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Analyse how climate change and climate change-related social, economic and political developments, directly and indirectly, affect the agriculture industry


Task: Write a research paper that analyses how climate change is affecting your chosen industry, both directly and indirectly.Thecontents of this research paper should go well beyond a mere description of 'what climate change is', and instead focus on an in-depth examination of specific industry implications.The primary emphasis in this assessment, however, is on independent research into the topic. This research should constitute the evidence base for a broad-based, in-depth, and well-argued analysis of how climate change and current climate change-related social, economic, and political developments are impacting the chosen industry.You should consider both the direct physical effects of climate change, and the various indirect flow-on effects, including individual, business, governmental and other specific responses to the climate crisis. State what the future of the chosen industry might look like in light of the current state of climate change and climate-change related politics and other actions.



The assignment aims to analyse how climate change and climate change-related social, economic and political developments, directly and indirectly, affect the agriculture industry. The agriculture industry is an important factor in the world economy, and it is crucial for economic growth and contributes to 4% of global GDP. It has been identified that the agriculture sector contributes to more than 25% of GDP in the least developing countries ( 2023). Agricultural Development is considered the most powerful tool to boost shared prosperity, end extreme poverty, and feed an estimated 9.7 billion people by 2050 ( 2023). However, multiple shocks from the outbreak of Covid-19 to extreme weather conditions are impacting the food system and resulting in growing hunger and higher prices of goods. The agriculture sector is highly dependent on the climate and increases in CO2 and temperature increase crop yields in many places. The climate change issue is now affecting the production system of agriculture, such as changes in farming technology and practices. The assignment critically analysed and evaluated how climate change-related economic, social and political developments impact the agriculture industry, the direct physical effects of climate change and other in-direct flow-on effects such as business, individual, governmental and other effects on the increasing climate crisis.


The current state of the climate change and its direct and indirect impacts of climate change on agricultural sector:

The current state of the climate change issue is the cause for concern as extreme water events become more severe and frequent, and global temperatures continue to rise. According to Malhi, Kaur & Kaushik (2021), Based on the Intergovernmental Panel of the Climate Chane (IPCC) estimation, the world is rapidly approaching the tipping point of climate change and heat that may be irreversible. Due to climate change, the global temperature is rising, and the temperature of the last six years has been recorded warmest ever. IPCC estimated that the indiscipline of human activities and the burning of fossil fuels are the main drivers of the global warming issue ( 2023). Heatwaves, floods, droughts and wildfires are becoming more severe and frequent, resulting in devasting consequences for the ecosystem and people. Oceans are warming and becoming more acidic due to absorbing a significant portion of CO2 and excess heat due to indiscipline human activities. It is now affecting the marine ecosystem. It is also now affecting the livelihoods of millions of people who depend on the marine ecosystem. The concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere are at their highest level, and it is increasing now at an unprecedented rate. It causes a higher temperature rate that contributes to climate change. Climate change is also now affecting ecosystems and biodiversity around the world. As stated by Arora (2019), It resulted in rising temperatures, changing patterns of precipitations and other climate-related factors that caused many species to shift their ranges. It is entirely disrupting the ecosystem, potentially impacting water resources, food production and human health. Approximately, One million species are now at a higher risk of extinction. It has been estimated that out of 138000 species are monitored on a "survival watchlist", and approximately 30% of species are now at extinction risk (Fears, 2019). Around 4 billion peopleof the world's overall population, experience severe crisis of water availability for a month in each year. Approximately 700 million people will be displaced due to the intense issue of water scarcity by 2030(France24 2021). Due to frequent and extreme weather events, farmlands are increasingly turned into deserts, increasing the frequency of wildfires and increasing the threats of land disappearing due to rising sea levels. As found by Aryal et al. (2020)Increasing temperature increases evapotranspiration, reducing soil moisture and negatively impacting crop yields. It also resulted in soil degradation due to compaction, erosion and loss of nutrients that reduce the productivity of agricultural crops and the quality of agricultural food ( 2023).Apart from having these direct physical effects of climate change, Climate change also has indirect flow-on effects that increase risks for human health from heatwaves, flooding and other extreme weather events that increase healthcare costs of the individual people. It highly negatively impacts the workforce productivity of businesses (Meredith, 2021). However, climate change changes market conditions, increasing the demand for sustainable agricultural products and new business opportunities for the agricultural sector.

Impact of Climate change related social developments on the Agriculture Sector:

As stated Skendži? et al. (2021), Climate change-related social developments have a significant impact on the Agricultural industry. Climate Change related issues are now altering the growing conditions for crops in different regions worldwide. Changes in the temperature, extreme weather events and changes in patterns in precipitation are affecting crop yields, the timing of harvest and the quality of the crop. It leads to lower productivity, higher cost of production and reduced profitability for the farmers.

Climate changes cause shifts in the water availability that is critical for agriculture. Moreover, changes in precipitation patterns lead to water scarcity in some regions, and it is also a reason for increasing rainfall that leads to flooding in some regions. It reduces the ability of the farmer to irrigate the agricultural crops, ultimately impacting agricultural food production.

As stated by Kogo, Kumar &Koech (2021), Climate Change also changes the patterns of diseases and pests that affect agricultural crops. It also increases the threat of new pests and outbreaks of new diseases. It also increased pest resistance to the traditional control methods. These changes increase the threat of crop damage and yield loss, which is increasingly devastating for farmers (Kogo, Kumar &Koech, 2021).

According to Fujimori et al. (2019) Climate change increases awareness of the environmental impact of food production, which leads to changes in food demand. Recent pandemic issues increase the demand for sustainably produced and locally sourced food that, impacts the types of crops that farmers can grow and the methods that the farmers use to produce the agricultural crops. The climate change issue also changes the Governmental policies to mitigate and adapt the climate change that also affects the cost of inputs such as fertiliser, water, and pesticides and the availability of water and land for farming. Higher CO2 levels directly affect crop yields. Elevated levels of CO2 can increase the growth of the plant. Moreover, changes in temperature, ozone layer, water and nutrient constraints may also counteract the potential increases in the yield. It has been estimated that the extreme temperature increase exceeds the crop's optimal level, and the non-availability of nutrients and water reduces or reverses yield increase ( 2023). As found by Kamba, Yelwa, Ojomugbokenyode&Yaji (2022) Moreover, it has been identified that elevated CO2 level also reduces the protein and nitrogen level in soybean and alfalfa plants, resulting in low-quality products. Climate change also reduces the nutritional and protein value of most agricultural food crops, which directly refers to a potential threat to human health (Kamba, Yelwa, Ojomugbokenyode&Yaji, 2022).

Impact of Climate change related economic developments on the Agriculture Sector:

According to Kogo, Kumar &Koech (2021) Climate change brings changes in the market demand, and it continues to affect the weather patterns and changes consumer demand for certain food products and crops. Such as water scarcity and droughts in certain regions leads to a shift towards agriculture of drought-resistant crops and alternative protein sources, which require minimum water to produce. The climate change issue highly impacts the production cost of agricultural goods. Janssens et al. (2020) stated that increasing levels of water scarcity and extreme weather events may force the farmers to increase their investment in new types of irrigation systems and technologies for maintaining crop yields. It may increase the cost of agriculture and reduce the farmers' profitability. Climate change also leads to changes in global trade patterns. Due to climate change, many regions have become less productive due to changes in weather patterns, and other regions see an increase in demand for agricultural goods. It leads to changes in the trade patterns globally that potentially affect the competitiveness of certain crops and regions (Fujimori et al., 2019). For example, many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa are severely experiencing frequent and severe droughts that result in poor soil quality, limited water access and limited investment in agriculture. It is highly affecting crop yields and livestock production. In the South-Asia region and South-East, a large population of farmers is highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture. HoweverFujimori et al. (2019) stated that, changes in rainfall patterns, such as more intense monsoons and longer dry spells, are making the agricultural process difficult for farmers to grow crops and maintain high-quality soil health. Moreover, many regions of Latin America are also now experiencing severe and frequent droughts due to changes in temperature and rainfall patterns that affect water availability levels and crop yields ( 2023). Moreover, it increases challenges for small-scale farmers due to the lack of access to new technologies and irrigation to adapt to the changing conditions (Fujimori et al., 2019). On the other hand, due to climate change, many regions of Northern Europe, Russia, Canada, the Central Asia region and the South American region see an increase in agricultural productivity.

Impact of Climate change related political developments on Agriculture Sector:

As stated by Bos & Gupta (2019) Climate change-related political developments have a significant impact on the agriculture sector, and it impacts regulations, governmental policies and funding-related decisions for agriculture and the environment. Due to climate change, Governments in different regions introduce policies and regulations to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change on the agricultural field. It includes promoting sustainable farming practices, setting emissions reduction targets and also providing financial support to farmers affected by extreme weather events in the agriculture sector (Bos & Gupta, 2019). It is also now affecting international trade-related agreements related to the agricultural sector. The increasing demand for promoting sustainable agriculture and forces to reduce GHG and CO2 emissions from the agriculture sector also change international trade agreements. As stated by Fahad & Wang (2020) The increasing climate change issue influences Governments and international organisations to invest in research and development for increasing the development of climate-resilient crops and increasing sustainable agricultural practices to enhance the benefits for the farmers and the agricultural sector as well. However, this situation creates the opportunity for collaboration between farmers, governments and other business stakeholders to address the challenges of climate change in the agricultural sector through sharing knowledge of sustainable farming practices and promoting and adopting innovation in the agricultural sector (Fahad & Wang, 2020). The impact of climate change on the agricultural sector also resulted in political instability and conflicts in many regions that also increased the threat to food security, water resources and losing access to land.

Individual, Business and Governmental level specific responses to manage the climate crisis:

To fight the issues associated with climate change, the following instructions should follow as responses to the climate crisis:

Individual farmers should adopt sustainable practices of agriculture and farming, including rotation of crop, conservation tillage, cover cropping technique and agroforestry to reduce GHG emissions, improve soil fertility and health and increase resilience to handle the impacts of climate change (Prideaux, Thompson &Pabel, 2020).

Governments of different regions, businesses and research institutions should increase their investment in developing climate-resilient technologies such as precision irrigation systems, drought-resistant crops and weather forecasting tools for improving the productivity of the agricultural sector and increasing the security of agricultural food.

Government should implement strict policies and regulations for the agricultural sector to enhance climate resilient and sustainable farming practices, such as carbon pricing policy, subsidies and incentives for sustainable agriculture and secure water management policies.

As found by Berrang-Ford et al. (2021) Businesses should implement sustainable supply chain practices such as influencing sustainable practices, sourcing sustainably produced agricultural products, and reducing the wastage of foods to reduce the issue of increase ng levels of GHG emissions. It will help businesses to promote sustainable agriculture.

As stated by Simpson et al. (2021) Governments of different countries should organise education and awareness programs and campaigns to share knowledge of sustainable farming practices, uses of new irrigation systems, uses of advanced technologies in agriculture etc. It will help to promote the individual and collective action of Governments, businesses and farmers to mitigate the issues associated with climate change, such as advocating for sustainable climate action, supporting sustainable practices and reducing food waste.

Governments and businesses should invest in producing renewable energy sources to reduce the increasing threat of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector.


It concluded that climate change significantly directly and indirectly impacts the agricultural sector. It includes changing patterns in weather, increasing temperature, outbreaks of pests and diseases, damaging soil quality, changing the market condition, changing the consumer's demands, increasing demand for sustainable farming practices and sustainably sourced agro products, and it also changes the governmental policies. However, the above-identified responses from individual, government and business levels, including education and awareness by sharing knowledge of sustainable farming practices, investing in renewable energy sources, and increasing sustainable farming practices, may reduce GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. It may also mitigate the climate change issues in the agricultural industry and promote food security.


Arora, N. K. (2019). Impact of climate change on agriculture production and its sustainable solutions. Environmental Sustainability, 2(2), 95-96.

Aryal, J. P., Sapkota, T. B., Khurana, R., Khatri-Chhetri, A., Rahut, D. B., & Jat, M. L. (2020). Climate change and agriculture in South Asia: Adaptation options in smallholder production systems. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 22(6), 5045-5075.

Berrang-Ford, L., Siders, A. R., Lesnikowski, A., Fischer, A. P., Callaghan, M. W., Haddaway, N. R., ... & Abu, T. Z. (2021). A systematic global stocktake of evidence on human adaptation to climate change. Nature Climate Change, 11(11), 989-1000.

Bos, K., & Gupta, J. (2019). Stranded assets and stranded resources: Implications for climate change mitigation and global sustainable development. Energy Research & Social Science, 56, 101215. 2023. US EPA. Climate Impacts on Agriculture and Food Supply | Climate Change Impacts | US EPA. (n.d.). Retrieved May 4, 2023, from,value%20of%20most%20food%20crops

Fahad, S., & Wang, J. (2020). Climate change, vulnerability, and its impacts in rural Pakistan: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 1334-1338.

Fears, D. (2019, May 6). One million species face extinction, U.N. report says. And humans will suffer as a result. WashingtonPost.

France24 (2021, September 4). Nearly 30% of 138,000 assessed species face extinction, says IUCN report.

Fujimori, S., Hasegawa, T., Krey, V., Riahi, K., Bertram, C., Bodirsky, B. L., ... & van Vuuren, D. (2019). A multi-model assessment of food security implications of climate change mitigation. Nature Sustainability, 2(5), 386-396.

Fujimori, S., Hasegawa, T., Krey, V., Riahi, K., Bertram, C., Bodirsky, B. L., ... & van Vuuren, D. (2019). A multi-model assessment of food security implications of climate change mitigation. Nature Sustainability, 2(5), 386-396.

Janssens, C., Havlík, P., Krisztin, T., Baker, J., Frank, S., Hasegawa, T., ... &Maertens, M. (2020). Global hunger and climate change adaptation through international trade. Nature Climate Change, 10(9), 829-835.

Kamba, A. A., Yelwa, J. F., Ojomugbokenyode, I. E., &Yaji, I. L. (2022). Analysis of the perceived effects of climate change on crop production among farmers of Argungu zone of Kebbi state agricultural development programme-ADP. International Journal of Agricultural Extension, 10(2).

Kogo, B. K., Kumar, L., &Koech, R. (2021). Climate change and variability in Kenya: a review of impacts on agriculture and food security. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23, 23-43.

Kogo, B. K., Kumar, L., &Koech, R. (2021). Climate change and variability in Kenya: a review of impacts on agriculture and food security. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23, 23-43.

Malhi, G. S., Kaur, M., & Kaushik, P. (2021). Impact of climate change on agriculture and its mitigation strategies: A review. Sustainability, 13(3), 1318.

Meredith, S. (2021, June 30). Why some of the world's biggest companies are increasingly worried about water scarcity. CNBC. Retrieved May 4, 2023, from

Prideaux, B., Thompson, M., &Pabel, A. (2020). Lessons from COVID-19 can prepare global tourism for the economic transformation needed to combat climate change. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 667-678.

Simpson, N. P., Mach, K. J., Constable, A., Hess, J., Hogarth, R., Howden, M., ... &Trisos, C. H. (2021). A framework for complex climate change risk assessment. One Earth, 4(4), 489-501.

Skendži?, S., Zovko, M., Živkovi?, I. P., Leši?, V., &Lemi?, D. (2021). The impact of climate change on agricultural insect pests. Insects, 12(5), 440. 2023. Overview. World Bank. (n.d.). Retrieved May 4, 2023, from,more%20than%2025%25%20of%20GDP.


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