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Aviation Assignment: Questions and Answers on Human Performance


Task: Develop a detailed aviation assignment answering the following questions:
1. Briefly outline each phase of sleep a human goes through in a sleep cycle. Outline which phases relate to dreaming, memory consolidation and physiological restoration.

2. What is the most common cause of pilot incapacitation and how can it be avoided? Provide four other common causes of pilot incapacitation and how we safeguard against them within the aviation industry.

3. A pilot must manage many demands as part of their duties and lifestyle. Provide some examples of such demands and explain the different factors that determine a pilot’s ability to cope with these demands.

4. Discuss the positive and negative effects of increased automation from a human factors point of view.

5. “Pilots only exhibit hazardous attitudes because of their own personalities, there are no other influences on the attitude of pilots.” Identify whether you consider this statement to be TRUE, UNCERTAIN or FALSE, clearly explaining why.6. “There are old pilots and there are bold pilots, but there are no old bold pilots.” Explain the logic behind this quote from E. Hamilton Lee.

7. During which phase of flight is our vision most critical? Provide an example of a visual illusion that can occur during this phase of flight, its cause and what training a pilot should receive to avoid/mitigate its effects.

8. What is ergonomics the study of? Describe three ergonomic considerations for the design of instrumentation, clearly explaining the logic behind each consideration.

9. Describe what is meant by the term ‘spatial orientation’. Explain how humans typically achieve spatial orientation.

10. Describe the basic concept of threat and error management and how it is applied in everyday aviation operations.

Essay questions
1. Describe three possible causes of fatigue. Discuss one example of an accident where fatigue was a contributing factor, clearly outlining how fatigue contributed towards the accident outcome. Explain what good fatigue management looks like from both a pilot and an organisational perspective.

2. Discuss the importance of assertiveness and just culture within the aviation industry. Provide guidance as to how pilots can communicate at the right level of assertiveness as well as how managers should deal with human error, at-risk behaviour and reckless behaviour.

3. Describe a basic model of how humans process information. Discuss what limitations exist in terms of human memory and perception and provide examples of techniques to help compensate for such limitations.


Section 1 – Short Answer Questions
A1. Briefly outline each phase of sleep a human goes through in a sleep cycle. Outline which are the phases relate to dreaming, memory consolidation, and physiological restoration. Sleep cycles tobecome a part of internal biological clocks as it assists in occurring the regular pattern of brain waves while human sleep. The sleep cycle is classified into 5 phases and they are: Phase 0: Wake – It is the time, which is spent in bed before as well as subsequent to nodding off. It likewise incorporates a short arousing during the night, as these are typical for sound grown-ups. Phase 1: Light sleep– It starts when humans began to sleep and in this, muscles begin to relax and breathing becomes slow (Legg, 2020).

Phase 2: Light sleep– This stage helps in decreasing heartbeat and drops the body temperature.

Phase 3 and 4: Deep sleep– This stage focuses on the body and assists in promoting muscle growth. It assists in boosting the blood flow to muscles.

Phase 5: REM sleep – It is a primary dreaming stage of sleep and in this breathing along with the heart rate increases as well as brain activity also improved (Brantner, 2019).

Dreaming is associated with REM sleep that is Phase 5. Memory consolidation is associated with Phase 2 (light sleep) and Phase 5 (REM sleep). However, on the other side, physiological restoration is associated with REM sleep that is Phase 5. A2. What is the most common cause of pilot incapacitation and how can it be avoided? Provide four other common causes of pilot incapacitation and how we safeguard against them within the aviation industry.

The most common cause of pilot incapacitation is gastroenteritis and it is potentially attributable to food poisoning and allergy. A pilot became unconscious because of a stomach bug during a flight. Gastroenteritis can be ignored by staggering crew meal times as well as ensuring to eat the different meals during the flight, as it prevents food poisoning and gastroenteritis. The four other common cause of pilot incapacitation includes:

  • The effects of hypoxia, which is related to the absence of normal pressurization system function of the altitudes above 10000 fts.
  • Being asleep
  • A bird strike as well as other events causing incapacitating physical injury (Skybrary, 2016).
  • A medical condition, which includes heart attack, stroke, or transient mental abnormality.

From these incapacitation causes, different measures can be adopted to safeguard them. It includes correct control of the pressurized system of aircraft and if required uses the emergency oxygen supplied which assists in preventing Hypoxia. Another measure to supply the therapeutic oxygen, which may alleviate the condition of a crewmember as well as a passenger who is suffering from a medical condition. To manage to be asleep, they need to take international sleep on the flight deck which may relevant to long-term flights but not take place if correct SOPs are allowed. Need to implement grass height maintenance as it prevents from bird strike (Skybrary, 2016). A3. A pilot must manage many demands as part of their duties and lifestyle. Provide some examples of such demands and explain the different factors that determine a pilot’s ability to cope with these demands.

A pilot of flight must manage many demands as a part of their duties as well as lifestyle. Some examples of demands include respond to changing conditions, effective communication with the air traffic control over the radio system, and ensure that aircraft should be balanced and below its weight limit. In addition to this, departure and landing can be the most requesting pieces of a flight (College Grad, 2020). Problem-solving skill determines pilot's ability to cope with the weather changing demand by checking that aircraft is operable and safe as well as weather condition is acceptable, if not then requests a change in route or altitude from air traffic control (Houston, 2019). Another is the automation human factor, which helps in resolving the issue related to communication as it assists in getting to lessen from the human error (WCC Aviation Company, 2016). The human-centered automation includes some principles and they are premise, axiom, and corollaries. Adaptability and confidence are the factors that assist in determining the demand as excessive weight decreases the flight performance so they need to manage the weight and balance by computing takeoff weight by adding operational empty weight, passenger weight, and fuel weight along with the cargo payload (Stack Exchange, 2020).

A4. Discuss the positive and negative effects of increased automation from a human factors point of view.

Automation refers to the technique or tool, which assists in making an apparatus, a procedure, or a system for conducting the operations automatically. In other words, it refers to creation along with the utilization of advancement to screen similarly as control the creation and the movement of things and organizations. From the human perspective, automation has both positive and negative impacts. The positive effects of automation include to assist in boosting the comfort level of passengers enhanced the flight path control as well as decrease the weather minima (Skybrary, 2020). In addition to this, human-automation assists in improving safety measures. Effective automation decreases workload and frees the additional resources to focus on other tasks. Improve the thinking power of humans and they feel motivated (Melanie, 2020). However, on the other side, automation has a negative impact on individuals. Those individuals that lose their job may suffer the hardship whether it is economic, social as well as psychological. Another disadvantage is worker displacement, as they need to relocate and this can be a source of stress. Other disadvantages include expenditure associated with high capital, a higher level of maintenance, what's more, a lower level of adaptability regarding items in contrast with a manual framework.

A5. "Pilots only exhibit hazardous attitudes because of their personalities, there are no other influences on the attitude of pilots." Identify whether you consider this statement to be TRUE, UNCERTAIN, or FALSE, clearly explaining why.

The proclamation "Pilots only exhibit hazardous attitudes because of their personalities, there are no other influences on the attitude of pilots" is False because safe flying is based on the experience along with the ability of pilots. It is necessary and essential that the Pilot having awareness of attitudes, which may affect the judgment, as well as having decision-making abilities to ignore the dangerous outcomes. There are five hazardous attitudes, which comprise the pilot's dynamic and that is against power, impulsivity, immunity, resignation, and macho (Hartzell Propeller, 2018). Understanding the above stated hazardous attitudes help pilots in managing the risk and make the safe and appropriate decisions on the skies. In the aviation industry, it is necessary to develop a training curriculum, which assists in addressing the judgment as well as decision-making. There are different types of pressure whether it is physiological, psychological as well as external pressure, which assists in influencing every decision a pilot makes so that their judgment can be managed. In flight, anyone can be guilty of one or more attitudes that are hazardous can be described as a normal part of human nature. Understanding these attitudes help the pilot in making, the appropriate and effective better decisions as well as ignore the unnecessary danger (Rossier, 2020).

A6. “There are old pilots and there are bold pilots, but there are no old bold pilots.” Explain the logic behind this quote from E. Hamilton Lee.
The line, which is given by E. Hamilton Lee and the description that never shows off as well as never be too proud to turn back. Crew members must prepare a powerful schedule and pilots had to fly in the face of different challenges that other pilots could refuse. Airmail pilots need to keep the schedule so that they cannot face inconveniences such as bad weather. This quote describes that pilots never qualified as old. This describes the uncertainty of service because routes were new and the landing fields were newly built (Goodreads, 2020). In addition to this, instruments, which are used in the flights, were unreliable and airplanes are not up to the severe demands related to landing and takeoffs. Additionally, it also explains that the old bold pilots are made under one rule that is there are no rules. This means no officers, no dues and no requirements there is only a desire to enjoy the business organization of fellow aviation enthusiasts. From this quote, the association is informal without a charter, dues along with the speakers. The members that are rejected by the strict rules, which are common to the other aviation groups, desired the informality (, 2020).

A7. During which phase of flight is our vision most critical? Provide an example of a visual illusion that can occur during this phase of flight, its cause, and what training a pilot should receive to avoid/mitigate its effects.

Visual discernment is an essential segment of human execution however on the opposite side, inadequacies in this stage are handling of human data, which is obvious during the night flights, when the team in flight depends on visual references. An example of a visual illusion is that flight landed at the wrong airport at night by promoting the issue of a safety alert. The crew experiencing the illusion while conducting the visual approach after dark and the illusion name is runway slope. The main cause of this are that pilots judge the airplane approach point by making a correlation between runway retinal pictures of runway shapes which are stored in the perceptual memory system. The probability of accident increases when the pilot depends on visual capability, which assists in perceiving the world during darkness (Wilson, 2017).

To mitigate the effect of this illusion is to ascertain the presence of slopping runways before implicating any type of approach at night. The crewmember should utilize the instrument landing system to assure the safe obstacle clearance. Along with this, they need to use the runway visual approach slope indicator lighting system. Apart from this, crewmembers need to ignore the visual approaches at night (Wilson, 2017).

A8. What is ergonomics the study of Describe three ergonomic considerations for the design of instrumentation, clearly explaining the logic behind each consideration.

Ergonomics refers to the study of the individual in their working environment. The main goal of ergonomics is to decrease the discomfort along with the risk of injury due to work. Three ergonomic considerations, which are useful for the design of instrumentation in Aviation, include:

Anthropometry in Aviation: It is an essential part of the ergonomic design as it is not limited to the measurements. It is not achievable to plan a cockpit for every person on the planet. It includes body dimensions, hand size, sitting eye height, and muscle strength (Paulson, 2012).

Design eye position: It is the main aspect of the cockpit design as in this pilot can make the ability to examine the cockpit instruments and can maintain a reasonable view with minimal head movement. The aircraft designer will allocate the designed eye position so that appropriate controls can be made.

Control layout and design: The control supplement to Aircraft shows in speaking with the pilot as it offers the two-path collaboration between the airplanes alongside the team. They need to take control to reach the position according to the usage. It should be positioned in a more appropriate position. Need to focus on a warning system, loading system, and shapes as well as colors (Shubham and Devendra, 2015).

A9. Describe what is meant by the term ‘spatial orientation’. Explain how humans typically achieve spatial orientation.

Spatial Orientation refers to the capability to perceiving the motion along with the three-dimensional position, which is related to the surrounding environment. In other words, it refers to the inability of a pilot, which correctly interprets the attitude to aircraft in relation to different points of reference. The effective spatial direction dependent on the recognition, combination alongside the translation of visual, vestibular as well as sensory information. It is difficult to attain because numerous sensory stimuli may vary from magnitude along with the frequency (Federal Aviation Administration, 2019). The discrepancies between visual, vestibular along with the proprioceptive sensory mismach, which assists in generating the illusions and that, leads to spatial disorientation. It is based on good eyesight and uses it with the flight instruments, which manage attitude, position, heading along with the speed. In everyday life, vision is mostly correctly, as they need to trust the vision from all other senses. It may be compelling while flying visually to see and the instruments to manage the orientation. This assists in making them prone to several visual illusions of landing. There are differentiated circumstances while flying in VMC when a pilot ought not to be founded on his vision, for example, flying with the Instrument approach (Skybrary, 2017).

A10. Describe the basic concept of threat and error management and how it is applied in everyday aviation operations.

Threat and fault management alludes to the general wellbeing the board approach, which assists in assuming that pilots, who will naturally, made the mistakes as well as aid in encountering the risky situations during the flight operations. It assists in addressing the potential weakness in execution inside the flight climate while threatened to the outer impacts. This concept covers the different factor that compromises the sheltered direct of the flight. The three fundamental components of danger and blunder the board incorporate dangers, mistakes, and undesired airplane states (Skybrary, 2017). This model proposes the dangers and mistakes, which are a piece of regular flying tasks, and these oversee by flight groups as it assists in generating the undesired aircraft states. These undesired aircraft states need to manage by flight crews so that they can carry the unsafe outcomes as well as maintain the safety margins of the operations of the flight. As threats are classified into three parts that are anticipated, unexpected, and latent threats. These threats create operational complexity. Another is an error as it is the actions, which are taken by the crew, which leads to deviations and errors are airplane taking care of blunders, procedural and correspondence mistakes. Last is an undesired airplane state as it is connected with the decrease in an edge of wellbeing (Skybrary, 2017).

Section 2 – Essay Questions
A1. Describe three possible causes of fatigue. Discuss one example of an accident where fatigue was a contributing factor, clearly outlining how fatigue contributed towards the accident outcome. Explain what good fatigue management looks like from both a pilot and an organizational perspective. Fatigue refers to the term, which assists in describing the by and large sentiment of sluggishness or in other words absence of energy. When an individual suffers from fatigue, and then he/she does not have any type of motivation or energy. Feeling sleepy can be a symptom of fatigue. Fatigue is a symptom of any condition, which requires medical treatment (MedicineNet, 2020). It can be included in the range of severity from mild to serious. Fatigue categorizes into two, which are physical and mental fatigue. In a pilot, fatigue may manifest by missed radio calls or inaccurate flying (Luo, 2020). The causes of fatigue are classified into three parts that areway of life factors, physical medical issue, and emotional well-being issues.

  • Lifestyle factors include physical exertion, boredom, grief, no intake of a nutritious diet, intake of alcohol on a regular basis, lack of physical exercises, increase in emotional stress, lack of sleep, taking a different type of medications that is antidepressants, consumption of caffeine at a high amount, being overweight or obesity (Caldwell and Caldwell, 2016).
  • Physical health conditions include anemia, cancer, diabetes, liver diseases, and some other infections such as cold and flu (Luo, 2020).
  • Mental health issues may lead to fatigue such as anxiety, depression as well as seasonal affective disorder.

Three possible causes of fatigue include:

1. Diabetes: In this disease, individuals face significant levels of sugar stay in the circulation system as opposed to entering the phones of the kid where it very well may be changed over into energy.

2. Anemia: It is the driving reason for weakness in women. The blood misfortune causes an iron inadequacy and requires the red platelets are required in light of the fact that they convey oxygen to the tissues and organs (WebMd LLC, 2020).

3. Not enough sleep: This cause may have a negative effect on focus and wellbeing. Grown-ups ought to get a limit of eight hours to rest each near.

An example of an accident where fatigue was a contributing factor that is AT76, Lisbon Portugal 2016, an ATR 72-600 captain failed in competing the night landing because of weather conditions, and after that aircraft floated in the touchdown zone. Because of this, it bounces three times on the runway and is found in a damaged condition. It is followed by an unstable approach and intervention by the first officer. Thus, it describes the poor performance of Captain of the combination of fatigue at a repetitive failure to offer the bounce landing recognition along with the recovery training (Skybrary, 2020). There is no doubt that fatigue offers an appropriate contribution to the social along with the financial costs, which are related to the aircraft trauma.

Comparison between the road accidents describes that variability of these appraisals is high and this inconstancy mirrors the challenges, which are related to the determination of accident that it is related to the fatigue and interrogate the accident database. There are five criteria, which relate to fatigue-related accidents includes extended driving hours, evidence of falling asleep, feeling tiredness, intake of alcohol, and night takeoff and landing (Dawson, Reynolds, Dongen, and Thomas, 2018). Fatigue may impair the driving execution and this prompts mishaps in various manners that these rules will not catch dependably. A combination of different factors whether it is situational and individual contributes to increased risk, which is involved in a fatigue-related crash. The enhanced risk may result in the combination of different features that is biological, lifestyle, and work (Lee and Kim, 2018). The strong biological need for sleep as well as going out at night may enhance the chance of fatigue and risk. For the drivers whether it is professional and long-distance, both decrease the sleep and increase working hours combination increase the fatigue and risk (European commission, 2020). The drivers are responsible for the fatigue associated with an accident because of unusual working hours. Additionally, drivers are reported to sleep fewer hours on average and because of this, individuals feel more tired. Apart from this, there is some other contributing factors related to fatigue towards the results of accidents include circadian adoption that is adjusted internal clock of the body because of shift pattern, sleep opportunities during the duty but at layover destinations (Lee and Kim, 2018). In addition to this other factor are emotional stress, lifestyle along with fitness, health, low as well as high workload, time on duty, and time awake because of duty (Skybrary, 2020).

From the pilot point of view, good fatigue management looks like including the planning activities, which includes meals, sleep patterns while off-duty, making the most permitted rest breaks including naps, provide advice to a colleague if one of the crew members detect drowsily and alerting the colleague (Sieberichs and Kluge, 2016). The operator complies with the prescriptive flight as well as time limits of duty, which is defined by the regulator, and should manage the hazards related to fatigue using SMS processes, which assists in maintaining the other hazards as well. The administrator creates and executes the Fatigue hazard the executive’s framework, which is affirmed by the controller (Skybrary, 2020). To manage fatigue, the pilot needs to take adequate sleep to restore the waking function, should perform mental and physical work effectively which is driven by the circadian clock in the brain. The pilot needs to contribute to the workload to fatigue as well as degradation of performance whether it is physically and mentally. In addition to this, pilots need to adopt the regulatory framework to conduct the operations to maintain the safety level (Hiatt, Graham and Wykoff, 2015). However, on the other side, from an organizational perspective, the company needs to implement a Fatigue risk management system hat turns into an aspect of the wellbeing the board framework. Fatigue risks management system assists in collecting and examining the information associated with the alertness of the crew along with the operational performance data onto the flight (Skybrary, 2020). Utilize the CRM (crew resource management) training, which helps business organizations of promoting the awareness of fatigue along with sleep issues. In an organization, employees need to prioritize the change initiatives as well as create the roadmap for a change over time. They need to continue to work on strengthening the organizational culture and keep the conversation lines open (Day, 2019).

A2. Discuss the importance of assertiveness and just culture within the aviation industry. Provide guidance as to how pilots can communicate at the right level of assertiveness as well as how managers should deal with human error, at-risk behavior, and reckless behavior.

Assertiveness refers to communicating the needs, wants, feelings, beliefs along with the opinions to others with respect. When an assertive worker identifies the appropriate opportunity, which assists in bringing to the attention to their co-workers as well as management. This assertiveness is a necessary part of aviation safety. The aggressive people attack as well as avoid the opinion of other individuals. Being assertive describes as a core communication skill. Assertiveness in the aviation industry may assist in expressing the individuals effectively and it assists in respecting the rights along with the beliefs of others (Seedhouse, Brickhouse,Szathmary and Williams, 2019). It also assists in boosting and enhancing self-esteem as well as earn the respect for the others. In the aviation industry, assertiveness refuses to compromise the standards include the technician by giving the management to manage the feedback which is required to ensure that management will be capable to provide assistance to a technician to fulfill their job (Shearer, 2020). Culture is also essential in the aviation industry as the culture set by characteristics as well as the value system of the aviation industry. Three cultures that is national, professional, and organizational culture, as these assists in sett the interactions in different patterns that are sharing the information; personnel will react under the demanding operational conditions. Need to deliver effective training, different workgroups that are pilots, cabin crew will relate (Werfelman, 2020). However, in the aviation industry, there are some factors that have an influence on organizational culture and they are policies and procedures, safety planning and goals, employee training and involvement as well as safety planning and goals. The individual needs to assess the current norms along with the values of corporate culture in the aviation industry. In industry, staff needs to train to reconcile the social related clashes which happening in their air terminal on locally available airplane (Skybrary, 2020).

Assertiveness demonstrates as communication along with the behavior style which provides permission to express the feeling, opinions, beliefs along with the needs in a positive as well as productive manner. It is related to direct conversation, offers respect to opinions, and should be honest but does not compromise to own standards. While doing communication between the appropriate levels of assertiveness, an individual should provide an effective focus on calmness and remain rational. This offers permission to maintain their dignity and appropriate conclusion can make (Skybrary, 2020). Pilots need to be assertive in nature and should state the situation in the face of adverse judgment as well as communicate the idea about good belief because it requires the appropriate level of assertiveness for the uncomfortable individuals. Pilots need to listen and analyze the situation and accordingly conduct the problem-solving communication, help others, share the goals along with the knowledge in flight operations. By using assertiveness, goals are shared and realize the effective conversation, which leads to offering respect for team members (Shearer, 2020). When pilots use appropriate communication skills in the assertiveness level, then it offers some advantages that offer the improvement in mutual respect to others, increases the self-esteem, decreases the alienating other individuals. While communicating with other individuals, pilots need to make effective eye contact which assists in demonstrating the interest and denotes sincerity (Alargi? and Atanasijevski-?uri?, 2018). Another is appropriate body posture, which helps in managing the body language, which aids in improving the significance of the message. Next is the best gestures, which aid in adding importance. Additionally, the pilot needs to manage an acceptable voice to effective judgment timing (Impact factory, 2020). When operational activities are no longer in schedule, activity arranging alongside the methodology of assigning duty just as checking of errands is clarified viably by precise correspondence (Alargi and Atanasijevski-?uri?, 2018). In the context of resource management of crew that is pilots, assertiveness describes the ability to manage the position and offer the information to make suggestions, ask the questions, refuse for the requests, which are unreasonable as well as accept the appropriate conservative response to a situation which helps in making the appropriate and final decision (Mouw, 2020). When pilots adopt assertive communication then they assist in addressing the human factor along with the cultural problems, which lead to different events. They need to implement new tools for existing models of practice (Vieira and Santos, 2010).

Managers should deal with human error, at-risk behavior, and reckless behavior by using appropriate strategies. As each type of behavior has a different cause which requires different responses.In the aviation industry, staff members and managers get training for the specified roles so that overall, work competency improved and human error decreased (Diedrich, 2019). There are different error management areas such as risk, attitude, and communication, and situation awareness and these are managed by different tools that are assessing personal approach, gut feeling to recognize attitude, use guidelines on being assertive and a gut feeling that is something not right (Centre of error management, 2011). Some other techniques include error prevention, reduction, detection, recovery, and tolerance. Additionally, reduction of slips by using different controlling factors and reinforcing the standardized procedures (Muschara, 2017). Apart from this, need to manage the mistakes by knowledge, attention factors, and strategic factors (Skybrary, 2018). To manage the at-risk behavior, the manager should be honest as well as require eliminating the hindrances to safe the social decisions, taking out the prizes, which are generated from at-risk behaviors along with this offer the coaching to the managers to examine the risk which is associated with their choices (Dekker, 2016). While managing the at-risk behavior requires curing the framework disappointments just as unsaid prizes that are driving that conduct. The system needs to redesign so that they can make the right tools for the safest behavioral choice (Institute for Safe Medication Practices, 2020). Another is reckless behavior, which defines as a conscious disregard of an unjustifiable risk. To manage the reckless behavior manager needs to implement the appropriate remedial and disciplinary actions, which needs to be, considered as per the human resource policies of business organization, which help in correcting the undesired conduct (Institute for Safe Medication Practices, 2020). In addition to this, they need to redesign the system, which assists in protecting reckless behavior in the future(Institute for Safe Medication Practices, 2012). A3. Describe a basic model of how humans process information. Discuss what limitations exist in terms of human memory and perception and provide examples of techniques to help compensate for such limitations.

The human information processing model refers to the approach, which is related to the investigation of human idea just as conduct should develop. It describes as an alternative to the behavioral approaches. Human learning alludes to the region wherein a methodology related to information processing is successfully applied. Information processing theory refers to the cognitive theory, which utilizes PC handling as an allegory for the functions of a human cerebrum (Davies and Delaney, 2017). It describes the mental processes, as this model likes the considering measure how the PC works. In the PC, the brain of individual person learn, sorts out just as stores, which are to be recovered later. Also as a PC, it has a data contraption, planning unit, accumulating unit, and a yield device so the individual mind have the indistinguishable procedure or method (AlleyDog, 2020). Information is recorded in the computers by using the appropriate strategies for input contraptions anyway on the contrary side, in the person’s mind, the data device is known as the sensory recorder.As this recorder is prepared by the unmistakable organs such as ears from which they can hear and eyes from which they can see and collect the data from diversified elements, which is related to environment. In the computer, individual collect the data by using appropriate procedure that is set up in the Central Processing Unit and it is indistinguishable from transient memory. However, on the other side, mind of the individual person, information is manage with the objective and that information transfer to that part of memory, which remains for long term. The datashould be processed in a computer, and then it displays the result by the output device. In humans, the result is associated with information processing display through behaviors along with the actions that are body movement and facial expression (Vinney, 2020).

Model of the human information processing system in aviation assignment

Figure 1: . Model of the human information processing system

This model works when information enters into the sensory memory and grabs the attention. After that, information transfers to working memory and then encode the information and transfer of long-term memory. Information or data is stored in the working memory so that they work faster in long haul memory. As the working memory is essential for wide-ranging reading (Bielikova, 2012). It is identified that the procedure is accomplished in the working memory as it demonstrates as a significant characteristic related to the human mind as it is a small capacity of working memory. The limited storage capacity of working memory is accompanied by a brief duration, which results in the loss of information. The processing model of data refers to the framework, which is used by cognitive psychologists to explain as well as to describe the mental processes. Human memory is classified into different parts but the main is short and long-term memory. The limitations of short-term memory include that it is limited and store a small amount of information and another is memory decays over time. However, long-term memory could be unlimited and the main constraint are accessibility instead of availability. Some memories in the human body include the details and include take up more space. However, on the other side, there are some limitations include:

  • Hearing: It is related to human senses and it includes the communication risk. From the threshold of hearing, ears are equipped for getting when there is no other sound to make it recognition.
  • Touch: It is surprisingly unpredictable and incorporates the identification from pressure. It depends on the range of nerves when it responds to various forms of stimuli. This includes the perception of pressure and detects the sensation (Gonzalez, 2012).

The memory of humans is fallible and forget the things all the time and then only interpretation left. The memory of most of the individual should not be trusted because they make their own. The brain of a human is an important and efficient organ, which assists in processing the power to figure out things, which they do not recognize. Another is individuals encode the memory in diversified ways as some individuals are more visible and factual (Murray, Wise and Graham, 2017). Another factor is the Rashomon effect as in this memory is highly susceptible to suggestion power. It creates emotional stress because the brain writes the memory with new information. In addition to this, another factor is the influence of emotion as it is a strong indicator of different things (Sims, 2016). The last issue is the perception of human sense is dependent on the human's perceptions. This describes that individuals dependent on a large part of what has been done to humans and it is related to the fallibility of memory and this leads to an effect on the self-image (Faulton, 2018).

There are different techniques, which assist in compensating for the above-stated limitations includes breaking the big chunks of information or data into small. Use the checklists for the tasks with the different and multiple steps and develop as well as improve the routines. In addition to this, they need to continue the practice to improve the skills related to working memory. They need to make the experiment the different ways of remembering the information or data as need to make the effective visualization which assists in remembering the multiple items. Needs to reduce multitasking, which assists in shrinking certain areas of the brain and it linked to decrease spans. Utilize the mindfulness, which assists in decreasing distractions as well as sharpens the working memory by regulating the sensory input. This will help in decreasing the limitations of hearing and touch (De Frias, Dixon, and Backman, 2020). The humans need to follow when the compensatory processes assist in serving the losses through different identifiable mechanisms and techniques. It includes remediation, substitution, accommodation, and assimilation that is modifying the environmental demands. When these techniques implements, the behaviors of humans may decrease the gap between capacities and the challenges, which may change according to the contextual circumstances.These systems might be helpful for understanding psychological versatility whether it is identified with sickness or injury-related deficits. In addition to this, there are five other techniques, which helps in decreasing the limitations related to human memory and perception that is external aids, enhance the review related exertion. Additionally, inside memory aide procedures, and ought to contribute additional time just as to give communitarianassistance to humans (Bailey, 2020). Humans need to draw a few goals and objectives to understand the fallibility of memory.


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