Research On Absenteeism Assignment In A Private Firm
Task: Conduct a research on absenteeism assignment on the impact of absenteeism in a private firm.
Chapter 1: Introduction
The introduction chapter of absenteeism assignment in the study described the problems and issues that would be further addressed in the study. The main aim is to exhibit the nature of the study, significance of problems along with the purpose of conducting research. Besides, the introduction chapter in study serves diverse purposes in which providing synopsis on the entire study is determined primary objective. The study focuses on conducting research on the impact of absenteeism in a private firm. All the sections discussed in the absenteeism assignment ensure a good flow of information that has been extracted by generating relevant information on absenteeism.
1.2 Background and justification of the study developed in this absenteeism assignment
Absenteeism is 40% more in the public sector as compared to private sectors. Evidence from diverse studies has proven that in contemporary business era, absenteeism is promoted at an accurately higher rate in private sectors as compared to public sectors. The increasing workload and competition are identified as a reason behind this increasing rate of absenteeism in private firms. Employees’ absenteeism hampers the financial position of private firms, as they encounter million-dollar losses in productivity and revenue that occur due to low morale within employees and motivational factors. Major causes behind the absenteeism in private firms are identified due to harassment or bullying, burnout, low morale, stress along with child or eldercare. All the factors exhibit that when employees are unable to sustain job satisfaction or are unable to maintain work-life balance, absenteeism is encouraged by the employees. Employees are even encountered when they do not follow proper protocol of attendance in their workplace. Limited potential for growth, strife among the staff and poor quality performance are some of the identified issues faced by employees if they endorse more of absenteeism in their professional career.
According to Mohd-----------------, it is clear in this absenteeism assignment that measuring the rate of absenteeism in an organization is prefered to be an effective method in measuring overall labour effectiveness (OLE). Most of the companies are found to integrate with a key performance indicator (KPI), for measuring the quality, performance and utilization of workforce along with its impact on the level of productivity. Based on the traditional approaches of employee management, it has been stated that monitoring the absent rate of staff would help the management system to analyse its cost or loss incurred due to absenteeism. After analysing accurate rate, effective measures and practices were selected by the management system to overcome the issues of absenteeism that can be resolved by promoting an ethical working environment, providing equal opportunity to all employees as these would encourage and motivate them. Besides, measures to improve the work-life management are taken as this is determined as primary aspects to impact the rate of absenteeism in private firms.
1.3 The current study
The current study designed in this absenteeism assignment focuses on explaining the impact of absenteeism (dependent variable) on work-life balance, employee motivation and employee performances (independent variables) in private firms. The finding of the study is to portray why it is necessary for the private firms to improve their organizational structure and culture while maintaining an ethical working environment that would enable the workforce to endeavour motivation that would help them get job satisfaction along with maintaining accurate balance in their work-life with effective support of their professional employers. Co-relationship of absenteeism with employee performance, work-life balance and employee motivation have been discussed in the literature review portion, to show that all the respective variables are interrelated to each other, effects of one would impact the others.
From the findings and discussion gained in the absenteeism assignment, it would be depicted that the primary impact on absenteeism renders due to work-life balance. Hence, employee motivation and employee performance are considered as secondary factors that bolster absenteeism. In the matter of methodology section, primary methods of data collection have been considered. Besides both qualitative and quantitative analysis has been conducted in which surveys are performed on 55 participants associated with private firms along with 10 employees of the private firm, for conducting an interview. Finally, the conclusion part of the study discusses limitations and loopholes on the research conducted. Recommendations are made that can be integrated by the researcher for future aspects if its conduct research on the same study as provided in the absenteeism assignment.
1.4 Problem Statement
The impact on absenteeism due to work-life balance, employee motivational factors and employee’s performance in private sectors are identified as major problem statements for the study. During the time of unexpected circumstances that demands giving raise to absenteeism, it leads to directly affecting the corporate profits, employee experiences and heavily on the organization's productivity. In the present context of absenteeism assignment, Bureau of Labor Statistics shows that the rate of absenteeism in private firms has been increased with 2.9 per cent. Absenteeism affects not only affects organisational productivity but also hinders individual productivity and team performance. To control the rate of absenteeism, the company bears administrative costs which include time incurred by executive members, financial costs for setting up training and development secession, cost incurred on employee replacements and over staffing costs.
1.5 What are the necessary research questions outlined in the case of absenteeism assignment?
1.5.1 What is the impact of satisfaction level of job on absenteeism?
1.5.2 Is there any significant impact of work-life balance on absenteeism?
1.5.3 How is the motivation level of employees related to absenteeism?
1.6 Proposed conceptual framework
1.6.1 Hypothesis 1
H0: Interrelationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism is relatively high in the private firm
H1: Interrelationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism is relatively low in the private firm
1.6.2 Hypothesis 2
H0: Interrelationship between employee motivation and absenteeism is relatively high in the private firm
H1: Interrelationship between employee motivation and absenteeism is relatively low in the private firm
1.6.3 Hypothesis 3
H0: Interrelationship between work-life balance and absenteeism is relatively high in the private firm
H1: Interrelationship between work-life balance and absenteeism is relatively low in the private firm
1.7 research Study scope
The absenteeism assignment conducted on the absenteeism due to employee motivation, employee’s performance and work-life balance are found to be a general issue identified in most of the private firms and are determined as the included scope of the study. The information discussed in the study covers all the necessary variables associated with absenteeism in private firms. However, one bias is encompassed while conducting this study, which is only the private sector, is considered to explain the impact of absenteeism on corporate functioning and employees. Facts and information associated with public sectors have been neglected, making the study biased and this point excluded scope of the study outlined in the absenteeism assignment. Credibility and reliability of the study is made by conducting both qualitative and quantitative analysis under primary methods of collecting data, accentuating included scope of the study. However, it can be determined if secondary methods were used it could have helped to sustain more insights on the impacts of absenteeism and its effects on the private firms and its employees.
The necessary time frame that was required to collect insights on absenteeism is associated with private firms are not incurred and hence are determined as the excluded scope of the study. Notwithstanding, with the above-mentioned fact, the study encompasses diverse issues and challenges that are proven to be encountered by both organization and its employees due to an increasing rate of absenteeism has been explained and discussed in an eventually comprehensive manner while covering all the independent variables along with dependent variables.
1.8 Identification of significance of research study
The main objective of the study illustrated in the absenteeism assignment is to exhibit and explain crucial losses that would be encountered by both private firms and employees if they do not control the increasing rate of absenteeism. From the study it has been evaluated that all the three factors like employee’s performance, motivation and work-life balance directly impacts the rate of absenteeism. Among this work-life balance is found to be primary aspects that majorly can directly impact on the changing rate of absenteeism as compared to other variables.
There are many practices, methods and theories considered in the absenteeism assignment that can be incorporated by the private firms to reduce their growth rates of absenteeism like Maslow’s theory to control absenteeism, equity theory along with hedonistic theory. All the theories discussed are proven to be effective in endorsing work-life balance and employee’s motivation within the employees that would ultimately lead to increase the level of job-satisfaction while emphasizing majorly in reducing rate of absenteeism in private firms. The absenteeism assignment with the help of relevant examples of private firms has also explained how with the help of these theories, they successfully identified the major causes of absenteeism while trying to take necessary steps to restructure their organizational culture so that ethical working environments can be promoted and absenteeism can be eliminated. With the research methodology different methods integrated to collect relevant information for the study has been conducted.
Chapter 2: Literature review (2000)
The main objective of this chapter designed in the absenteeism assignment is to sustain an in-depth understanding on the effects of absenteeism on the workplace and its impact on employee motivation, work-life balance and job satisfaction. In this chapter, all the dependent and independent variables associated with absenteeism are described in a comprehensive manner. It has been determined that absenteeism impacts both the personal and professional aspects of employees. Under personal factors attitude of employees are analysed, whereas, in the matter of workplace absenteeism impacts directly on organizational culture, stress working environment, rewards along with motivations.
2.2 Dependent Variable (Absenteeism in a private firm) (450)
Absenteeism in the private firm is recorded to be increasing which may indicate sick building syndrome, lack of motivation, poor morale, mere indiscipline and poor establishment of organizational policies. Workers sometimes decide to render distance from their work due to certain personal and other related issues which bolster low pay, the occasional hangover, lacking in work-life balance and job de-motivation. However, absenteeism can be determined by a habitual failure of appearance on regular dutty by the employees. Besides, absenteeism can be reviewed as reoccurring absent from obligations, work and authority, while reflecting employees dissatisfaction and demoralization.
Figure 1: variables of employees remains absent in private firms
Absenteeism can be broadly categorised into two aspects innocent or involuntary absenteeism and culpable or voluntary absenteeism. On the contrary, when due to laziness or own will employees chooses to take leave it is then considered as voluntary absences and hence can be avoided. It has been observed herein absenteeism assignment that in most of the private firm’s absenteeism affects the leadership style and workforce of the firm starts following paternalistic and autocratic leadership style which leads to alienate and demotivate employees. This explains how absenteeism directly hinders organizational productivity. Besides, it has been proven that employees who adhere to absenteeism by not showing up for work create pressure on an organization that leads to hampering its competitiveness and budgetary.
It has been evaluated in this segment of absenteeism assignment that absenteeism highly promotes a lack of team spirit. According to Strömberg ----------, when a workforce lacks unity, effective interpersonal relationship and synergy among its teams, it would encompass unproductive aspects that would hamper operation management process of the company to enhance and adapt necessary changes in a flexible manner. The trendy reason behind absenteeism in private firms is found to be due to conflicts in their workplace. Bullying and harassment are identified as reasons why most of the female staff in private firms choose to be absent as they find it best to avoid unpleasant working situations. Low workplace morale, stress, burnout and time theft are some of the other reasons behind culpable absenteeism that leads to de-motivate employees to render regular attendance in their workplace. Based on the observation of Badubi -------------, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2.8% is an acceptable absence rate from the total full-time salary and wage workers. If the rate of absence goes beyond this calculation it can show signs of alerts that the company is required to restructure its organisational structure and culture to reduce its increasing rate of absenteeism. In the matter of private firms, absenteeism is more critical issues as compared to that of public sectors, as the workload is comparatively more due to the highly competitive market for private firms. For instance, Pentland Groups, a wholesaler in the UK, changed up their business policies when they noticed absenteeism from their top employees. After surveying Pentland’s employees it was known that the office hour was not accurate and suitable which leads to hampering their work-life balance and a major cause for de-motivation. However, after the changes in organizational policy, employees performance was found to be improved as the employees were endeavouring suitable time to accommodate their personal obligations.
2.3 Independent Variable 1 & Dependent Variable (Interrelationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism in the workplace)
Studies considered preparing this absenteeism assignment exhibiting the relationship between the variable of job satisfaction and absenteeism are found to be inconsistent. However, job satisfaction is proven to be one of the factors influencing employee motivational aspects due to absenteeism. As opposed by Richmond----------------, there is slightly any correlation found between these two variables that are job satisfaction and absenteeism. On the contrary, it has been evaluated that absenteeism can be expensive for both organizations as well as employees as it hampers effective management of the operation management process and rewards and other opportunities for the employees to grow and sustain success in their professional career. It can be determined that increasing the rate of job satisfaction would reduce the rate of absenteeism in a private firm. From the UK business report it has been evaluated that most of the private firms integrate business management strategies emphasizing mostly in adapting methods with which they would be able to control rate of employee turnover and employee retention along with reducing the percentage of absenteeism. As high absenteeism within the firm would indicate to reduce the sense of satisfaction within the workforce which would ultimately lead to hampering overall productivity and performance of the company in the market. Thus, it has determined in the context of this absenteeism assignment that job satisfaction and absenteeism shares a weak negative relationship. It has been observed that job satisfaction and absenteeism are found to be a more slightly affected case of workers who perform manual work, blue-collar workers.
Low job satisfaction are proven as primary causes for absenteeism. With the assistance of hedonistic theory of motivation it has been depicted that employees who find their job role more interesting, pleasurable and challenging incorporate absenteeism less as compared to the employees who find their work boring. Job satisfaction is directly linked with employee motivation and is considered as an instrumental factor that encourages the employees to perform their work systematically. However, it is the responsibility of the management system and leaders of the private firms to maintain an ethical working environment that would enhance motivational levels within the employees which would ultimately trigger job satisfaction. This approach illustrated in this segment of absenteeism assignment would lead to reducing the rate of absenteeism while promoting morale and productivity with firms that can sustain a competitive edge, growth and success in the market. According to Jinnett-------, enhancing the motivation and job satisfaction level encourages employees to explore more innovative and creative solutions and ideas with the help of which private firms can mitigate its contemporary issues like incorporating with changing technology, taxations and high competitions.
2.4 Independent Variable 2 & Dependent Variable (Interrelationship between employee motivation and absenteeism)
Based on the above discussion provided within the absenteeism assignment it can be evaluated that the more the level of motivation is high within the employee the less they would absent while skipping their duty and responsibilities. Inabilities of the employees may concern as a reason behind absenteeism, motivation towards work are proven to be a major factor in determining the rate of absenteeism in a private firm. The absenteeism assignment examines the study of Schaumberg ------------, organizations that encounter a high rate of absenteeism due to de-motivational factors within the employees encounter with endangering economic stability, a lower rate of business performance and individual productivity, demotivated team and poor working quality which leads to dissatisfied clients. Hence, this factor is eventually identified by the management system of a private firm and they try different methods and theories to enhance the level of employee’s motivation. Private firms like Dyson, manufacturer of the vacuum cleaner and Bestway Group, grocery store incorporate Maslow’s Theory for management rate of absenteeism. With the integration of this theory on the case scenario of absenteeism assignment, Best Ways managers identify the main reason behind increasing the rate of absenteeism. This enables the company to understand the reason behind employees showing motivation towards their works and endeavor absenteeism. The company improved its toilets and established good ventilation as per the physiological stage of Maslow’s Theory as the rate of absenteeism was increasing due to personal aspects of the employees which were earlier not focused by directors of a company. In the context, Deery------------, stated that Maslow’s theory is determined as a useful approach in managing absenteeism which occurs due to lack in fulfillment of employees basic physiological desires in the workplace which can be a reason for motivational factors.
According to Jalagat ----------------, absenteeism disrupts the production line; leads to creating more pressure on the remaining workforce and misses the vital schedules. On the other side, the lack of motivational factors is determined as counterproductive to all the above-mentioned facts. Hence, considering the readings provided in this segment of absenteeism assignment it is found to be mandatory for the management system of private firms to stabilize the working environment that would encourage employees’ motivations and engagement while reducing the rate of absenteeism. Some of the studies have empirically examined that fact and concluded that absenteeism is a theoretical model that defines long term key to consequence emotional labour.
2.5 Independent Variable 3 & Dependent Variable (Interrelationship between work-life balance and absenteeism)
Policies and programs facilitating accurate work-life balance ensures that the multiple demands of employees outside the corporate sectors are effectively managed. As conflicts faced by employees between their personal and professional lives promote absenteeism which leads to diminishing the quality of both employees and private firms by affecting its outcomes and turnover. Many of the private firms in the UK like Dyson keep emphasizing the different approaches to improve work-life balance, ensuring that it would help the company enhance its employee’s strength, morale and job satisfaction level within them. With the assistance of equity theory described in this section of absenteeism assignment it can be depicted that when the allocation of work is done in an equal manner between every employee, it reduces the stress from the employees. Thus, this theory is formulated to address the issues of inequality due to which one employee is overloaded with extra tasks, causing the reason behind absenteeism.
According to De Stobbeleir------------------, employees spend most of their time in their workplace. Hence, an excess load of work or working hours within the same remuneration can be determined as a de-motivational factor, encouraging absenteeism. These less personal hours along with high emotional exhaustion would cause employees to manage their own time for achieving preference working hours. Factors associated with work-life balance mentioned in the absenteeism assignment are earning, location of the job, working hour and other related things. Thus, companies who do not endorse such programs so that employees can stay motivated while rendering job satisfaction from their job role experiences a high rate of absenteeism. As opined Sharma-----------------, low range of work-life balance satisfies the employees while encouraging them to break their continuation on attending work. Managing the work-life balance between the personal and professional life is determined as a challenging approach for the employees in private firms due to high workloads that eventually demands effective support of employers. It has been proven that when employees don't receive that necessary support from their executives and employees, absenteeism is encouraged. Work evolves survival and necessary, however, this composition in the private firm has changed. Targeted related pressure along with family burden makes it difficult for the employees to balance their work-life and the individuals start demanding professional support. This issue identified in the absenteeism assignment is found mostly on female employees as compared to male. Based on the UK’s corporate laws, every private firm is mandatory to incorporate flexible working hours especially for the female employees.
From the above discussion it has been evaluated that absenteeism in the private firm has become major factors influencing the turnover of employees in an adverse manner. Employees are considered as the most valuable asset for the functioning and success of the company and if they are not actively participating in the operation management process, the company would encounter losses like poor quality management, dissatisfied client base, low rate of individual productivity along with overall organizational performance. It has been observed in the present context of absenteeism assignment that workplace incivility leads in promoting absenteeism by reducing their level of job satisfaction, increasing the-motivational factors for the company which makes it difficult for them to manage their work-life balance.
3.1 Philosophy, Strategy, Methods, Design and Approach of the Research
As depicted by (), research philosophy is an important research technique of preparing an effective plan of the entire research activity. This is because the philosophy reveals the actual purpose of the research and the researcher can adopt different other methodologies successfully. The philosophy of research can be classified in three categories including Positivism, Interpretivism and Realism. In the current study, the researcher has considered positivism philosophy of research as the quantitative method of research has been adopted in the study. Based on the application of positivism philosophy, the researcher has focused on factual knowledge through observation.
According to (), research approach can be considered as assumptions for gathering and analyzing data for the research purpose. There are three anatomies of approaches of research including deductive, inductive and abductive approach and these are applied in research work based on the applicability. In the study, the researcher has adopted deductive approach as the entire research has been based on existing theory. As mentioned by (), the deductive reasoning has been used as a guideline for presenting factual evidence. Hence, the researcher has emphasized on the factual evidence considering the application of deductive approach of the research.
As mentioned by (), research method has been considered as main element of a research project which includes perspective of research and research outcome. The reason provided in the absenteeism assignment is the research method enhances the process of the entire research activity and the researcher can enhance quality of the research. Research method has been classified in two categories including quantitative method of research and qualitative method of research. The method of the research depends on the consideration of data collection techniques as collection of data reveals what type information would be considered in the study. The current research project on absenteeism assignment has considered quantitative and qualitativeboth methods of research for enhancing the quality of the research result. It has helped to get fruitful result to fulfill research objectives and the standard of the research work has been developed.
As asserted by (), the research design is one of the important methodologies of the research work as it focuses on the reliability of the research result. The design of research can be classified in three categories including explanatory research, exploratory research and descriptive research. In the current study the explanatory research design has been considered by the researcher as the focus has been made on the improvement of the understanding of the topic. The explanatory research design chosen in the absenteeism assignment has helped to the researcher to make coherent analysis of the topic absenteeism in private firm and the aims and objectives of the research have been fulfilled.
As opined by (), research strategy has been considered as a step by step process of action that provides right direction to the efforts of the researcher. Research strategy may be four types including case study, interviews, survey and action-oriented research. In the current study work on absenteeism assignment, the researcher has adopted survey and interview processes of research for fulfilling research objectives. The survey method has been used as it helps to consider a large number of participants in the research and researcher can get fruitful result from the study. On the other hand, the interview method helps to get quality information regarding the research topic and it ensures effective result of the research.
3.2 Time Horizons
Figure 1: Gantt chart
(Source: Developed by Learner)
3.3 Framework of Research Model
Research model framework depicts the structure of the research planning and helps the researcher to formulate relevant questions. This is because research questions are important for analyzing collected data of the research. Research questions have been framed according to the aims and objectives of the research and based on objectives, aims and questions, the entire analysis has been done. This is why the framing of research questions has been considered in the research model framework. The research model framework can be classified into six categories including Hypotheses, Pillar questions, Descriptive categories, Models of operations research, formal hypothesis and practical ideal type. The current research study explored in the absenteeism assignment has been made considering two major research model frameworks which include Hypotheses and Pillar questions. This is because the pillar questions have helped to identify actual focus of the researcher and hypotheses have helped to make some assumptions for conducting the study. The description of research model framework helps to identify the entire research structure and the objectives of the study can be clearly identified. Hence, the researcher has considered research framework in the study clearly for maintaining quality and transparency of the research work.
3.4 Questions of Research
Framing the research questions based on the case of absenteeism assignment is important in a research work as it helps to conduct the research study successfully. In the current study, the researcher has framed three research questions to achieve research objectives successfully. Based on the feedback of survey and interview, the researcher has drawn the ultimate conclusion of the research.
3.4.1 RQ 1: What is the impact of job satisfaction level on absenteeism?
The survey has been made based on questionnaires and after that the result has been identified considering SPSS analysis. The correlations and regression analysis done within the absenteeism assignment has been made between two variables job satisfaction and absenteeism. After that the impact of job satisfaction and level and the importance of job satisfaction level have been identified. In the interview process, questions have been asked to the respondents and in this case the direct interaction has been made. It has helped to get reliable and detailed information regarding job satisfaction and its impact on absenteeism.
3.4.2 RQ2: Is there any significant influence of Wl-balance on absenteeism?
The second question mentioned in the absenteeism assignment is related to the relationship between work life balance and absenteeism and in this case the importance of work life balance has been identified. Subsequently the influence of work life balance on the absenteeism has been evaluated based on correlation and regression analysis through SPSS. The multiple-collinearity analysis has been identified in the study through SPSS analysis for identifying actual relationship between two variables. After considering statistical analysis build on the case scenario of absenteeism assignment, the interview answers have been analyzed to identify the opinion of participants regarding the impact of work life balance on absenteeism.
3.4.3 Research Question3: How is the motivation level of employees related to absenteeism?
The third question highlighted in the report on absenteeism assignment is related to the motivation level and in this case also the correlation and regression analysis techniques have been considered including multiple-collinearity for identifying significant impact of motivation level of employees on the absenteeism. Subsequently the interview questions have been analyzed for identifying whether positive motivation is really important to reduce absenteeism in the workplace or not.
Based on the answers of three questions, the researcher has made a conclusion regarding the impact of job satisfaction level, motivation and work life balance on absenteeism.
3.5 Research Instruments
Research instruments are vital in the research study as these help to conduct the entire study successfully and research objectives can be achieved. Questionnaires have been considered by the researcher for the survey study and for the interview process, the face to face interactions have been made.
3.6 Location of the Study
The survey process carried on the subject of absenteeism assignment has been done by the researcher through online at home and the field work has been done for the interview.
3.7 Population and Participants
The population and participants have significant role in the research process as population size helps to identify selected participants to conduct the research study successfully. Here, the population size has been considered 64 and it has been considered based on the private sector employees. 64 have been considered as total population and 55 participants have been selected for the survey. The interview has been conducted to 10 employees of different private firms of Australia. The population size and sample size have been considered based on the formula N/1+N*1/e^2 and here the sampling error has been considered 5%.
3.8 Sample Size
The sample size for the survey process has been considered 55 and for the interview it has been considered 10.
3.9 Pilot Study
The pilot study has been done on the case of absenteeism assignment for identifying the feasibility of the research study in terms of cost and application. Based on the preliminary experiment, it has been identified that the current research study is feasible and it could be implemented successfully.
3.10. Data Collection
The method of data collection has vital role to develop the quality of research study on absenteeism assignment successfully. Furthermore, the collection of data is needed to be made based on research ethics and in the current study; the data collection is made by the researcher based on data protection act, reliability and validity. The data collection method can be classified into two categories including primary data collection and secondary data collection. The primary data collection method has been used by the researcher for getting quality result from the research. This is because; the primary data collection method helps to get reliable information easily from the participants. On the contrary, in case of secondary data collection method, sometimes valid journals and articles could not be found and reliability could not be ensured. In the current research study, the researcher has considered primary qualitative and quantitative both types of method for conducting the research successfully and achieving objectives of the research on absenteeism assignment.
4.0 Findings and Discussions
4.1 Data Preparation
Data of survey has been prepared in the MS- excel and that has been entered into the SPSS for getting desired result. On the other side, the interview data has been interpreted in the study explored in the absenteeism assignment directly based on the feedback.
4.1.1 Sample Demographic
The sample age has been considered 30 to 50 years as maximum employees of private sector organizations are belonging to this age group. The sample has been considered based on the experience of the employees.
4.1.2 Data entry and missing data
The statistical analysis depicted in the absenteeism assignment has been made based on the responses of all respondents and no missing data has been found in the analysis. In case of data entry process, the researcher has made the entire work carefully to eliminate flaws. Hence, no issue has been found in the data entry process also.
4.2 Descriptive Statistics Analysis
Figure 2: Descriptive Analysis
(Source: Developed by Author)
Considering the above descriptive statistics table analysis represented in the context of this absenteeism assignment, it is clearly identified that the average value of employees of private firms is 12.8 and in this case the fluctuation in the average value is very high and it implies that the average value may increase upto (12.8 +8.7) = 21.5 and it might be as low as (12.8-8.7) = 4.1. Considering the mean value of motivation, it has been identified that the fluctuation is 11.86 and it reveals that the fluctuation level is comparatively higher than the absenteeism. It is observed in this absenteeism assignment that the fluctuation in the mean value of job satisfaction level is moderate and it says that the job satisfaction level is maintained in the private firms of Australia. In case of work life balance, the standard deviation in the mean value has been identified 24.1 and it is extremely high. It reveals that the work life balance has not been properly maintained in the private firms. In case of work life balance, it is also identified that the skewness is negative which implies that median and mean value both are less than the mode. In case of work life balance, the mean value may be as high as (182 + 24.1) = 206.1 and it may be as low as (182 – 24.1) = 157.9. Hence, the management of private firms needs to focus on the work life balance within the organisation.
4.3 Correlation and Regression Analysis
Figure 3: Correlations Analysis
(Source: Developed by Author)
Analyzing above table, it is found that correlation between absenteeism and motivation, correlation between absenteeism and satisfaction of job, correlations between absenteeism and balance of work life are negative which implies that there is no significant relationship between dependant and independent variables. From the above analysis illustrated herein absenteeism assignment, it has been clearly identified that there is inverse relationship between absenteeism and other variables including motivation, satisfaction of job and balance of work life.
Figure 4: Relationship between Absenteeism and Motivation
(Source: Developed by learner)
Figure 5: Absenteeism and Job Satisfaction
(Source: Developed by learner)
Based on the above graphical analysis done herein absenteeism assignment, it has also been identified that there is no significant relationship between absenteeism and job satisfaction, absenteeism and motivation.
Figure 6: R Squared value analysis (Regression Model)
(Source: developed by learner)
Based on the above model summary presented in the absenteeism assignment, it has been clearly identified that the adjusted R squared value is near to 9% and it implies that fitness of model is not good. The larger R squared value reveals that regression model fits observations and on the contrary lower R squared value is not good fitted for the observation.
Figure 7: Annova Testing
(Source: Developed by learner)
Based on the above discussion on absenteeism assignment, it has been identified that the F value is 2.718 and the value is not large which implies that the analysis is not statistically significant. The Annova testing actually used to identify the variance in the entire analysis. Based on the theoretical concept, it can be said that if the F critical value has been considered in the analysis, the significance of the test can be evaluated more prominently. In this case of absenteeism assignment F critical value has not been found and this is why the analysis has been made based on the value of F only.
4.4 Research Question 1: Results & Discussion
Figure 8: Coefficients
(Source: Developed by Learner)
Figure 9: Collinearity Diagnostics
(Source: Developed by Learner)
Based on the above mentioned table within the absenteeism assignment, it has been identified that the t value in case of job satisfaction is negative. Hence, in first case, the sample means are less than hypothesized mean value which reveals that null hypothesis would be rejected. The collinearity diagnostics helps to confirm that the serious problem exists with multicollinearity. Based on the table, it indicates that the collinearity tolerance in first case is 0 or almost 0 and hence, the multicollinearity issue has been eliminated from the analysis and the statistical analysis has provided reliable result regarding the study. The tolerance value of collinearity clearly depicts that the linear relationship exists between absenteeism and job satisfaction. If it is compared with the standard errors, it has been found in this absenteeism assignment that there is no significant difference between tolerance value and standard error. It implies that multicollinearity has not been existed between absenteeism and job satisfaction.
4.5 Research Question 2: Results and Discussion
Based on the above tables provided within the absenteeism assignment, it has been found that the t value in case of work life balance is positive and hence here null hypothesis has been accepted. The analysis shows that among three independent variables, the work life balance has significant impact on the absenteeism. It shows that the work life balance is needed to be developed in private organizations of Australia for eliminating the issue of absenteeism. In this case also it has been recognized that linear relationship exists between absenteeism and work life balance. Based on the analysis, it is clear that work life balance and absenteeism are strongly interrelated and hence, it can be depicted that less work life balance increases absenteeism in the private organizations.
4.6 Research Question 3: Results and Discussion
Based on the analysis, it is found that t value in case of motivation is negative and here null hypothesis would be rejected. Hence, there is no significant impact of motivation on the absenteeism. Here, it is found herein absenteeism assignment that linear relationship between two variables exists and multicollinearity has not been found. Furthermore, no difference has been found between standard error and tolerance value and hence, the analysis is justified.
Overall discussion provided in the above sections of absenteeism assignment says that job satisfaction and motivation does not have significant effect on absenteeism but work life balance has strong effect on absenteeism in the private firms.
Chapter 5: Conclusion
5.1 Summary of Outcomes
Based on the literature review and data analysis done in the sections of absenteeism assignment, it has been identified that absenteeism is harmful in case of developing productivity of private firms. Work life balance, Job satisfaction and Motivation these three independent variables have significant impact on the absenteeism and work life balance has most effective impact on absenteeism. Hence, it can be said that the absenteeism is an important issue in case of enhancing output level in the private sector. Day by day the absenteeism in various private firms is gradually increasing and it depicts that the performance of the private firms are deteriorated in Australia as well as throughout the world. Based on the overall statistical and interview analysis, it is clearly identified that work life balance is important to consider for enhancing the productivity and reducing absenteeism.
Considering summary outcomes obtained in the absenteeism assignment, it can be stated that organizational policies of private firms are needed to be developed to reduce the problem of absenteeism. This is because change in organizational policies would help to focus on the development of productivity and different private firms would ensure that work life balance is maintained in the workplace. Furthermore, positive working environment is needed to be created in the workplace to ensure that workers are doing their work effectively. The top level management needs to adopt organizational policies based on consultation with workers and it would decrease the absenteeism issue. The work life balance has been expected by all employees in the private sector as work pressure is comparatively higher in the private organizations than public sector organizations. Hence, the positive work environment can help to decrease the issue of work life balance and absenteeism can be eliminated.
5.3 Overall Contributions
The research project on absenteeism assignment has helped to the researcher to identify the negative effects of absenteeism on the productivity of private firms and different factors responsible for the absenteeism. Hence, the overall analysis of the topic has helped to identify that absenteeism is needed to be reduced in workplace of private firms for increasing performance of companies. Hence, the entire project examined in the absenteeism assignment has significant contribution to enhance consciousness in the top level management of private firms in Australia as well as throughout the world regarding absenteeism. The researcher has analyzed in detail the effect of absenteeism and most significant factor that supports the issue of absenteeism within the private firms. The researcher has identified the issue of absenteeism in private sector from past literature and subsequently the data analysis has been made to answer research questions.
5.4 Limitations of the Research Study
The research study has been made herein absenteeism assignment based on primary qualitative and quantitative methods but the current study is not free from limitations including budget and time. Budget is the important factor in case of conducting any research work and this is why the pilot study has been conducted by the researcher before starting the research work in full phase. If the budget can be increased, the current study might be conducted based on primary and secondary data both. Furthermore, time is another constraint in the research study. In the current research on absenteeism assignment, the researcher has completed the entire research work within a short time period and hence the huge sample size has not been considered in the study. In case of more time, the sample size can be increased and more effective result from the research can be identified.
5.5 Future Directions of Research
In the current research on absenteeism assignment, the researcher has considered three independent factors but in future the existing study can be developed based on more independent variables. It would help to identify the negative effect of absenteeism in the private sector and the organizational performance would be improved. Furthermore, if the budget can be expanded, it would help to enhance data analysis based on more survey and interview questions. In the current study, the interview has been conducted to 10 employees only but it can be increased more if the budget is developed and it would improve the quality of the result. The time is needed to be developed for collecting more information from the respondents. Hence, budget, time and increasing number of variables would help the researcher to do the entire research work more effectively. The secondary data collection method might help the researcher to get valuable information in future to conduct the research study more effectively and reason of absenteeism could be evaluated more prominently.
Based on the overall discussion on this absenteeism assignment, it is identified that the absenteeism in the private sector is really harmful in terms of economic growth. Hence, the top level management has to emphasize on the elimination of absenteeism by developing positive motivation, working environment, and work life balance and job satisfaction. If the job satisfaction level cannot be increased and work life balance cannot be maintained, it would increase stress of workers in the workplace. The study developed within the absenteeism assignment can be done more elaborately in future which would help to identify the effect of absenteeism clearly and solution can be provided regarding the increase of productivity of the organisation. The analysis of three independent variables done in the above context of absenteeism assignment clearly says that work life balance is important to consider in case of decreasing absenteeism in the workplace of private sector. The absenteeism has been identified in the public sector but the intensity of absenteeism has been found in the private sector. Employer and employee relationship can be increased in private firms based on enhancement of work life balance, job satisfaction and motivation.