use of available qualitative data from varied articles and quantitative data available online. Then the climate change case study will adopt systems engineering and project management approach in resolving this wicked problem (Abbott, 2012). A project engineering perspective for the problem will be designed to understand key terms associated with the project and then implementation of the same by use of sound information and knowledge management technique will be undertaken. Tool taken for analysis will be radar diagram, Delphi matrix and the traditional ‘V’ diagram systems engineering process life cycle approach in management of this complex project.
Radar diagram and its use
The radar diagram is a two-dimensional chart type which will be used to plot one or greater than one series of values over multiple quantitative variables. Each variable will have its own axis which is joined in the center of the figure. The radar diagram will be used in this climate change case study to represent the various factors of the CC complex project and then mapping these characteristics against one another. The major complexity types in this CC include structural, technical, temporal and directional factors. Plotting of these factors will enable understanding the implications of one factor against the other.
Evaluating the level of complexity using Delphi method & score card
The Delphi method will be used as a forecasting process framework on the basis of results from multiple questionnaires (generally). Delphi matrix will enable managing important operations and processes in two dimensional real-valued integer matrices. Thus, this matrix will assist in determining the selected indicators/ factors of the CC complex project on the stakeholder group (Kunreuther et al, 2013). In this current climate change case study, the impact of the varied stakeholder group on the CC analysis will lead to arriving at the level of complexity for the project.
A score card for complex project will include factors/ aspects that are relevant and matters to stakeholders and will exist through the project life. Separate scores will be assigned to them understanding the factors impact on the stakeholders and then their results will be compared to understand and arrive at integral factors that create the most impact.
Work to estimate the complexity level
In order to estimate the complexity levels for each factor on the assigned project stakeholders, their levels of impact will be understood and evaluated. The CC complex project factors of structure, technical, temporal and directions on the varied group of the project stakeholders will be analyzed and then scores will be assigned to them. The complexity factors within the climate change case study will be evaluated by understanding the inherent complexity, uncertainty, number of technologies involved, rigidity of sequence, existence of overlapping phases and organizational inherent complexities. The main factors associated with the project complexity is understood by assigning particular weights to the main factors affecting the project complexity.
Getting weights to rank factors
In order to get weights to rank these factors the impact factor on the varied stakeholder group will be analyzed within this climate change case study evaluation. On the basis of high impact levels high score will be ascertained, similarly low scores will be assigned to low impact factors on certain stakeholder group. The ranks will vary from 1 till 7.
Meeting and asking to assigning scores (peers)
The scores will be assigned by meeting with peers. Each peer will be designed the role of certain stakeholder group and then he/ she will be asked to analyze the impact of CC on them. According to the level of impact identified in the climate change case study, they will put select scores on the score card. These varied scores will then be collected and put on a single matrix.
Outcomes of the research
The complex issue of CC which increased conflict risks within countries will lead to further increasing of such risks in the future. The issue of CC has taken the central place in international political agenda. CC is a global issue and is highly controversial in nature involving a variety of discipline. This wicked problem relates to ecological modernization and sustainability being connected with uncertain environment. The issue emerges to be more complex due to the interconnected political, social and cultural differences existing across various countries making the issue more complex to be attended on a global scale. Organizations frequently lack adequate environmental response. Unpredictable and inconsistent environmental actions hinder organizational capabilities in deriving from complex problems faced by them.
- Uncertainty: CC is increasing being looked at as being a wicked problem. The notion is an approach for understanding the dynamics of the proposed change with several and conflicting inputs with various possible outcomes with its solution creating variety of new problems. The concept of wicked problem arises as there is no definitive formulation, each country can formulate their problem using their own methods. While climate change formulation for a country be to attend to increasing number of hurricanes and tornados, for another country it might be to attend to increasing flooding situations, whereas for some countries the increasing sea levels might impose challenge. The issue of CC is uncertain as there are particular problems associated with resolving them. They are uncertain and vary from country to country, hence cannot easily be defined for the global problem.
- Ambiguity: The complex project of CC has no ends to the causal chains implying no stopping rule. This implies that there are a number of causes attributed to the complex issue of CC. Only defining characteristics of the complex issue of CC is its overrising importance. Presence of ambiguity with presence of emergent dynamic interfaces that are affected by significant political or external changes.
- Period of time:
- This project once implemented within time period might exceed product life cycles of technologies engaged with significant integration existing. Involving several complexities and a number of varied characteristics, there might be exceeding of time period in the project.
- Defined by effect (benefit and value) and not by solution:
- This project outcome is defined by effect such as benefit and value and not by the solution. The benefit occurring from implementing CC complex project can bring about tremendous benefits on countries which implements the project. The value that will be generated will be sustainable and long term oriented, bring several benefits to different stakeholder groups.
The several complexity factors influencing the project, apart from the above discussed characteristics provided in the climate change case study of the project are tremendous in nature. The issue of CC is a complex project as because according to ICCPM outcomes;
- Stakeholders numbers is large with different views and expectations
- The issue has associated with political and public relations pressure as organizations have to consider the political situation and existing stability in each country such as high levels of corruption in developing and under-developed countries might hinder project application
- It has associated nontechnical risks such as government change might change the focus altogether, regulation change might alter effectiveness of the issue and so on.
- There is a constant comparison and tension between product success versus project success as there is private interests as against public interests
- Competition as a weapon is used in many under-developed countries and also developing countries. As producing products that might impact adversely on the climate might be available at lower costs, which might stress their Prime Minister not to adopt such projects.
- Existing institutional practices (Agile concept) hence there might be fixed timelines within which it will not be possible for the project to be completed, hence a suitable approach needs to be adopted.
- Government and industry relations needs to be analyzed for complex project applications
- Project manager’s experience and skills (leadership) is integral to be evaluated in order to transit to complex needs of the organization.
Linking the five main complexity factors and this wicked problem context
The problem of CC has been described as a wicked problem in the segments of climate change case study as an approach to understand the dynamics associated with the major proposed change. There are various conflicting inputs and multiple outcomes possible that exists over a time period and often against one another. Moreover, this wicked problem often takes place at an interface of human and environmental interaction with features that might lead to emergence of new set of problems altogether. This problem has existing complex interrelationships between the varied environmental and social factors. Understanding the nature and scope of the complex socio-psychological and environmental problems is the integral part of the solution-finding process for this CC issue. In order to describe an issue as wicked problem, there exists a series of characteristics which differentiates this approach from other problem-solving theories. Wicked problems can be categorized with ten distinct properties. Establishing a link between the main complexity factors and wicked problem context leads to the following important and integral issues;
- Stakeholder expectations/Desirable Solution: The complexity issue of CC has many different stakeholder groups having different views and expectations. These complexity issues are as per ICCPM outcomes, as a stakeholder group from the government might have varying expectation as compared against the expectation of a stakeholder group of citizen groups. Linking it to wicked problem, it can be said that this issue does not have an exhaustive describable set or solution series. Thus, this can easily be linked with the stakeholder issue where a desirable solution might be a series and not confined to particular solution set.
- Project Success Product Success/ Good-bad solution: In complex projects there exists tension between product success and project success. As the project manager is engaged in delivery of the project within specified time period and within budget and the product manager is aimed at continuously delivery of benefits and values. This issue of CC can be linked with the wicked problem of such problem not having true-false solutions but good and bad ones. At every step in resolving the CC issue, the product manager compares good outcomes against the outcomes of project manager, this tension is every existing within such complex projects.
- Nontechnical risks/One wicked problem pointing at another: In this complex project, there is lack of acknowledging of the several nontechnical risks involved. There are several nontechnical risks associated when the project manager ascertains to apply the project. While resolving wicked problem one symptom might point at another (Berkhout, 2012). This implies resolving CC might require to bring about changes in existing policies but this in turn might lead to another wicked problem of introducing a new regulation in the country. Similarly bringing about CC might require change in public attitude which might require bringing about another pertinent change of providing certain advantages to the general public.
- Project manager skills & experience/ Problem for those resolving them: Project manager’s skills and experiences matters in applying the complex project approaches in resolving the issue. Their leadership skill matter in complex projects as such projects includes a large and varied group of stakeholders along with different expectations. Often the leader within such project does not consider their impact or effect on the project (as being pertinent stakeholder). Similarly, in wicked problems, there arises a particular problem for those that aim at resolving them, by exempting them from the right to be wrong.
- Tools for analyzing uncertainties in complex projects/ Wicked-problem multiple problem resolution: Tools for analyzing uncertainties in complex projects are explained by way of system thinking tools. As in this CC issue identified from the climate change case study there are a number of systems thinking tools that can be applied in resolving this complex issue. Similarly, in wicked-problem discrepancies is explained in numerous ways, where each explanation choice enables determining the nature of the problem resolution. For the current climate change case study resolution of wicked problem there exist numerous solutions to the problem. This can be explained with the complex system methodologies existing.
Reasonable estimate of the complexity level using the Delphi matrix
A reasonable estimate of complexity levels taking into consideration peer ranking to understand. Undertaking the various complexity factors and then assigning specific scores on it, the Delphi matrix has been prepared to understand the level of complexity influencing the project.
Table 1: Delphi Matrix for CC
Radar diagrams (showing the significance of the characteristics of the complexity and the types of complexity)
The below mentioned radar diagram depicts the significance of the characteristics of complexity and depicting types of complexity. The complexity levels are indicated by understanding impact levels of varied stakeholder groups.
Figure 1: Radar Graph for CC
List of stakeholders, and analyzing the stakeholders
This complex project involves varied types of stakeholder group when considered in the purview of global impact. Major stakeholder groups include donors-funding the project, Ministry of local government, Climate Commission, Consultants/ Contractors, NGOs, Global Climate Company Ltd, Unit Committee Members, and other allied ministries. The role of donor-funding project outlined herein climate change case study analysis includes evaluating the project and understanding their relevant impact on the project. This stakeholder group ascertains finances required for a particular project and ascertains relevant risks and budget, continuously revising it. Their interests are in completing the project within specified budget and time frame and avoiding all sorts of over-exceeding of such budget and time-frame. The ministry of local government’s role includes ascertaining relevant stakeholders who will be conducting the project and working on it. The ministry’s interests are in avoiding the consequences from this wicked problem and bring about changes to the climate to prevent adverse effects on the country.
The role of the climate commission is in determination of relevant course of action that needs to be followed by individual countries. They set standards and also develop relevant legislations that need to be followed. Their interests lie in adopting appropriate climate changes such that its adverse impacts can be reduced. Role of contractors and consultants is to abide by the climate commission rules and legislation such that it can be applied in the project. Their interests are in attaining specific objectives as designed in their projects within the regulations set. The below stakeholder matrix depicted in the climate change case study analysis signifies the treatment that stakeholders needs to be given in this particular complex issue of CC.
Keep them satisfied
o Ministry of local government
o Climate Commission
o Global Climate Company Ltd
Keep an eye (Monitor)
Keep them informed
o Consultants/ Contractors
o Governmental bodies
Figure 2: Stakeholder Analysis Matrix
As discussed in the climate change case study, the role of NGOs is in determining the adverse impacts from the issue of CC. NGOs undertake and plan various efforts to bring to the forefront the adverse impacts of CC, the wicked problem. These NGOs interests lies in the betterment of the entire society and bring better ambience in the country overall. The role of Global Climate Company Ltd is to propose a project model that can bring about designated changes and reduce impact of the wicked issue as highlighted in the climate change case study. Their interests lie in attending to the objectives ascertained by the varied stakeholder group and in accomplishing these objectives within specified budget and time period. The Unit Committee Members are responsible for the timely completion of the project and accomplishment of the project objectives.
In complex projects, it is integral to understand the challenges that hinders in developing the right solution and in delivery of stakeholders the benefits. Systems approach or system engineering can be adapted to its capability to capture client and stakeholders needs, improve processes and develop capabilities by means of articulating functional and physical outcomes from the system and in synthesizing system requirements in early phase of project life cycle (Tompkins, & Eakin, 2012). Tools for analyzing uncertainties need ascertaining approaches such as SSM tools. The benefits of systems engineering illustrated in the climate change case study analysis are that it provides a variety of processes and tools in improving the success probability and delivery of complex infrastructure and delivering better outcome for stakeholders.
Figure 3: Systems Process
A systems approach for this complex issue of CC starts with defining the problem, which is integral especially when working on large and complex projects with varied stakeholders, contractors and suppliers. This approach enables integration of varied interests in arriving at the overall solution.
Propose a framework for the management
A framework for the management of this complex issue of CC using systems approach will enable accommodating varied stakeholders’ interests. Systems engineering can lead to better innovation and allow for undertaking better decision making and making trade-offs between optimal and integrated outcomes. This approach can enable arriving at designated outcomes in a better manner and more innovative ways. The steps of systems approach examined in the context of climate change case study include identifying the problem situation in its unstructured form to deliver appropriate solution.
Future research, of course, aims to address the world's worst challenges, especially in terms of climate change and environmental sustainability. A review of recent climate change case study suggests that theoretical studies of linear solutions to climate change should be stopped, and only all countries, industry and organizations should participate and people hope to change their common interest practices. Theorists and futurists argue that climate change is regarded as a wicked problem and seems to see problems and solutions in a more dynamic and complex sense, social chaos and segregation of industry and organization. The reaction of stakeholders involved in the climate negotiations has so far been based on a limited, limited and somewhat inconsistent understanding of the issues at issue. In order to address climate change by breaking fragmented knowledge and learning to develop effective solutions to problems that make climate, social, economic, political and scientific change impossible.
Future research on climate change case study could more clearly include the role of social chaos and fragmentation of climate analysis. This can help develop innovative solutions that enable policymakers to work with organizations in developed and less developed countries. In the climate debate, the debate on specific solutions remains as of the date of future studies. In order to create a common understanding of the dynamics of climate change, this paper examines the learning model and encourages organizations to divide the problem into smaller components. These components illustrated herein climate change case study analysis can be solved through learning techniques that use explicit knowledge as an integral part of cognitive processes and are essential to gain new insights into how others see the same problem. These areas of the learning model can be a useful starting point for exploring the link between learning and fragmentation and complexity, as they can help identify environmental strategies for organizations that support climate change in types of society. Once achieved, solutions to the wicked problem of climate change can and should be implemented.
Figure 4: Summary of Systems Thinking steps
Source: (Adapted from Checkland, 1999, 163)
The above stated approaches and steps can enable resolving this wicked problem and arriving at a suitable outcome for the problem.
Conclusion and discussion
In conclusion, the wicked problem outlined in the climate change case study is difficult to solve. Addressing wicked problem will not be easy or quick and the final quality will always be predetermined. The systems thinking framework is ideal as an approach in resolving wicked problems. It provides a model for recognizing as well as in devising meaningful outcomes. The approach needs to be applied in this confused situation which incorporates organizational, human and technical aspects. In short, this approach enables group decision making approach with joint ownership of problem-solving process. It is a highly recommended approach for the scenario of climate change case study in dealing with such complex challenges in an effective manner.
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