From the inception of physics discipline, the thought of matter and energy has been a point of interest and debate for the researchers. Though the scientists earlier had a notion that the matter and energy could not be destroyed, they found it hard to prove it. It took them centuries to arrive at the current model of laws in thermodynamics. In the sub-branch of thermodynamics, the law of conservation of energy is mentioned under different theories of thermodynamics in a very detailed and relevant way.
The law of conservation is specifically described in the first law of thermodynamics, which mandates it strictly that any form of energy could not be destroyed and hence only is transformed into another form of energy. Although this law was being introduced 170 years, the researchers in the archaic era had mentioned the same theory in the denominations of matter and energy. The discussions in that era had also covered the scope of disappearing the matter and even creating any form of energy. These debates and discussions were well ahead of its time and lacked reference and support from proven theories or laws. The discussions had at one point surpassed the logic and even defied the concept of perpetual motion. If taken into account the principles put forward by Aristotle, the matter was defined to be a potential and conceivable thing that could be portrayed as any mode of energy.
It is quite a human nature that, a person would rub his hands together to get some relief from the immense cold. It is based on the simple scientific principle that the activated friction between the surface of both hands would generate a small amount of heat. Although what would have been the true scientific aspect that the implied mechanical energy was converted into heat energy? Let us discuss this context of energy transformation and the law of conservation of energy in the below-given report.
When a person goes on with the activity of rubbing his palms together, it is the mechanical energy that is being implied by him. As discussed earlier, the heat energy is not generated from utter oblivion. It is the mechanical energy applied between the palms, that is converted into heat energy. Any form of energy could never be destroyed, it just transforms itself from one form to another. By following the law of conservation of energy, the mechanical energy is transformed into heat energy in this instance. The law of conservation of energy could be segregated as one of the fundamental laws in thermodynamics.
Let us take an instance of the EME system. In this system, the electrical energy is transformed into mechanical energy, which thereafter is again transformed into electrical energy. The energy coming out of the system would be equal to the energy supplied into the system. The law of conservation of energy could be well justified by taking the practical instance of a closed EME system. The loophole in the law of conservation of energy could be observed if taken into account the principles put forward by Heisenberg. The theory put forward by him is discussed by taking the denominations of position and momentum.
If considered the law of conservation of energy, it has two major consequences that impact on its presumption and hypothesis. The first impact on the hypothesis is that it would justify the mutual transformation in all kinds of energy. The second derived postulation would justify the existence of a device which instead is a Perpetuum mobile that could generate energy from oblivion. The second law of thermodynamics weighs upon using the quality of energy rather than the quantity of it.
By the term conservation in the phrase of the law of conservation of money, it is tried to signify the phenomenon by which a sort of energy is transformed into another kind without any change in its magnitude while taking into account that the system is not induced with any external factor.
Hence the law elucidates that the energy may change its present state, but the magnitude remains unaltered. The law of conservation of energy states it exactly that – Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. It could only be transformed from one form of energy to another.
Below are given some of the particle life examples of the law of conservation of energy. Let us have a detailed and thorough look at it.
In the branches of science, the term system signifies a lot of contexts. If said in a very generic way it is selected set of things which are deemed to be relevant for the calculations and terms planned to be implied. To constitute a system several things are excluded from the set of things that could be termed as the environment. The major challenge of a scientist in creating a system is to recognize the correct set of things to be included in a system.
In the practical world, the conversion of energy is happening every second. If we anyway calculate the magnitude of all the transformation of energy in-universe, it could be calculated that the aggregate measure of the possessed energy in the universal system sustains to the similar level. In this context, you should have a very concise idea regarding the definition of a system.
In the context of the law of conservation of energy, the terminology of system refers to a closed system which is truly inaccessible and remote to the influencing factors in its surroundings. Hence the magnitude of energy would always be the same in the system. The concept of this type of system had laid the basis of evolution for the first law of thermodynamics. The second law stated that “ Any sort of energy could never be created nor be perished. The energy could only be transformed from one form to another form.” In the discipline of physics, the first law of discipline could also be termed as the law of conversation of energy.
In the discipline of physics, the most discussed kinds of energy are Thermal energy, Kinetic energy, Electrical energy, chemical energy, potential energy, etc. The discussed forms of energy are always observed to be transforming from one form to another stating the same ideology of law of conservation of energy. It could be stated roughly that the magnitude of energy enclosed in an isolated system or environment remains the same. The context of matter could also be implied in this situation and hence could also be said that the matter could not be created or destroyed. The matter could only be transformed from one form to another one.
Einstein’s Mass energy relation
It was by 1905 that the world renowned scientist, Einstein has published his relativity theory on mass and energy. The whole concept of mass and energy was revolutionized by the introduction of this theory. It was being stated by Einstein in his theory that the dimensions of mass are not absolute or stationary. It was revealed that actually, the mass increases when it attains the speed of light and could be converted into forms of energy. Simply saying the mass-energy relation displays that the resultant amount of energy would rely on the mass possessed added with the variation in mass accrued through its speed. If looked upon the chemical reactions which would happen at the basic level, the level of energy and mass changes substantially.
In this theory put forward by Einstein, the principle of conservation of both energy and mass is signified. The basic notion that both the measure of mass and energy comprised in an object remains the same, provided that the object is in an isolated system. Though the matter could be changed or transformed into energy, it would remain in the same system and hence satisfy the law of conservation of energy and theory of conservation of mass.
Let us take the instance of nuclear fission or that of nuclear fusion. The fission or the fusion process displays the change in atomic mass, which is converted into energy. When the bond between the nuclear particles is released a substantial amount of energy is released.
The concept of law of conservation of mass not only used n the discipline of physics. The concept is majorly used in the discipline of chemistry. The detection in the change of energy is very hard to trace in a chemical reaction since it is very minute and happens at the atomic level. The recent advancements in modern technologies had made this measurement possible.
The correspondence and relation between the factors of energy and matter were described efficiently by Einstein. The major theory created by Einstein regarding this was the special theory of relativity. This theory is the backbone of the discipline of physics which exists today. The researchers claim that it was Einstein who had derived out the relation between mass and energy for the first time. Although the current equation of E = MC2 was not formulated by Einstein at that time. It was mentioned by him that the situation in which a matter is n a stationary condition in comparison to the inertial frame results out in emitting out a certain level of energy which could be represented as L. The initial mass of the matter would get disintegrated by the volume of L/c2. As per the ideologies of Newton, the mass possessed by the matter in the initial stage brings it an inherent property that would oppose the state of motion of the substance. The inference of Einstein that the mass of matter would change when there is either absorption or emission of energy had brought a revolution in the discipline of physics. Though the ideologies of Newton that the inertia could only be possessed by the respective object still holds its relevance. It was the scientist, Wolfgang Rindler that the theory put forward by Einstein in the relationship between mass and energy is actually applicable in the practical world and thus it now constitutes the basis for many theories in physics. The revelation of Rindler had increased the significance of relativity theory put forward by Einstein.
The theory had that much of popularity in the academic genres that, if you even ask a student any physics equation, he would provide you with the representation of E = MC2. The theorem is one of the most popular ones among all in the 20th century.
Mathematical representation of conservation of energy
Various objects in a closed set possess various types of energy like potential energy and kinetic energy. The total aggregate energy possessed by the particles or objects in a system could be signified by the terminology of total mechanical energy. Provided that the parameter of keeping the system is kept aloof or remote from other factors is satisfied and have the potential to influence the energy level. The total mechanical energy would remain the same in this case. The particles in the system would transfer their form of energy from kinetic energy to potential energy and vice versa. It should be noted that if the system is not insulated from all the factors then there would be a substantial change in the total mechanical energy. In such a situation the energy possessed by the particles would induce some work into the particle of the surrounding. The vice versa is also possible in this context. It is the external work done by the selected particles of a system which is considered to be the external influence.
Below is provided the expression of the above-mentioned context.
In the provided expression of the conservation of energy. The variable K1 represents the kinetic energy possessed by the material in the initial stage, whereas the variable U1 represents the initial potential energy. The variable W or the work signifies the factor of external influence that is being induced on the environment of the system. Contrary to it, the variables like K2 and U2 represent the concluding kinetic and potential energy of the particles respectively.
The first law of thermodynamics entails this ideology and expression regarding the law of conservation of energy. The amount of heat energy transferred to the particles of surroundings would consequentially result in the depreciation of the level of internal energy and also could be specified as the work induced by the system on its surrounding particles. The below-given representation would provide the elucidation of the first law of thermodynamics.
The variable ΔU would denote the variation in overall internal energy from the initial phase to the later phase. The variable W signifies the level of work-induced by the particle either present in the system or the ones present in the surroundings. Whereas the variable Q signifies the transmission of heat concerning the considered system. Although this representation signifies the law of conservation of energy, other formulae in physics could represent the same ideology. One such representation is given below.
The theory of relativity put forward by the renowned scientist Albert Einstein, which is also termed as the ideology of mass-energy equivalence narrates that the mass possessed by a matter is a kind of energy. As per him the parameters of energy and matter are strongly related to each other and are represented in his equation. In his equation, the variable E denotes the energy obtained, c represents the distance covered by light per second; which is approximately 3 x 102 m/s and lastly the variable m signifies the mass possessed by the object. The whole equation would clear up the alternative concept of law of conservation of energy.
Principle of conservation of mass
This concept was formulated in the year 1785 by renowned scientist Antoine Lavoisier when he was 57 years of age. This principle was put forward far earlier than the law of conservation of energy was put forward by the renowned scientist in the stream of physics, Julius Robert Mayer. Though there is much contradiction in the whole concept because of this chronology.
There is not much difference between the theory of conservation of matter and the law of conservation of energy. You have to just change the terminology of energy with the term mass to convert the law of conservation of energy into the theory of conservation of mass. It is being stated by the theory of conservation of mass that the amount of mass would not be destroyed or created in an isolated system. The matter could only change state in a closed and isolated system.
If you burn some fuel, let us take an example of burning a candle in a closed and isolated system, you would be noticed that the residue melted wax and the vaporized wax would remain in the same system it is burnt. This practical situation would justify the practicality of theorem of conservation of mass. This may intrigue your thought process that actually how the theorem of conservation of mass works. It could be noted that in the above context, even if the wax gets burned, it remains inside in the system in the form of vapor. After the combustion process, the chemical reaction takes place between the atmospheric oxygen and the wax and as a by-product water molecule and carbon dioxide are generated in the gaseous form.