Task: Discuss bullying and its effects. You may choose to focus on the effects of bullying on children or adolescents.
There are incidents of increasing violence and aggression in the school that is grabbing attention of educators, scientists and policy maker. Bullying is a repeated and unwanted behaviour such as hostility and interactional attack on others perpetrated by individuals or groups. Bullying may be physically or emotionally harmful behaviour that includes kicking, hitting, making offensive comments, sending degrading or offensive messages, taunting, and mocking (Evans et al., 2018). The aim of this bullying effect essay is to discuss bullying and its effects on adolescents. Bullying effect essay has been a part of social behaviour and practiced across the world. Bullying can have both short and long-term effects on the victims (Dane et al., 2017). It can begin as early as preschool where bullies may harm the victims and laugh afterwards. Such behaviour may cause fear, anxiety and nervousness in young children. Not only the adolescents who are bullied suffer from physical and psychological problems, but bullies also run the same risk (Grellier & Goerke, 2018).
One of the most common effects of bullying on adolescents is depression and anxiety. Not to be mentioned, the adolescents who are bullied regularly can fall into depression. Adolescent bullying involves verbal and physical bullying. The physical bullying involves pushing, hitting and kicking (Horner, Asher & Fireman, 2015). Verbal bullying is name-calling and teasing with an intention to hurt. Not only physical and verbal bullying, but with the advancement of technology, electronic bullying or cyber bullying has become a popular thing among adolescents (Evans et al., 2018). The boys and girls respond to different ways in bullying. It is found that boys are more involved in physical or verbal bullying. It is also interesting to note that girls usually involve in social exclusion or spread rumors about the individuals as their bullying tactics (Grellier & Goerke, 2018).
The studies have found that the adolescents develop a psychiatric disorder at a later stage causing low self-esteem, poor school performance, poor eating and sleeping habits, and increased risk of suicide. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Department of Education recognizes bullying as a significant public concern (Horner, Asher & Fireman, 2015). There is no single theory that cannot be used to summarize the cause of bullying. However, one of the lifetime effects of bullying is agoraphobia (Grellier & Goerke, 2018). The adolescents have been known to have high level of general and comorbid anxiety symptoms. The adolescents do not find it easy to deal with the insults. The adolescents find it quite difficult to eat properly. Knowing that they will have to go through the same humiliation the following day, they find it difficult to sleep. It is often noted that the adolescents being bullied spend lesser time with their siblings and parents. These kids are going through such mental stress and disappointment that they refrain themselves from mingling with others (Evans et al., 2018).
Adolescents usually have hobbies like painting, dancing and singing. The bullied adolescents eventually lose interest in their favourite activities and hobbies. They tend to think about the irrational behaviour they undergo the entire time. The parents need to take the hint when they see serious changes in behaviour of the adolescents. Some other signs are that they become violent with others. The anti-bullying programs can be adapted for a wide range of settings, including middle schools, high schools, universities, tribal communities, and juvenile justice centers (Grellier & Goerke, 2018).
Bullying has become one of the biggest problems in today’s world. Cyber bullying involves threatening and sending messages and emails, other form of intimidation or posting derogatory comments about a person on the internet. Cyber bullying has become an international public health concern. The victims or perpetrators of bullying often have been found to get influenced to substance use, delinquent behaviour and increased aggression. It is important to note that cyberbullying has resulted in loneliness from the adolescents peers and parents. The targets of cyberbullying reported in relationship problems, more empathy and emotional and lower school attachment (Dane et al., 2017).
Cyberbullying has been studied in greater detail. The results of the research have revealed that the targets of cyberbullying has caused the victim to think and even attempt to suicide. The adolescents’ substance use and violent behaviour partially mediated the relationship between cyberbullying and suicidal behaviour, such that increased substance use and involvement in physical violence predicted increased adolescent suicidal behaviour related to cyberbullying (Dane et al., 2017). It has been found that the adolescents are participating in binge drinking and using marijuana at school. They have also found to carry weapons at school. The physical effects of cyberbullying has known to have psychomatic difficulties that involves stomach aches, lack of appetite, difficulty in sleeping and others (Evans et al., 2018).
Bullying not just causes problems among the adolescents being bullied. There are a lot of problems caused among the adolescents’ perpetrators. Cyberbullying perpetration has been related to adolescents’ decreased level of prosocial behaviour, self-efficacy and safety at school. The perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to justify their destructive behaviour as not harsh. They tend to believe and make people around them believe that they do not bother their victims much. The perpetrators are known to possess negative emotions such as anger, fear, embarrassment, and sadness. There are some cases when the adolescents play the role of both victims as well as perpetrators. It is reported that such adolescents experienced the most adverse health outcome, both physically and psychologically. There is even a higher level of depression, conduct problems and substance use (Quinn et al., 2016).
Effective prevention is necessary as bullying is becoming a major global problem. There are a few studies that examined how social support can help mitigate the impact of bullying on adolescent health. Some protective factors such as social network and parental influence can decrease the effects of bullying. Higher the involvement and influence of the parents, lesser shall be the effects of bullying. The bullied adolescents are found to be unpopular in school as they are not able to put up because of their low self-esteem (Evans et al., 2018). It is recommended that heath care professionals and educators must work with the adolescents and give them a warm and nurturing environment. The schools may run anti-bullying programs in which they must intend to achieve better peer relations and prevent the development of new bullying problems. It is important to form peer relationships (Quinn et al., 2016). The educational institutions must take a step forward in addressing the harmful effects of bullying through raising awareness. It is crucial for the mentors and caring adults to reach out to the adolescents and mitigate the negative effects of bullying. The bullying prevention and intervention programs must be designed in a manner that targets all grade levels (Sekol & Farrington, 2016).
There is considerable work to be done and challenges that need to be faced to eliminate bullying and its consequences. Bullying has become one of the biggest problems in today’s world. Not only the adolescents who are bullied suffer from physical and psychological problems, but bullies also run the same risk. The boys and girls respond to different ways in bullying effect essay (Quinn et al., 2016). The parents need to take the hint when they see serious changes in behaviour of the adolescents. This bullying effect essay has found that the adolescents develop a psychiatric disorder at a later stage causing low self-esteem, poor school performance, poor eating and sleeping habits, and increased risk of suicide. The perpetrators are known to possess negative emotions such as anger, fear, embarrassment, and sadness. There is no doubt that friendships and supportive parenting play a crucial role for understanding adolescent bullying (Sekol & Farrington, 2016).
Dane, A. V., Marini, Z. A., Volk, A. A., & Vaillancourt, T. (2017). Physical and relational bullying and victimization: Differential relations with adolescent dating and sexual behavior. Aggressive behavior, 43(2), 111-122.
Evans, C. B., Smokowski, P. R., Rose, R. A., Mercado, M. C., & Marshall, K. J. (2018). Cumulative bullying experiences, adolescent behavioral and mental health, and academic achievement: An integrative model of perpetration, victimization, and bystander Behavior. Journal of child and family studies, 1-14.
Grellier, J. & Goerke, V. (2018). Communications toolkit (4th ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Cengage.
Quinn, C. A., Fitzpatrick, S., Bussey, K., Hides, L., & Chan, G. C. (2016). Associations between the group processes of bullying and adolescent substance use. Addictive behaviors, 62, 6-13.
Sekol, I., & Farrington, D. P. (2016). Psychological and background correlates of bullying in adolescent residential care. Journal of social work, 16(4), 429-452.
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