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Discuss The Charles Darwin’s Theory Of Evolution

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Task: Research and write an essay of approximately 1000 words on a topic chosen from the list below. You may use diagrams if you feel they will add to your work but diagrams must be both relevant and fully labeled.
All source material must be listed in a bibliography in the Harvard System and be correctly cited in the text of your essay.
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• Research a topic using a range of sources.
• Select and organise relevant material to address the title.
• Structure paragraphs to develop your ideas in essay format
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• Write using suitable academic style and vocabulary.
• Construct a bibliography using the Harvard system.
• Reference a bibliography of sources to your essay.
As part of your portfolio you must submit a draft of your essay to Moodle to be checked for plagiarism. If your essay has a similarity score above 20% you must rewrite in your own words those sections that have be taken directly from source material.
1. Outline Darwin’s arguments to support his theory of evolution of species by natural selection and provide evidence to support this explanation of the diversity and unity of life on earth.

Answer

Introduction:
The proposed study is critically discussing about the Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution in detail. It is conceivable to explain and understand existence of live as the presence of the living organisms, as well as the co-existence of every living species which tends to follow the explicit laws of the nature. It is exceedingly difficult to grip the fact about how every living species is different from each other yet at the same time they have something very indispensable in common. The embryos of numerous living species are found to be remarkably similar, yet the organisms grow up forming a differing species. It is because of the varied situations in which they develop and grow which tends to modify them. Therefore, it can be stated that the diverse external circumstances of the living regulate the diversity of life (Richards 2016). The statement is well explained by Charles Darwin in his whole life of scientific research.

Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution which takes place by the means of natural selection was first formulated and explained in the Darwin's book called "On the Origin of Species" which was computed in the year 1859. It is explained as the process of life by which living species undergoes change over time which is a result of variations in their inherited physical factors or behavioural characters. These changes are observed to be allowing the living species to develop and admirably adapt to the environment they live and will help them survive and produce offspring to carry out their generation (Priest 2017).

Evolution occurred by the means of natural selection is stated to be one of the finest validated theories explained in the history of life science. The theory is supported by several evidences from different field of scientific backgrounds which includes geology, palaeontology, genetics as well as the developmental biology.

Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution based on the concept on natural selection was developed during his expedition to the Galapagos Island. There he observed 13 different species of finches in that island, with different beaks. After analyses, he found that the beaks were different due to the availability of local food in the island. The beaks went through evaluation in order to pick the food which is available in their environment. Some beaks where long and big in order to eat seeds from the cactus plants and fruits, whereas some were small which was suitable for picking seeds from the ground. Darwin noted the observation and later with association of another ornithologist examined the data. After the examination of the facts about the evolution of the beaks of the finches, Darwin summarized it as “the survival of the fittest”. Survival of the fittest well-explains that the one who reproduces successfully and adapt with the surrounding is the one who survives in the drastic nature (Morse 2019).

Well-explained diversity:
The Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution is well explained and supported by another scientific research which was based on the evolutionary history of whales. Though, it was not possible for the scientist to proof the exact appearance of the whales during the origin of life on earth, as they required the fossil of the earlier whales as an evidence to support their theory. Creationists stated that as there is no fossil of whales found therefore there was no evolutionary process that the whales would have gone through. Since 1990, the scientists were finding facts and evidences in order to proof that whales went through evolution by referring to the Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution (Liu and Chen 2018).

In the year 1994, the scientist achieved a very critical and essential part of evidence regarding their study. A group of palaeontologists discovered the fossilized remnants of Ambulocetus natans, which was an organism present during the earlier periods of life and the name suggest the meaning swimming-walking whale. The fossil of the organism stated that these species had forelimbs with fingers including small hooves but the posterior feet were found to be giant according to the general size. It was analysed that the feet were structured in order to swim inside the water as well as walk in the land, quite similar to those of seals (Wilkens and Strecker 2017).

It was analysed and studied that these organisms might have underwent evolution through the years and presently took the form of whales. They may have the same origin but evolution took place in order to survive according to the environmental changes. These organism’s movement into the water were quite similar to those of the modern whales, as the whales force themselves over the water with prevailing beats produced by the horizontal tail flukes they possess, but the Ambulocetus were found to had a whip-like tail thus, it used its legs to swim through the water. The legs provided them with most of the effective force which was required to move their body through water (Davis 2019). The evidences found during the examination of the fossilized Ambulocetus resembled that these species are like those of the modern-day whale, as they had the same origin, but evolution created differences among their features. It is like the theory of Darwin’s finches, which states the finches had same origin but evolution according to the environment changed their appearances.

Another example of the diversity and unity of life on earth which support the Darwin’s theory was found, which explains the origin of humans and their diversity through time. In the present years, the scientists have discovered several of these transitional species, which have been found to be missing for several of years or have underwent extinction. These species support and leads the world of life science further in order to support the Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution (Wilkens and Strecker 2017). Also, there are fossilized evidenced which support the evolutionary history of human beings as well. One of the evidences was found recently in the year 2018, when the scientist found a fossilized jaw and teeth. The fossil was examined to be aging up to 194,000 years of age. The fossil was found to be 50,000 years older when compared to the present-day human beings (Callaway 2018). The finding was recorded as another evidence proving that human beings also are one of the living spices that went through evolution from their origin.

Conclusion:
In order to conclude, it can be stated that, evolution is one of the important process of living species to survive the extreme adversity of the environment. The Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution stated that living organisms go through changes in order to survive according to the environment they live, which he summarized as survival of the fittest. The different field of life science have been providing several of evidences which support Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. There are still a lot of evidences which remains hidden in the form of fossils which will in the upcoming years, prove the evolutionary history of several other living species.

Bibliography:
Callaway, E., 2018. Israeli fossils are the oldest modern humans ever found outside of Africa. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution Nature, 554(7690).

Davis, R.W., 2019. Return to the Sea: The Evolution of Marine Mammals. In Marine Mammals (pp. 7-27). Springer, Cham.

Liu, Y. and Chen, Q., 2018. 150 years of Darwin’s theory of intercellular flow of hereditary information. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 19(12), pp.749-750.

Morse, H., 2019. Where Do We Come From? Is Darwin Correct?: A Philosophical and Critical Study of Darwin's Theory of “Natural Selection”. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution Routledge.

Priest, G., 2017. Charles Darwin's theory of moral sentiments: what Darwin's ethics really owes to Adam Smith. Journal of the History of Ideas, 78(4), pp.571-593.

Richards, R.J., 2016. Darwin’s theory of natural selection and its moral purpose. Debates in Nineteenth-Century European Philosophy: Essential Readings and Contemporary Responses, pp.211-225.

Wilkens, H. and Strecker, U., 2017. Evolution in the Dark.

Wilkens, H. and Strecker, U., 2017. The Role of Rudimentation in Evolution. In Evolution in the Dark (pp. 3-12). Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

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