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Case study assignment on SGG & Risk Management


1. What are available estimation techniques? Define, compare and contrast at least four different methods including bottom-up estimate?
2. When should the bottom-up estimate be used? What project documents are required for ? 3.What factors impact the quality of a bottom-up estimate? Discuss at least four factors – 300 words.


Case 1 of case study assignment- SGG (Software Guru Group) is a private company for developing software applications. The clients of the company were always happy with the performance of SGG and never paid much attention to the cost of developing the applications. The clients used to pay the company based on the rough estimate of the project. Some days later, the company went public and modified with many employee changes. The new client managers asked the SG Group to provide the accurate project cost instead of the rough estimated as they did in the previous projects. The managers of the group were unable to create an accurate cost and were forced out. The main goal of this case study assignmentis to learn about the:

  • Available estimation techniques with the definition, comparison and contrast by using different types of methods.
  • Significance of the "bottom-up" estimate method with its possible area of application and the different factors that could affect the method of project estimation.

Case 2 of case study assignment-Red-Gate technology is trying to resolve the computer failure issues throughout a meeting. The company needs to upgrade the tools that are required for improving imaging and wafer transfer. As for Red-Gate, it is the first-time upgrade, so the team wants to gather more knowledge from it to perform the next upgrades efficiently. Due to the unexpected problem, the team is preparing for mitigating the risk. On the other hand, IEM is a high-tech organization that produces ion and microscopes with customization options provided to the customers. To increase customer satisfaction, IEM is upgrading the tools to improve the image and wafer transfer systems. The main goal of this project is:

  • Identifying and discussing the risk management processes per PMBOK
  • Sorting out the faults of the company to identify the risk

Proposals that will help the team to recover from this problem identified in the case study assignment.
Case 1
1. Discussion of Estimation Techniques.
1.1 Defining the Four Estimation Techniques
The four estimation techniques are listed below: -
a. Expert Judgement
The factors that give the information related to the account and provide knowledge regarding estimation. The expert does the judgement for modifying the cost (Hanea, et al., 2017). The project cost has been taken into account for discussing the factors related to cost. The SGG group has no such methods for cost estimation, and thus they failed to present the proof.

b. Analogous Estimating Herein case study assignment, in this method, the cost of similar projects is compared, and then the estimation is drawn. The data of previous projects have been used to calculate the cost of the Projects (Shah, et al., 2020). SGG group does not use any such methods for estimation.

c. Parametric Estimating
In this cost estimation technique, statistical modeling has been used. The data of the key “cost drivers” is used for calculation in the Project (Belaïd, et al., 2019). SGG group dies not to have any such estimation methods to calculate the cost estimation.

d. Bottom-Up
The individual module of the Project has been calculated, and then it sums up for final calculation (Cheng, et al., 2020). As mentioned in the case study assignment, it is an accurate way to calculate the cost estimation and thus used by many organizations.

1.2 Comparing and Contrasting Estimation Techniques

Expert Judgement

Analogous Estimating

Parametric Estimating


It is not accurate as the method is not adequately granulated.

It uses historical data that is entirely biased; thus, the correct estimation cannot be calculated.

Estimation is done using several parameters and thus contain biased. It is not acceptable for estimation.

The estimation is done in modules and sums up to the final calculation. It is the best way of cost estimation (Kondylakis, et al., 2020).

2. Explanation of the Bottom-Up Estimate
2.1 Use of Bottom-Up Estimate

Bottom-Up Estimation Techniques needs to use after the planning the Project Schedule. The reason behind this is that cost estimation is done after it gets scheduled. Thus, the modules can be calculated after the plan is made and divided into sub-tasks. Bottom-Up Estimation Techniques use the granulated method for deriving the correct result regarding the cost estimation of the Project (Mehrizi, et al., 2019). It is a logical process for calculating Project cost.

2.2 Requirements of the Project Documents in Bottom-Up
Bottom-Up Estimation Process consists of several projects documents that need to be taken to count for calculating the Project cost. The documents are listed below within the case study assignment: -

a. Project Charter
Project Charter contains the budget of the Project, and thus, it is an essential document of the Project calculation. The Project Charter contains the proper planning of the Project. SGG group needs to follow a charter for estimation of the Project. The charter is the proof of the Project and can be discussed with the stakeholders for verification. Thus, it must be used as the essential document.

b. Communication Plan of the Project
The Project needs a communication plan between the stakeholders. Thus, it needs to be used in the cost estimation of the Project. The Project outlined in the case study assignment must be discussed with all the stakeholders in the SGG group. Then the cost estimation must be made for getting a proper result.

c. Project Schedule
The Project schedule contains the “Work Breakdown Structure” that needs to be documented while planning the cost estimation. Thus, it must be used as an essential document for planning the estimation. It will provide useful information to the cost estimation process. SGG group must use “Project Schedule” for bottom-up cost estimation.

3. What are the factors of the bottom-up estimate mentioned in the case study assignment?
The four factors that affect the quality of the “Bottom-Up” Estimation are listed below within this case study assignment: -

a. Activities in the Project
SGG Group has now decided to calculate the cost of their projects accurately so that accurate results can be extracted. Thus, the activities need to be planned in an accurate way that helps to make the correct estimation (Kondylakis, et al., 2020). The estimation of the Project highly depends on activities as the estimation is made based on the processes of Project.

b. Time allocation for cost estimation
The time must be allocated based on the activities of the Project. SGG Group has to allocate proper time regarding the activities. It will help to make cost estimation easier for each of the Projects modules (Kondylakis, et al., 2020). Thus, the accurate result can be derived from the “Bottom-Up” Estimation Technique.

c. Project value
This factor has a higher level of impact on the bottom-up estimate as the requirements are high for this factor. As the process is longer, it also takes a long time to identify each component of the project. In this process, the accuracy is achieved as each of the components are individually estimated, but it also increases the duration of the project and the project cost to maintain perfection and accuracy.

d. Work experience of the project manager
As the process of the bottom-up estimate is complicated; the experience of the project manager must meet the level of standard to apply the method within the project. In this case, the project manager must have the capabilities to handle the processes that are required to obtain accurate estimates using the bottom-up method. Moreover, the experience of the project manager implies a stronger co-relation that is a significant factor for affecting the bottom-up estimate.

Case 2of case study assignment
Q4. ‘Risk Management Processes’ According to “PMBOK”

The ‘Risk Management Processes’ has been implemented in the ‘information systems’ (IS) according to the “PMBOK” to improve the performance of the project management and assess the risks effectively (Varajão, et al., 2017). It is also acting as quality maintenance in a production environment. The 'risk management' according to the "PMBOK" can be achieved in five steps as illustrated in the case study assignment.

Identification and Analyzation of the Risks Measurement of the risks according to the ‘techniques’ Selection of appropriate ‘technique’ to mitigate the risk Implementation of the ‘techniques’ to resolve the risks ‘Risk’ mitigation process monitoring

The constant monitoring process and project management can help in identifying potential risks. The risks can be categorized into different alerts – high, low and medium. The 'risk management' process in identifying and measuring the ‘risks’ will help in completing the project (Kie?bus & Karpisz, 2019).

The primary types of ‘risk’ handling techniques are – avoiding the risks, plan for mitigation, transferring the risk to other areas, and accept the risk. It will help in establishing a situation for taking decisions in a large- or small-scale system from the ‘IS’ background (Pasha, et al., 2018).

The selection of appropriate 'risk management' technique is related to the intensity of the identified risks. It is essential to plan long-term results to avoid any further cause or effects from the existing issues and risks. The complexity of the 'IT' infrastructure causes potential risks. It is dynamic with the engagement of systems, humans and network objectives (Tupa, et al., 2017). The implementation of appropriate ‘risk management’ technique will improve the infrastructure, technology and management processes. Monitoring the whole 'risk management' and implementation process is essential. It will help in understanding the improvement factors to sustain the process in future. The surveillance of the processes will lead the management to identify beneficial techniques. The monitoring process will also help in identifying new potential risks in the organization.

Q5. Identification of the Issues from the Risk Identification Process of the Case
1. No Documented Information from the Previous ‘System Engineer’ (SE) Related to ‘Tool Improvement’ Process

The case study assignmenthas showcased that the former 'System Engineer' of the organization, Steve Huggins is very familiar and expert with the current 'improvement' project tools. He had left the organization without documenting the system processes, which makes the new replacement miserable about the new system and processes. It will be difficult for the team to understand the risks related to the system that causes the 'blue screen' problem and other issues without understanding the whole mechanism. The initial testing process was not long-term, which make the whole team conduct the 'implementation plan' from the start. The "IEM" is a successful company which needs a more systematic way to conduct their processes.

2. The New Computer Design is not compatibleenough with the New SE
The new 'System Engineer' is frustrated about the new computer system. It is a new design and very underexplored among the 'production industry'. In the 'risk plan' table, it has mentioned in the case study assignment that the company needs to engage expertise to understand the application of the new system. However, it will delay the risk identification process for a long time. The organizations from the 'IT' sector needs to implement "Design and Engineering Methodology for Organization" (DEMO) to grasping the experience with the new system to make the production process stable (Yahia, et al., 2017).

3. Lack in Coordination among the ‘Core Team’ Members and No Development Plan from the ‘Technical Support Group’ (TSG)
The ‘Project Manager’ is unaware of the experience of the engineers with the new system. The organization has received its 'risk plan' from the 'Technical Support Group' (TSG), which is insufficient in identifying the issues effectively. The engineers at the organization need to get familiar with the system. The ‘Program Manager’ and ‘Technical Support Engineer’ did not know about the full ‘implementation’ plan.

Q6. ‘Response Strategy’ for the Next Step in the Case to Recover
1. Maintain the Project Schedule and Engage Appropriate Supplier to Complete the Project on-time

As per the investigation on case study assignment, the 'Field Service Engineer' has called a 'level 4' meeting to solve the issues related to the tool up-gradation for 'imaging' and 'wafer transfer'. The demanding work schedule makes the company supplier unable to deliver the resources on time. It is better to engage expertise at the 'supply-chain' to smooth the process. The sustainable ‘supply-chain’ process will help the company to meet its deadline.

2. Document Everything Related to the Systems Regularly
The company is facing significant difficulty with the new 'computer system' after the former 'System Engineer' left the organization. He has left the job without documenting any prior information related to the ‘system design’. It is needed to document everything for the other members of the organization to continue the work without any interruption or delay.

3. Engage Experienced Team Member to make them Comfortable with the New Devices
The new ‘System Engineer’ in the company is new to the technology that is used by the company and unable to present ‘risk plan’ to the project and program manager. An experienced professional would analyze the existing issues and present ‘risk plan’ from their previous experience.

4. Regular Interaction Among the ‘Core Team’ Members
The conversation among the ‘core team’ members during the meeting of the ‘risk plan’ reflects that there is no coordination between them. The ‘program manager’ and ‘technical support engineer’ have not got any information related to the ‘risk plan’. The ‘project manager’ did not make any ‘long-term’ plan for ‘reliability test’ of the system or have developed any plan from the ‘technical support group’. It makes the other member from the ‘core team’ to conduct the whole plan again for which they are not prepared.

Case 1 of this case study assignmentis focusing on the estimate problems that the SGG (Software Guru Groups) are facing as the organization was changed from private to public. In this part of the case study assignment, the available estimation techniques have been discussed that are required for the SG Group as many of the managers are forced out from the company. This part of the project also clears the definition and comparison, coupled with contrasting the various estimation methods that will improve client satisfaction by providing accurate estimates. The bottom-up estimation method also cleared in part, related to the present scenario. Moreover, the application of bottom-up estimate also been briefed in this part with the specification of the project documents. The different factors are also identified that could affect the bottom-up estimate quality.

Case 2 of this case study assignmentfocuses on the Red-Gate and IEM company who are upgrading the tools for imaging and wafer transfer improvement. This part of the project discussed the various risk factors that the companies were facing as they are upgrading the tools for the first time.

In this part of case study assignment, the risk management processes as per the PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) has been identified and discussed. The mistakes the company did for identifying the risk issues also identified and cleared regarding the present scenario. Finally, the proposal has been represented that includes the steps that will overcome the issues and will recover the team from this problem.

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Cheng, B. et al., 2020. HigherHRNet: Scale-Aware Representation Learning for Bottom-Up Human Pose Estimation. s.l., s.n., pp. 5386-5395.

Hanea, A. M. et al., 2017. I nvestigate D iscuss E stimate A ggregate for structured expert judgement. International Journal of Forecasting, 33(1), pp. 267-279.

Kie?bus, A. & Karpisz, D., 2019. Risk management as a process security tool. System Safety: Human-Technical Facility-Environment, 1(1), pp. 234-239.

Kondylakis, H., Dayan, N., Zoumpatianos, K. & Palpanas, T., 2020. Coconut: A scalable bottom-up approach for building data series indexes. arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.13713.

Mehrizi, R. et al., 2019. Predicting 3-D lower back joint load in lifting: A deep pose estimation approach. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 49(1), pp. 85-94.

Pasha, M., Qaiser, G. & Pasha, U., 2018. A critical analysis of software risk management techniques in large scale systems. IEEE Access, Volume 6, pp. 12412-12424.

Shah, M. A. et al., 2020. Ensembling Artificial Bee Colony With Analogy-Based Estimation to Improve Software Development Effort Prediction. IEEE Access, Volume 8, pp. 58402-58415.

Tupa, J., Simota, J. & Steiner, F., 2017. Aspects of risk management implementation for Industry 4.0. Procedia Manufacturing, Volume 11, pp. 1223-1230.

Varajão, J., Colomo-Palacios, R. & Silva, H., 2017. ISO 21500: 2012 and PMBoK 5 processes in information systems project management. Computer Standards & Interfaces, Volume 50, pp. 216-222.

Yahia, Z., Iijima, J., Harraz, N. A. & Eltawil, A. B., 2017. A Design and Engineering Methodology for Organization-based simulation model for operating room scheduling problems.Case study assignmentSimulation, 93(5), pp. 363-378.

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