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Cellular Network Generation Assignment


Task: Discuss existing network cellular generations (5G, 4G, 3G and 2G) within this network


Comparison of the existing cellular networks generations (5G, 4G, 3G, and 2G) in terms of:
Second Generation (2G)
The 2G Cellular Network focuses on digital systems. The second generation network system discussed in network generation assignment is one step ahead of the first generation. It provides the service with SMS. The bandwidth of 2G is 30 to 200 kbps. There is an exponential growth in value added services and users in 2G. GSM technology is used in second generation cellular network mobiles [1]. GSM provides good voice quality but has limited data facilities. Second-generation network systems also provide additional services such as text messages, voice mails, and faxes. The 2G network system uses General Packet Ratio Services (GPRS) to deliver packet switched data to introduce GSM networks. GSM offers numerous more features than the native network [2].

Third Generation (3G)
3G is focused on fulfilling the terms and conditions of the International Mobile Telecommunications 2 (IMT-2) band wireless network. In terms of IMT-1 principles, cell G cellular networks offer data rates of no less than 5 kilobytes per second. The third generation cellular network operates with a limit of 2100 Hz. The bandwidth of 3G is 15 to 20 MHz 3G gives great perfection and clarity as real communication. Third generation (3G) provides a top-down method of providing a unified, integrated, service-provider and wireless Internet. This is why mobile services can be called technology for marketers [3]. Mobile service providers use an approved spectrum that offers wireless mobile range across a wide geographical area. It provides comprehensive and seamless coverage, meaning that users are having a conversation on mobile phones while doing other things while driving. 3G supports 384 kilobytes per second to 2 megabits per second. It also offers a thin bandwidth but at a broader geographical coverage. The IMT-2000 structure serves the purpose of 3G cellular network systems.

Fourth Generation (4G)
4G is a theoretical basis and delivers high-speed wireless networks transmitting data. The fourth generation supports the full dynamic inclusive geographic range in the low-dynamic local geographic category and 100 megabits per second on a scale of 1 gigabit per second [4]. The fourth generation cellular network has a packet rate of 20 megabytes per second. Replacement of second (2G) and third generation (3G) 4th generation (4G) capacity is 100 megabytes per second, download speed. The 4G network system offers the capabilities of ITU in advanced IMT. The fourth-generation cellular network system explored in this network generation assignment is not included in the enhanced local circuit-switch telephony package; however every Internet protocol like IP telephony improves the connection. In 4G, one of us was able to pass data faster than previous cellular networks. Therefore, it is easy to transmit large amounts of data from wireless devices to the computer. Messages, contacts, and e-mails are easy to sync and provide power to members. 4G has a higher packet transmission rate, faster handoff, and wider bandwidth [5].

Fifth Generation (5G)
Fifth generation is an imminent technology. 5G technology is expected to dominate in 2020, showing many sources. The fifth-generation cellular network is said to be faster than the current 4G provides. 5G will have defined modulation schemes and terminals with radios and recent-control outlines that will be accessed over the Internet [6]. Progress has been made on the consumer terminal as an addition to the fifth generation cellular network. 5G terminals will be able to access various wireless devices at the same time and syndicate different streams from different sources. In the fifth-generation cellular network system, every network will also be answerable for operator-agility management, while terminal will be responsible for the final option among various mobile and wireless network access network suppliers for any service. This option will be depends on extensive middleware from mobile devices.

Explore the architecture of a 5G network in this network generation assignment
5G's architecture is very advance; its network components as well as several terminals have also been upgraded significantly to afford innovative situation. Likewise, service provider can implement advance technology to simply adopt VAS. But, upgradability is depends on cognitive radio technology that includes the device's ability to detect geographic location, as well as various notable features such as weather, temperature, and so on [7]. Cognitive radio technology acts as transceiver that may capture as well as react to radio sensibly. Signal in its operating environment. Further, it immediately isolates the changes in its environment moreover hence responds accordingly to providing continuous quality service.

Architecture of 5G
As shown in image below, system model of 5G is an IP depend model designed entirely for wireless moreover mobile networks. A system comprising the main customer’s terminal moreover later some independent as well as autonomous radio access technologies. Every radio technology is considering an IP connect for the outside the world of internet. That is, a session between a client somewhere applications and a server somewhere on Internet [8]. Additionally, the packets must be set according to clients given policies (as shown in image below) to create accessible routes.

The Master Core Technology
As shown in Figure 5 of network generation assignment, the 5G MasterCore is the convergence points for the other technologies, which have their personal impact on the presented wireless networks. In particular, its design allows MasterCore to operate in parallel multimode with all the IP network modes as well as 5G network modes. In this form, it manages all the network technologies of the RANs moreover DATs [9]. Technology is consistent and manage all innovative deployments (depends on 5G), making it more effectual, less complex and powerful.

Network Generation Assignment

Surprisingly, a few service modes can be open under the 5G innovative Deployment mode as WCSM. WCSM is wonderful elements of this technology; Such as, if professor wrote on a whiteboard in country - it could be display on a white board in some part of world other than video and conversation [10]. Further, a new service may be simply added throughout the parallel multimode services.

Identify and analyze the 5G attacks on the access and core networks
A link between a mobile device and the Internet that acts as a gateway botnet road between the mobile device and the Internet. This is a major threat to the mobile system due to the availability of many infected mobile devices [11]. There are numerous potential threats caused by the mobile botnet. Furthermore, BotNet causes DDoS / DOS, BotNet can find the fish in the bots and give it to the Botmaster. There are several ways to transmit to a mobile device via Bluetooth, SMS botnet, email files, insecure network services and malware. SMS is the most common way of 5G attacks because it is widely used. There are numerous ways to send SMS at low cost. That is, through web platforms that offers unlimited messaging services.

Privacy and security discussed in this network generation assignment are the cornerstones for the 5G to be the platform of networks and societies. Cellular systems provide a vast, reliable ecosystem, pioneering to create security solutions for public communication - 5G will bring new needs because of new business or trust models, innovative service delivery model, and evolving threat landscape as well as increase concern for a privacy. Standardization and Research has begun in a lot of technology areas of the fundamental significant for 5G (for example IoT and Cloud) [12]. These efforts have attained many degrees of the maturity, though definition of a 5Gp mobile network has not yet reach the standardization phases in 3GP. The evolutions of the LTE are an important part of a 5G. But, evolution of the all parts of 5G network, for example the management and core system, will cover all protocol levels, from radio to application. As an outcome, there is the potential for security everywhere.

Present 4G cellular system provides a high stage of safety and reliability for operators and users. GSM systems first performed standardized, built-in safety functions, which were later developed throughout the 3G or now 4G network. Safety designs of past and present systems have also provided the platform of the undisputed socio-economic success [1], with the international mobile subscription exceeding billions; 5G introduces a lot of new aspects that can need addressing the following significant questions:

Are there basically new safety needs or if so, how to identify them?
Could 5G Security be the carbon copy of a 4G security?
Are last design practices still valid?

Highlights from the Next NGMN and the basic challenges in 5G are follows as:

Flash Network Traffic: Number of the End-User Equipment moreover New Items (IoT). Safety of the radio interface: Radio interface encryption keys are sent from unsafe channels. Plane user aircraft integrity [4]. There is no cryptographic integrity safety for the data plane users.

Mandatory security in network: Services-driven constraint on safety architecture that can provide alternative use for safety measures.

Roaming securities: User-safety parameter is not updated from single operator network to other with roaming, leading to a compromise with roaming security [5].

Denial of the service on infrastructure (DoS) attacks: visible character of the network control component as well as unencrypted control channel.

Roaming securities: User-safety parameter is not updated from single operator network to other with roaming, leading to a compromise with roaming security [5]. Denial of the service on infrastructure (DoS) attacks: visible character of the network control component as well as unencrypted control channel. Sign Signaling Storms: Distribute control systems that require coordination, for example Non-access Stratum stage of Third Generation Partnership Project protocol.

End DOS attack on the end-user devices: There are no safety measures for conference data on user devices, applications and operating systems [6].

Identify and analyze the issue related to 5G network coverage? What is a solution to address this limitation?
3GPP Working Group is involved actively in defining SA WG3 privacy and security needs and specifying safety architectures moreover protocols for the 5G. Open Networking Foundation (ONF) is dedicated to accelerating the adoption of SDNs moreover publishes technical elements, including NFVs and features for technology security. Following are the principles of 5G design described by the NGMN beyond the Radio FCC: Creating a general core moreover simple ad operation moreover management by adopting new computing as well as networking technologies [7]. That is why we are focusing on security of the technologies that NGMNs e.g. will describe mobile clouds, SDNs and NFVs as well as communication links utilized by and among these technologies. Because of growing concern for privacy of user we have highlighted probable privacy challenges. In this part of network generation assignment we highlight the security measure for security challenges describe in the last section. Challenges of ash network traffic C can be also solved by addition of the new resources and increasing the helpfulness of present systems with innovative technologies. We also believe that innovative technologies for example NFV and SDN can resolve these challenges at a cost. SDN has ability to enable run-time processing, e.g. Bandwidth, assignments to specific parts of network as needed. In the SDN, whether the traffic-C level rises, the controller can collect network statistics from the network device via a south-bound API. The Security of the radio interface key is still challenge, which requires the safe exchange of encrypted keys such as HIP based scheme in. Likewise [8], the integrity of a user's aircraft can be attained through end-to-end encryption technology]. The solution to DOS attacks and saturation attacks on the network control parts is presented in following sections.

In conclusion, it is simple to think of a 5G network, mainly because of quantitative developments like last transitions, for example higher bitrates, lower latency or devices. However this is not a case: 5G safety will be also qualitative leaps to meet demands of networked safety [2]. 5G will also connect the critical infrastructures that requirement more safety to make sure not only necessary infrastructure however also the security of the entire community. Such as, safety breach in online supply system of electricity could be catastrophic for the all electrical as well as electronic system that depends on society. Likewise, we understand through this network generation assignment that the data is a serious shame, but what if serious data is corrupted while transmitting through a 5G network? Hence, it’s crucial to highlight and investigate the key security challenge in 5G network, and to look at possible solutions that may lead to safe 5G systems [3].

Reference List
[1]D. Das and D. Das, "Efficient UE mobility in multi-RAT cellular networks using SDN", Wireless Networks, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 255-267, 2017. Available: 10.1007/s11276-017-1555-5.

[2]J. Zhang, "Book review- 5G network architecture", China Communications, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 297-298, 2016. Available: 10.1109/cc.2016.7897551.

[3]Y. Liu, X. Shi, S. He and Z. Shi, "Prospective Positioning Architecture and Technologies in 5G Networks", IEEE Network, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 115-121, 2017. Available: 10.1109/mnet.2017.1700066.

[4]H. Droste et al., "An adaptive 5G multiservice and multitenant radio access network architecture", Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1262-1270, 2016. network generation assignment. Available: 10.1002/ett.3087.

[5]A. Gupta and R. Jha, "A Survey of 5G Network: Architecture and Emerging Technologies", IEEE Access, vol. 3, pp. 1206-1232, 2015. Available: 10.1109/access.2015.2461602.

[6]H. Wang, S. Chen, H. Xu, M. Ai and Y. Shi, "SoftNet: A software defined decentralized mobile network architecture toward 5G", IEEE Network, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 16-22, 2015. Available: 10.1109/mnet.2015.7064898.

[7]A. Braeken, M. Liyanage, P. Kumar and J. Murphy, "Novel 5G Authentication Protocol to Improve the Resistance Against Active Attacks and Malicious Serving Networks", IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 64040-64052, 2019. Available: 10.1109/access.2019.2914941.

[8]I. Baig, "A Precoding-Based Multicarrier Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Scheme for 5G Cellular Networks", IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 19233-19238, 2017. Available: 10.1109/access.2017.2752804.

[9]S. Vural, N. Wang, P. Bucknell, G. Foster, R. Tafazolli and J. Muller, "Dynamic Preamble Subset Allocation for RAN Slicing in 5G Networks", IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 13015-13032, 2018. Available: 10.1109/access.2018.2800661.

[10]F. Yaseen and H. Al-Raweshidy, "Smart Virtualization Packets Forwarding During Handover for Beyond 5G Networks", IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 65766-65780, 2019. Available: 10.1109/access.2019.2915268.

[11]A. Imran and A. Zoha, "Challenges in 5G: how to empower SON with big data for enabling 5G", IEEE Network, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 27-33, 2014. Available: 10.1109/mnet.2014.6963801.

[12]M. Rubas, M. Kannan and M. Gandhimathi, network generation assignment "Cluster Based Resource Allocation for CoMP MU-MIMO 5G Network", International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, vol. -2, no. -4, pp. 1037-1043, 2018. Available: 10.31142/ijtsrd14188.

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