In-Depth Analysis Of Coca Cola Quality And Operations Management Assignment
Task: The purpose of this individual assignment is to provide the student with an opportunity to demonstrate his/her mastery of one or more related topics discussed during this module and apply them in the context of the topic of this assignment.
You have studied concepts, models and topics set out in the module guide.
If you wish to improve your learning before embarking on this assignment, you may want to conduct a systematic search of relevant scholarly literature material. This is strongly advised.
The student is required to select TWO questions from the list below and submit a substantiated answer of between 1500 and 2000 words for each question. The student is also required to make a presentation of no longer than 5 minutes on ONE of his/her answers
1. In contrast to popular thinking at that time, in 1979 D. Philip Crosby argued that producing high quality goods did not cost more than producing goods of a lower standard. He argued that "quality is free" and could even be a source of profit to an organisation.
Discuss this issue and explain why this is true.
3. 1988 Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry developed the SERVQUAL-model as a quality management tool for use in service industries. Discuss the workings of this model. What criticisms do you have of the model? Identify at least 3 “gaps” that apply to Wittenborg.
5. What is the intended purpose of ISO 9000:2015? Does ISO 9000 serve its purpose? Will an organization with an ISO certificate produce goods of a higher standard than an organization without a certificate?
6. Two of the most widely used tools of quality management are Pareto charts and Ishikawa diagrams. Explain the workings of these tools. Draw a Pareto chart of reasons that students fail exams at Wittenborg. You can make up the causes and the numbers yourself. Draw an Ishikawa diagram of one of the possible causes you have identified as being (one of) the reasons students are failing exams.
7. The two concepts “Lean manufacturing” and “six sigma” are often combined by quality management consultants despite the fact that they are different concepts. Explain both concepts and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each of them in a manufacturing environment.
8. Nowadays environmental considerations are influencing the ‘quality’ requirements of product design, production methods, supply sources, the packaging and the product itself and even its disposal after consumption or use. This is often called “green manufacturing”. Select a product that you are familiar with and using the concept of green manufacturing suggest ways of improving it.
10. In an attempt to predict future customer buying behavior, Fredrich Reichheld introduced today’s maybe most popular customer metric, the "Net Promoter Score". In the Harvard Business review article, "One Number You Need to Grow" published in 2003, Reicheld described how companies could determine future success by studying customer responses to a single survey question (Reichheld. 2003). Explain the Net Promoter Score.
This section of operations management assignment illustrates that Lean production or lean manufacturing is considered to be a systematic production method, which was originated from the Japanese manufacturing industry. The organisations generally consider lean manufacturing method in the operation management method in order to reduce the amount or volume of waste within a particular manufacturing system without compromising quality and productivity. Lean production or lean manufacturing is considered to be a vital operation management approach, which is considered by the modern day organisations in the manufacturing process in order to improve quality and efficiency (Jabbour and De Sousa Jabbour, 2016). In contrast, Six Sigma is considered to be an important operation management tool, which is used by the operation management professionals of the modern day organisations for the purpose of process improvement. Six Sigma operation management model is embraced of five important stages, such as define, measure, analyse, improve, and control.
Lean Manufacturing and Its Advantages as well as Disadvantages
It is already defined and introduced that the operation management professionals of the modern day organisations generally try to minimise the level of waste in the manufacturing activities to improve the productivity and efficiency of the overall manufacturing activities. Reduction of waste in the manufacturing activities mentioned in this section of operations management assignment actually helps the organisations to improve the quality of the overall manufacturing activities as well as end products. In addition, consideration of the lean manufacturing activities generally allow an organisation and the employees of that particular organisation to generate innovative ideas as well as apply those generated innovative ideas in the manufacturing and other operation management activities. Overall, lean manufacturing activities not only reduce the volume of waste in the manufacturing process, but also it helps in improving the quality of the products.
Some important benefits of lean production system in a manufacturing environment have been discussed below within this operations management assignment.
Improved Quality of Products
Improved product quality is the major advantage of the lean manufacturing process. Lean manufacturing process generally motivates the management teams and leaders to give freedom to their employees to generate innovative ideas and implement them in the manufacturing activities. Freedom and innovation generally ensures error free applications and strong quality control. Therefore, strong motivation and positive innovation allows the organisations to produce quality products. The employees generally find innovative ways to reduce the volume of waste and strong innovative approaches improve the degree of quality control (Bennett and James, 2017). Majority of the successful manufacturing firms always focus on the consideration of lean manufacturing activities to ensure improved product quality.
Sustainability and Ethics
It is the ethical duty and responsibility of the organisations to maintain environmental sustainability in business. In addition, environmental sustainability in business can be maintained through adequate zero waste management activities and water recycling activities. The leading manufacturing units generally condense the havoc use of natural resources and they use the recycled waste products. The example of the Coca Cola Company can be discussed herein operations management assignment. The administration of the Coca Cola Company generally focuses on the use of stored or used water by recycling. This helps them to stop the sourcing of water from nature. This helps in maintaining strong ecological balance and environmental sustainability (Ding et al., 2018). On the other hand, effective recycling also helps in maintaining zero waste in the manufacturing process. Therefore, environmental sustainability in manufacturing allows the organisations to gain a huge support from the important stakeholders.
Satisfaction of the Employees
The employees now-a-days also prefer some meaningful works in the workplaces. Maintaining recycling and waste management in the manufacturing activities as well as other operation management activities generally require innovation, technological advancement, flexibility, and leadership. Hence, it can be stated within this segment of operations management assignment that the employees working in an organisation can have the opportunity to develop strong knowledge on some meaningful job roles. Majority of the employees working in an organisation try to improve their skill level by learning new things. The major aim of any employee to develop skill level, develops knowledge level, and become a successful professional in the near future. The employees can become satisfied in a workplace by developing some valuable knowledge and learning about new lean management approaches satisfy the employees in a workplace regarding their job roles (Zhu et al., 2017). It automatically helps the organisations to improve the productivity and profitability. Therefore, strong skill level and positive satisfaction level of the employees mentioned in the context of operations management assignment can be considered as the important benefit of lean manufacturing approach for the organisations.
Higher possibilities of errors and workplace hazards can be considered as a major disadvantage of lean manufacturing system. Lack of reviewing, monitoring, and handling of machineries in lean manufacturing activities can lead to equipment failure. This is considered to be a major drawback, which can lead to occupational hazards as well as workplace injuries. In addition, lack of skill level, knowledge level, and poor training programmes can disturb the performance level of the workforces in the lean manufacturing process. Hence, poor skill development process also creates problems for the companies in the lean manufacturing process, which can affect the quality and efficacy of the overall operation management approach.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Six Sigma in the context of operations management assignment?
Six-Sigma is nothing but an important operation management method, which is used for process improvement activities. The modern day professionals as well as corporations are using this Six Sigma in order to improve the operational efficiencies.
The advantages and disadvantages of Six Sigma in regards with the case scenario of operations management assignment are discussed below.
Strong Customer Satisfaction
The organisations generally focus on the application of this approach in the operation management process in order to improve the degree of customer satisfaction in the business. The companies apply this approach in the manufacturing process only to develop the degree of superiority of the products. Improvement of product quality and strong quality control of the production activities are two important goals of this approach. This particular approach generally helps the organisations to maintain a strong business growth (Bennett and James, 2017). High quality control and finest end products generally motivate the customers buy their products again in near future. Hence, customer satisfaction is the major benefit of this particular approach and the organisations can enhance positive customer loyalty through the consideration of this particular approach in the manufacturing process.
Positive Market Penetration and Improved Bottom-Line
Effective application of the Six Sigma in the operation management process strengthens the quality management approach of the end products. On the other hand, this is also important here to discuss within this operations management assignment that the managers encourage the customers of the products to use positive word-of-mouth approach for their friends and relatives. Hence, it can be determined that the consideration of this Six Sigma helps in penetrating the market place due to higher degree of satisfaction and loyalty of the customers. Positive word-of-mouth promotion or communication not only penetrates the market place, but also it helps in establishing a strong customer base throughout the regions. Overall, it helps in generating revenue and maximising profitability (Zhen et al., 2019). Here, improved bottom-line indicates that improved revenue generation and maximised profitability. Most importantly, the Six Sigma helps in improving the bottom-line of the business.
Effective Employee Satisfaction
Similar to the lean management approaches, Six Sigma is also responsible for maintaining positive employee satisfaction. In this case of operations management assignment, effective and efficient manufacturing activities require transparent communication between the management and employees. The use of Six Sigma in the manufacturing activities allows the employees to share clear message with the management and employees of other departments. On the other hand, Six Sigma also helps the employees to receive the transparent message from the management. Overall, transparent flow of messages reduces the possibilities of errors in workplace. Positive result and error free outputs generally improve the level of job satisfaction of the employees. Hence, it can be stated that the consideration of the Six Sigma in manufacturing activities help in satisfying and retaining the skilled employees.
Improving Managerial and Leadership Roles
Use of Six Sigma in business generally helps the organisations to improve the communication process in the manufacturing activities. Overall, this is acceptable that the bulk of the organisations generally try to achieve the financial benefits, and the application of this approach allow the managers to measure and calculate the financial benefits of any strategic approach before the application. Hence, such application of Six Sigma focused in this operations management assignment in business generally helps a professional to quantify the financial benefit. On the other hand, this is also important here to state that the modern leaders follow this Six Sigma in manufacturing and other operation management activities in order to progress the efficiency of the business. The application and practice of Six Sigma in business helps an individual to learn several new things in profession, which ensures positive personal and professional development.
One of the disadvantages outlined in this section of operations management assignment is that it is a costly approach comparing to other quality management operation management tool as this process requires handling and monitoring of numerous data in quick time period. Hence, it can increase overall operation management cost, which has a negative impact on the profitability of the organisations. High knowledge level, skill level, and quality training programs are required to apply Six Sigma significantly. It is not a risk free approach as lack of knowledge, skill, and training can hamper the operation management outcome of a company.
Regular carbonated soft drink of the Coca Cola Company has been taken as the major product for the purpose of the analysis in this assignment. The Coca Cola Company examined in the segments of operations management assignment is considered as one of the prominent carbonated soft drink manufacturing organisations across the world, which was established in the year 1886. The carbonated soft drinks of the Coca Cola Company are available in almost 200 countries around the world. Undoubtedly, the Coca Cola Company is the top organisation within the global food and beverage industry. The management of the Coca Cola Company has developed several sustainable policies in business. Like other companies, the management of the Coca Cola Company has started to maintain green approaches and environmental sustainability considerations in business to improve the degree of loyalty of the target customers. The green approaches and environmental considerations in the operation management activities are discussed below.
The carbonated soft drink is the major product line of the Coca Cola Company. It is acceptable that the business mantra of Coca Cola has changed in the present era. Now, the company is strongly focusing on the use of waste water in business and overall operation management processes. The carbonated soft drink of the Coca Cola Company is available in either plastic bottles or in can. However, the company has maintained the design of the bottles and cans in such a way that these can convey the message of environmental sustainability due to labelling of green stickers with CSR messages. The green campaign has been run by the Coca Cola Company in several countries across the globe. The company has used the campaign slogans on the label in such a way that the consumers can see the promotion and learn about the campaign (Chan et al., 2016). This is acceptable that the majority of the organisations do not become that much innovative like the Coca Cola Company regarding promotion of environmental sustainability campaigns through their product design. The findings obtained from the analysis on operations management assignment clarifies that the use of green stickers, environment-friendly slogans, and other branding aspects on the bottles or cans easily indicate that the Coca Cola Company has become highly successful in influencing the quality requirements.
Not many organisations follow such technologically advanced and green production methods like the Coca Cola Company in business. This is acceptable that the majority of the companies across the globe face environment sustainability challenges in manufacturing activities due to the generation of huge amount of emitted carbon. Looking into these aspects and consequences, the management of the Coca Cola Company has decided that the company will adopt the green manufacturing method to produce the popular carbonated soft drinks. This is acceptable that Coca Cola Company is the first ever organisation within the global food and beverage industry, which has adopted water recycling and waste management activities to manufacture the carbonated soft drinks.
It is one of the parts of sustainability measures of the Coca Cola Company illustrated in the study of operations management assignment. The management of the Coca Cola Company believes that the organisation can become ecologically responsible if the management reduces the use of natural resources and natural water. The management of the Coca Cola Company has started to use diverse technologically advanced equipment in the manufacturing process to reduce the emission level of carbon. Apart from these, the organisation is also focusing on the use of water recycling approach to use recycled water instead of collected natural water. This approach has helped the company to improve the sustainability of overall manufacturing method (Seman et al., 2018). Most importantly, bulks of the stakeholders of The Coca Cola Company are showing great support to the company for these types of environmental sustainability approaches. In addition, maintaining zero solid waste in the manufacturing activities is also helping the company to maintain a strong ecological balance. These are some example of green CSR activities of the Coca Cola Company in the manufacturing processes. Use of technologically advanced instruments and equipment are helping the organisations to maintain a green manufacturing approach across the world.
The study developed in this operations management assignment also signifies that the operation management authorities of the Coca Cola Company also focus on the sustainability of the supply sources. First of all, the management of the enterprise always focuses on the sourcing of raw materials and resources of high quality as the company does not want to compromise with the quality. Secondly, this is also important here to state that the company faced quality related challenges in the early 2000s in several countries across the globe. Slowly and gradually, the research and development team of the Coca Cola Company across the globe has strongly focused on the practise of eminent resources and raw materials in the manufacturing process to avoid the possibilities of the challenges. Most importantly, this can be considered as one of the important aspect that the company use fuel efficient and long-headed supply trucks in order to minimise the level of carbon emission and pollution in the supply chain and distribution activities (Roscoe et al., 2019). Apart from these, the company management and operation management authorities of the Coca Cola Company are also trying to focus on the use of vehicles run by substitute energy resources in order to ensure strong CSR and positive stakeholder support. The company has created a benchmark for several organisations across the world through its green supply chain and distribution activities.
Packaging is another important aspect for the Coca Cola Company examined herein operations management assignment. The company is also trying to maintain environmental sustainability in the packaging option. First of all, it can be stated that the organisation is using high quality PET plastic bottles and tin cans to pack the carbonated soft drinks in different temperatures. Consumption of the carbonated soft drinks in those containers is hygienic and safe. In addition, the company is also sourcing high quality packaging bottles from those suppliers, who are following the guidelines of the Coca Cola Company (Aghili et al., 2017). The plastic bottles used on packaging are eco-friendly, and these bottles cannot hamper the ecological balance. This can prove that the Coca Cola Company is an environmental sustainability responsible organisation.
Product Concept and Disposal after Consumption
The product concept of the company explored within this operations management assignment itself states that the company focuses on green approaches in product development approaches. First of all, the management of the Coca Cola Company focuses on the use of recycled water resources or used water resources to manufacture carbonated soft drinks. The plastic bottles are also recycled to use again and sell the carbonated soft drinks to the target customers. Reduction in the use of natural water actually indicates that the product concept is environmentally sustainable and it does not hamper ecological balance as long as it is coming from recycled used water. In terms of disposal, the distributers and retailers of the Coca Cola Company are guided by the company that the customers will be requested to dispose the bottles in a particular kiosk guided by the distributers or retailers (Nejati et al., 2017). These bottles are again collected by the company and manufactured carbonated soft drinks are stored in it after proper recycling. These approaches address the Coca Cola Company is environmentally sustainable company and its production, product concept, packaging, and disposal activities prove that.
Suggestions for Improvement
It is even now discussed in this operations management assignment that the Coca Cola Company is doing several CSR activities to become environmentally responsible. Despite green product concept, manufacturing, packaging and disposal activities, the management of the organisation has the opportunity to improve the degree of green manufacturing. First of all, it can be stated that the management of the Coca Cola Company can further focus on the use of the advanced technological applications. This is acceptable that the organisation need to use rain water as a positive source of manufacturing of carbonated soft drink as well as source of energy. The company should improve their storage capacity and technological capability, which can allow them to store rain water as much as they can. Beside of the recycling approach, the organisation also can become successful in maintaining environmental sustainability through this type of particular approach.
Secondly, this is also important to reduce the use of artificial or raw of processed sugar in the carbonated soft drinks. This is actually degrading the quality of the soft drink products and consumption of this particular product can have a negative health impact. It is stated in this section of operations management assignment that instead of use of raw artificial sugar, natural sugar of fruit extracts can be integrated while manufacturing of the soft drink products. This can improve the taste, quality, and healthy aspect of the products.
The third point discussed in the context of this operations management assignment signifies that the organisation can minimise the environmental impact across the entire value-chain activities. The manufacturing process of carbonated soft drinks is highly connected with all the steps of value chain activities. Reduction of the emission level of carbon and maintaining solid waste in the value chain activities overall raise the quality and standard of the production activities. This definitely helps in ensuring effective quality and standards of the regular carbonated soft drinks of the Coca Cola Company.
Last but not the least; this is also important for the administration of the Coca Cola Company to use paper packaging through the help of advanced technology to store the soft drinks. This is although difficult, but the research and development team needs to focus on this particular approach illustrated in the above discussion on operations management assignment to maintain environmental sustainability. Overall, it can bring support from the important stakeholders.
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