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Investigating The Adidas Marketing Strategy In The UK Market


Task: In around 2500 words, write a report on research methodology investigating the concept of existing Adidas marketing strategy initiated in the UK market.


Chapter 3: Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction
The following study is focused on critically analysing the existing Adidas marketing strategy in UK. “Research methodology” is observed to be a set of sequential procedures, which are applied by researchers for investigating different facts as well as factors associated with the research variables. The current chapter of methodology sheds light on different elements for investigating the Adidas marketing strategy, while marketing their products in the UK market. Observing an accurate methodology is primary for the completion of a research as it enhances the performance of the study.

3.2 Research onion
The model for “research onion” as created by Saunders demonstrates differentiated legs and phases involved in the process of developing the research works. On the other hand, it can be stated that the onion layers are useful in providing detailed descriptions and explanations of different steps included and followed by the researcher’s during the ongoing research (Saunders et al., 2015). Based on the model and the included elements, the components for this research have been identified.

Adidas marketing strategy

Figure 1: Research Onion
(Source: Kumar, 2019)

Reference used

Methodology integrated


“Berge, F. and Gaede, J., 2017. Consumer Engagement in Social Media: A netnographic study of the company-owned Facebook pages of Nike and Adidas.”

Inductive research approach, exploratory design, secondary data from online posts and sources

These methods were in collaboration with the objectives and derivatives related to the topic of research

“Dumitrescu, L., Orzan, G. and Fuciu, M., 2015.Understanding the online consumer behaviour and the usage of the internet as a business environment–a marketing research. RevistaEconomic?, 67(3), pp.63-79.”

Deductive research approach, exploratory design, primary data collection through survey on 267 participants

These methods helped the researchers identify the utility of internet as a marketing tool in business operations 

“Pappas, N., 2016. Marketing strategies, perceived risks, and consumer trust in online buying behaviour. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 29, pp.92-103.”

Deductive approach, conclusive design, primary data collected through interviews

These methods helped in understanding the aspects of online buyer behaviour and the marketing process brands use online

“Ewerhard, A.C., Sisovsky, K. and Johansson, U., 2019. Consumer decision-making of slow moving consumer goods in the age of multi-channels. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 29(1), pp.1-22.”

Abductive approach, exploratory design, primary data collected through structured interviews on 12 participants

Selection of these methods helped in fulfilling the research objectives and understanding the Adidas marketing strategy utilised by businesses

Table 1: Choice and justification of methodology
(Source: Created by the learner)

3.3 Which research philosophy is considered in the present study of Adidas marketing strategy?
According to the statement of Fletcher (2017), “research philosophy” is demarcated as a fixed conjunction of beliefs, regarding the process or pathway through which information about various phenomenon could be collected, evaluated, analysed, and applied. Primarily there are three types of research philosophy that researchers need to consider while conducting a study; they are identified as positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. Each philosophy is associated with a specific set of data collection and analysis method that would benefit the researcher in achieving the results expected through the study (Quinlan et al., 2019).

3.3.1 Justification for selecting research philosophy (positivism)
Although there are different research philosophies applicable in the research as per the problems identified in the study, positivism philosophy has selected during this investigation as this has helped the researchers in gathering different statistical as well as scientific information from the sample participants (Kennedy, 2017). One of the main reasons behind selecting this philosophy is its ability of revealing different hidden or less explored information associated with the current Adidas marketing strategy, along with its existing loopholes. The positivism philosophy has been selected for the completion of this study, since it enables performer to gather primary data through surveys as per the requirement of the study (Ray, 2017). Interpretivism philosophy is utilised in a study with only secondary data whereas pragmatism philosophy is implemented in studies that requires inclusion of both primary and secondary data. Since, this study would require interpretation of primary data only, positivism philosophy is utilised. 

3.4 Research approach
“Research approach”is characterised as a set of planning, along with different procedural elements, through which the researchers can get an idea of the broader methodological assumptions for the investigation. The major approach types are- deductive, abductive and inductive approaches. These enquiry attitudes support the scholar to conclude the course of the study through accurate data collection and analysis that are in alignment with the known premises of the study (Gray, 2019). Cuervo?Cazurraet al. (2017) mentioned that research approaches are generally selected as per the contexts of the problems identified during the preliminary investigation.

3.4.1 Justification of selecting research approach (deductive)
Since the research aims to analyse the existing Adidas marketing strategy and models in UK market, therefore, deductive approach has been applied during this investigation process. The deductive approach helps in understanding the progression of collecting and analysing information as per the known premises of marketing applied in the study. Since the completion of the study would not produce new theoretical approaches and would continue to broaden the existing Adidas marketing strategy and their impact, deductive approach is essential for the fulfilment of research objectives. Abductive approach would sanction the examiner to achieve testable outcomes through known attributes. Similarly, an inductive attitude would offer acanvasser to develop untested conclusions through the framework of known premises.

3.5 Research design
Research design helps in selecting or choosing other integrated components through a logical as well as coherent way. According to the statement of Attia and Edge (2017), a research design can help in ensuring the ways of addressing research problems. The two main research designs that help researchers recognise the data collection and analysis framework for their study are exploratory and conclusive research designs. The exploratory design helps researchers conduct studies based on the existing aspect of study in fulfilling the research objectives. Conclusive or explanatory designs help researchers in explaining the internal functioning of the known aspects. This is also supportive in constituting a blueprint for the collecting, measuring, and analysing the collected information.

3.5.1 Justification for selecting research design (exploratory)
In this case, since the researcher(s) aimed to investigate about the existing Adidas marketing strategy specifically in the UK market, therefore, it can be easily assumed that they focused on ‘exploring’ the existing things, rather than explaining or describing it. Apart from this, the ‘research design’ has also facilitated the scholar(s) in identifying the intended issues of the existing marketing strategies of Adidas influencing the behaviour of the customers, along with some positive and progressive recommendations. Since, this study would require exploring the internal aspects of Adidas marketing strategy on the UK market, selection of “exploratory research design” is justified inaccomplishment of the study. 

3.6 Methods of Data Collection
Since the investigation includes direct involvement of the company for analysing the existing Adidas marketing strategy and its impacts on the UK customer population, therefore, primary quantitative methodology has been performed for gathering information regarding the topic. The study process included quantitative methods, through which the researcher(s) has collected different real-time and unbiased information from the sample. Information from the 104 customers of Adidas would be gathered through survey monkey.

3.6.1 Justification for selecting data collection methods (quantitative)
The study will utilise elements of primary data collection methods through survey process. As per the requirements, the researcher(s) has surveyed 104 Adidas consumers through online platform and closed-ended questionnaire using survey monkey. The survey questions will be set as per the research questions and distributed online to consumers of Adidas for better fulfilment of the data collection process. Accurate implementation of the questions would help the researcher gather pertinent and necessary information essential for achieving the core elements of research. Selecting survey as means of gathering data for this study is based on the core research elements of the study. This method of data collection would help the researcher gather relevant data from the consumers of the company and help in analysing the impact of Adidas marketing strategy on the customer segment. Secondary data collection has not been considered for this study, as it would not provide a comprehensive and updated understanding of the marketing tactics that the brand applies.

3.7 Sample size and Sampling technique
Sampling technique can be defined as a pathway of providing equal rights to all the desired candidates or samples for being selected in the research process. Since the investigation process includes quantitative methodology for collecting required data, therefore, quantitative sampling techniques have been applied during the selection of participants for the survey. In case of survey, as influenced from the viewpoint of Walliman (2017), non-probability sampling has been applied, as this ensures the elimination of any kind of biasness and provides equal opportunities to all the deserving candidates. Through this way, total 104 consumers of Adidas living in UK have been selected to analyse the Adidas marketing strategy.

3.7.1 Justification for sampling technique and sample size (104 customers through non-probability)
The non-probability sampling technique allows researcher to include specific group of participants in the study and helps in better analysis of the data collected through limited number of participants. Survey invitation was sent to 150 customers associated with Adidas’ fan pages on social media sites, of which, 104 customers responded back to the survey link. Thus, 104 respondents were selected for participating in the survey.This method is also cost effective and time saving considering the surety of responses from selected group of consumers. However, the core issue associated with this sampling technique is the lack of understanding in identifying biased views and the lack of general options within the participating group. The selection of probability sampling has not been considered, as it would require selection of random consumers from the market, this would reduce the scope of gathering accurate data and response from the participating members. The time and cost would increase in case of simple random sampling technique.

3.8 Methods of Data Analysis
The quantitative data collection process requires analysing the information through different methods, as the contexts of the collected data could not be similar in quantitative and qualitative approaches (Aithal, 2017). Implementation of accurate data analysis techniques is essential for the completion of the study. Accurate data analysis techniques help the researchers in gathering relevant knowledge regarding the aim of the study and enhance the effectiveness of the outcomes generated through study of Adidas marketing strategy. It is necessary for the researchers to implement primary data analysis techniques for developing outcomes from data collected through primary methods. Similarly, secondary data needs to be analysed through thematic analysis for better understanding and interpretation of collected data. For example, researcher(s) has received statistical and graphical information from the survey method.

The researcher would adopt implementation of regression analysis for data collected through SPSS. As per the understanding portrayed by Darlington and Hayes (2016), regression analysis states the relation between variables within the collected data. It also provides information about the ways known and unknown variables are impacted through similar levels of change.

3.8.1 Justification of data analysis methods (thematic and SPSS)
Therefore, as per the collected information, frequency or statistical analysis has been followed during the process of data interpretation. Since, this study utilises primary data collected through survey, the integration of frequency analysis techniques have been implemented for fulfilling the objectives for the study of Adidas marketing strategy. In order to analyse the quantitative data collected by survey, SPSS software will be used. The use of SPSS software for data analysis would be effective in gathering relevant information from the raw data gathered through survey monkey. Utilising digital methods of data analysis benefits the researcher in developing accurate information from the survey results. Analysis of information through regression would allow the researcher to develop findings of the study as per requirements (Brook and Arnold, 2018). Numbers and values are effectively studied through regression analysis and provides researcher with the opportunity to develop the findings as necessary for achieving objectives.

3.9 Ethical consideration
It is essential for researchers to comply with the ethical standards of data collection and analysis while conducting a research that requires opinions and notions from other elements. This would enhance the veracity and authenticity of the outcomes proposed through the study. As opined by Cortiet al. (2019), the application of effective ethical standards and guidelines in a study enables the researchers to gather relevant data and ensure authenticity of the study. This study would consider the aspects of Data Protection Act of 1998 while utilising and implementing the data gathered from the survey. Participants within the survey would not be coerced into giving their opinion regarding the Adidas marketing strategy. The researcher would also utilise the data for academic purposes only and not store the same for future purposes. Relevant courtesy would be presented to other authors and studies that helped the researcher in forming justifications and completion of the study. The survey process would be done online, and participating elements would have the opportunity to leave the process at any time, they would also have the scope of not answering any questions as per their liking. Opinions gathered from the data collection techniques would not be manipulated by the researchers and would be simplified as per the research objectives. Every participant would be acknowledged, and researchers’ opinion would not be imposed on them while data collection process. Following these aspects of ethical standards, the research on impact of Adidas marketing strategy on UK consumers would be developed effectively.

3.10 Research Timeline
Figure 2: Gantt chart
(Source: Created by the learner)

The Gantt chart suggests the type of planning and execution that would be undertaken for the research. Systematic process of identifying the research topic, literature review, methodology and other essential elements would be vital for the completion of the study within the limited period. Chronological and disciplined timetable for conducting the study is essential for fulfilling the research objectives associated with this study.

3.11 Research Limitation
The study on Adidas marketing strategy experiences several limitations while fulfilling the objectives due to the selected methodology for its completion. These limitations would affect the outcomes developed through data analysis moderately. Using “primary data collection and analysis” methods for the completion of the study is effective but selecting the non-probability sampling technique for selection of participants would present the chances of biasness in data collection greatly. This could affect the outcomes generated through analysis of biased data. The choice of implementing positivism philosophy has been beneficial for the study but opting for pragmatism philosophy would have been effective in this case. Utilising both the forms of data is beneficial for developing a comprehensive aspect of the study of Adidas marketing strategy as per the research objectives and aim. The time and cost restraints have also affected quality of the study as it reduced the efficiency of data collection and analysis process necessary for fulfilling the objectives of the study. Selecting many sample size for data collection using sampling technique presented higher risk of gathering biased data and affecting the outcomes of the study.

3.12 Summary
It is evident from the chapter that the research will include positivism philosophy in fulfilling the research objectives through analysis and accumulation of information. The techniques of “primary data collection” and synthesis would be executed within this element. Using exploratory research design and deductive approach to data collection and analysis, the scholar could identify different bearings of Adidas marketing strategy on the consumers’ opinion in the UK market. Using non-probability sampling technique on 104 UK consumers of Adidas for quantitative data collection process would be effective for the study. The researcher would also comply with the ethical standards and establish authentic results through the completion of the study of Adidas marketing strategy.

Reference List
Aithal, P.S., 2017. ABCD Analysis as Research Methodology in Company Case Studies. Adidas marketing strategy International Journal of Management, Technology, and Social Sciences (IJMTS), 2(2), pp.40-54.

Attia, M. and Edge, J., 2017. Be (com) ing a reflexive researcher: a developmental approach to research methodology. Open Review of Educational Research, 4(1), pp.33-45.

Berge, F. and Gaede, J., 2017. Consumer Engagement in Social Media: A netnographic study of the company-owned Facebook pages of Nike and Adidas.

Brook, R.J. and Arnold, G.C., 2018. Adidas marketing strategy Applied regression analysis and experimental design. Routledge.

Corti, L., Van den Eynden, V., Bishop, L. and Woollard, M., 2019. Managing and sharing research data: a guide to good practice. SAGE Publications Limited.

Cuervo?Cazurra, A., Mudambi, R., Pedersen, T. and Piscitello, L., 2017. Research methodology in global strategy research. Global Strategy Journal, 7(3), pp.233-240.

Darlington, R.B. and Hayes, A.F., 2016. Regression analysis and linear models: Concepts, applications, and implementation. Guilford Publications.

Dumitrescu, L., Orzan, G. and Fuciu, M., 2015. Understanding the online consumer behaviour and the usage of the internet as a business environment–a marketing research. Adidas marketing strategy RevistaEconomic?, 67(3), pp.63-79.

Ewerhard, A.C., Sisovsky, K. and Johansson, U., 2019. Consumer decision-making of slow moving consumer goods in the age of multi-channels. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 29(1), pp.1-22.

Fletcher, A.J., 2017. Applying critical realism in qualitative research: methodology meets method. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 20(2), pp.181-194.

Gray, D.E., 2019. Doing research in the business world. Adidas marketing strategy Sage Publications Limited.

Kennedy, A.M., 2017. Macro-social marketing research: philosophy, methodology and methods. Journal of Macromarketing, 37(4), pp.347-355.

Kumar, R., 2019. Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. Adidas marketing strategy Sage Publications Limited.

Pappas, N., 2016. Marketing strategies, perceived risks, and consumer trust in online buying behaviour. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 29, pp.92-103.

Quinlan, C., Babin, B., Carr, J. and Griffin, M., 2019. Business research methods. South Western Cengage.

Ray, C., 2017. Logical positivism. A companion to the philosophy of science, pp.243-251.

Saunders, M.N., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A. and Bristow, A., 2015. Understanding research philosophy and approaches to theory development.

Walliman, N., 2017. Research methods: The basics. Adidas marketing strategy Routledge.


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